Niangoloko is a town and seat of the Niangoloko Department in southwestern Burkina Faso. It is near the border with Côte d'Ivoire; the town has a population of 26,028. The town is served by a station on the Abidjan-Ouagadougou railway, it is connected to Banfora via regular bush taxi service. Railway stations in Burkina Faso
Bobo-Dioulasso is a city in Burkina Faso with a population of about 537,728. The name means "home of the Bobo-Dioula"; the local Bobo-speaking population refers to the city as Sia. There are two distinct dialects spoken of Jula, based on the origins of different peoples who speak this language; the city is situated in the southwest of the country, in the Houet Province, some 350 km from Ouagadougou. Bobo-Dioulasso is significant both economically and culturally, as it is a major center of culture and music. At the end of the nineteenth century, Sia consisted of two large villages and Sia proper, located a few hundred meters from each other on a narrow spit of land bounded by 10-to-15-foot-deep ravines on either side, carved by the We river to the east and by its tributary Sanyo to the west. Three small satellite villages were located beyond this natural border. A number of other independent villages in the surroundings have been absorbed by the developing city and are now within its municipal boundaries and incorporated as part of the city.
The two main villages were occupied by the French on September 25, 1897 after a brief but bloody confrontation. Soon afterward the French created an administrative settlement near them, on the east side of the We river; this became the headquarters of a district of Bobo-Dioulasso. During the 1915-16 anti-colonial war, the population in the north and east of district Bobo-Dioulasso took up arms against the French colonial government; the French based their activities in the city in an effort to suppress the insurrection, while the city itself became a center for the organization of the suppression. A colonial military base was established in the southern sector of the city, adding to its growing importance. In 1927 the French razed the old village of the other settlements, it was made available for redevelopment as a residential neighborhood. Sia proper, which survives today as the Dioulasoba neighborhood, was spared this total destruction, it was modified in 1932 when a large road artery was built through it and by the widening of streets in successive urban renewal projects.
Between 1926 and 1929, the French colonial government constructed a typical European grid pattern of new avenues and streets in the city, intersected by diagonals radiating from a center, with square urban lots between them. This established the framework for the modern city center; the Abidjan Railway reached Bobo-Diouolasso in 1934, increasing its access to markets and communications. But the growth of the city as a colonial industrial center halted because of the world economic crisis during the Great Depression, as well as the suppression of the colony of Upper Volta in 1933; the city started expanding again after World War II. Reorganization of the colony of Upper Volta in 1947 attracted business to Bobo-Dioulasso, although Ouagadougou had been selected as the capital. An early industrial center, Bobo-Dioulasso is the hub of a rich agricultural zone, which produces food grains and seedlings, export crops. Due to its strong economic contributions, following the nation's gaining independence in 1960, the city was called "the economic capital of the country".
Bobo-Dioulasso's economic advantage vis-à-vis the capital has declined following decades of government policy favoring Ouagadougou. Little new industry arrived in the city during the 1990s; some enterprises either relocated to the capital. Economic life was reduced to commerce grounded in the agriculture of the region and services. Since 2000 the city of Bobo-Dioulasso has engaged in a new growth spurt, gaining in population and economic vitality. Residents have returned home following the internal crisis in neighboring Ivory Coast, the economy has been stimulated by new demands for its goods; the central government has invested more development funds in the city. The city features historic buildings reflecting its complex past: Bobo-Dioulasso Old Mosque the largest example of Sudano-Sahelian architecture in the country, built in 1880 according to some, 1893 according to others as a part of political agreement between the king of Sya and Islamic religious leader Almamy Sidiki Sanou. Konsa house, the ritual center of a senior house of the Zara group.
Dafra, a sacred natural pond and the source of the We river, in its southern quarter. The pond is a site of pilgrimage. People make offerings consumed by the giant catfish living in it; the mausoleum of Guimbi Ouattara, a notable ruler of Bobo-Dioulasso in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Bobo-Dioulasso has well-preserved examples of the colonial-era architecture in what is called "neo-Sudanic" style. A regional museum interprets artifacts recovered in archeological work. A zoo and a pottery market are among the city's attractions; the École française André Malraux
Cascades is one of Burkina Faso's 13 administrative regions. It was created on 2 July 2001; the population of Cascades was 524,956 in 2006. It is the least populous region in Burkina Faso and contains 3.8% of all Burkinabé. The region's capital is Banfora. Two provinces, Comoé and Léraba, make up the region; the Cascades de Karfiguéla give the region its name. As of 2010, the population of the region was 613,229 with 51.43 per cent females. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 0 per cent, compared to a national average of 28.3 per cent. The coverage of cereal need compared to the total production of the region was 117.00 per cent. Most of Burkino Faso is a wide plateau is called falaise de Banfora. There are three major rivers, the Red Volta, Black Volta and White Volta, which cuts through different valleys; the climate is hot, with unreliable rains across different seasons. Gold and quartz are common minerals found across the country, while manganese deposits are common; the dry season is from October to May and rains are common during the wet season from June to September.
The soil texture is porous and hence the yield is poor. The average elevation is around 200 m to 300 m above mean sea level; the region contains. Among West African countries, Burkino Faso has the largest elephant population and the country is replete with game reserves; the southern regions have Savannah and forests. The principal river is the Black Volta, that originates in the southern region and drains into Ghana; the areas near the rivers have flies like tsetse and similium, which are carriers of sleep sickness and river blindness. The average rainfall in the region is around 100 cm compared to northern regions that receive only 25 cm rainfall; as of 2010, the population of the region was 613,229 with 51.43 per cent females. The population in the region was 3.90 per cent of the total population of the country. The child mortality rate was 81, infant mortality rate was 96 and the mortality of children under five was 170; as of 2007, among the working population, there were 71.90 per cent employees, 20.20 per cent under employed, 7.70 per cent inactive people, 8.00 per cent not working and 0.20 unemployed people in the region.
As of 2007, there were 229.3 km of highways, 335.9 km of regional roads and 303.4 km of county roads. The first set of car traffic was 22, first set of two-wheeler traffic was 1,878 and the total classified road network was 869; the total corn produced during 2015 was 148,349 tonnes, cotton was 44,903 tonnes, cowpea was 13,778 tonnes, ground nut was 15,743 tonnes, millet was 5,961 tonnes, rice was 28,799 tonnes and sorghum was 19,126 tonnes. The coverage of cereal need compared to the total production of the region was 117.00 per cent. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 20.4 per cent, compared to a national average of 28.3 per cent. The gross primary enrolment was 67.7 per cent, pos-primary was 27.5 per cent and gross secondary school enrolment was 9.4. There were 192 boys and 110 girls enroled in the primary and post-secondary level. There were 4 teachers in primary & post-secondary level, while there were 493 teachers in post-primary and post-secondary level. Burkina Faso gained independence from France in 1960.
It was called Upper Volta. There have been military coups till 1983 when Captain Thomas Sankara took control and implemented radical left wing policies, he was outsed by Blaise Compaore, who continued for 27 years till 2014, when a popular uprising ended his rule. As per Law No.40/98/AN in 1998, Burkina Faso adhered to decentralization to provide administrative and financial autonomy to local communities. There are each governed by a Governor; the regions are subdivided into 45 provinces. The communes are interchangeable. There are other administrative entities like village. An urban commune has 10,000 people under it. If any commune is not able to get 75 per cent of its planned budget in revenues for 3 years, the autonomy is taken off; the communes are administered by elected Mayors. The communes are stipulated to develop economic and cultural values of its citizens. A commune has financial autonomy and can interact with other communes, government agencies or international entities
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, used for sugar production. It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes; the plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum, many forage crops. Sucrose and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares, in more than 90 countries.
The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the subtropical regions. Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch; the young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Papuan people, it was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC; the Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, considered a luxury and an expensive spice.
In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. And the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems three to four m high and about 5 cm in diameter; the stems grow into cane stalk. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars, 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control and the harvest period; the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP.
Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP. It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean; the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear; the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Pali texts. Around the 8th century and Arab traders introduced sugar from medieval India to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state, it was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish Andalu
Rail transport in Burkina Faso
There are 622 kilometres of 1,000 mm gauge railway in Burkina Faso which run from Kaya to the border with Côte d'Ivoire. As of June 2014'Sitarail' operates a passenger train three times a week along the route from Ouagadougou to Abidjan. Journey time is 43 to 48 hours. Burkina Faso is landlocked but the railway to Abidjan provides rail access to a port. Links to railways in Ghana and the port of Takoradi have been proposed; the following towns of Burkina Faso are served by the country's railways: - - border Niangoloko Banfora Peni Bobo-Dioulasso Sala Koudougou Bingo Ouagadougou Ziniaré Kaya terminus? Kaya Dori Markoye Tambao, near Niger/Mali borders On 31 November 2011, an agreement was signed to build a new international railway connecting Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso and Benin. Pan African Minerals to develop the Tambao manganese project at a cost of up to $1 billion; the manganese mine is in the north of Burkina Faso, near the border with Niger and Mali, containing 100 million tonnes of the metal.
"The Tamboa project is an integrated project with a mining component and an infrastructure component, notably through the roads and the port," said Romanian billionaire Frank Timis. "The project will happen in the next three years and will require investment of nearly $1 billion." Ghana and Ivory Coast sign a deal to develop a through rail link. Ghana and Burkina Fase sign deal for link Link UN Map. UNHCR Map Rail transport in Ghana.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa. It covers an area of around 274,200 square kilometres and is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; the July 2018 population estimate by the United Nations was 19,751,651. Burkina Faso is a francophone country, with French as the official language of government and business. 40% of the population speaks the Mossi language. Called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, its citizens are known as Burkinabé. Its capital is Ouagadougou; the Republic of Upper Volta was established on 11 December 1958 as a self-governing colony within the French Community, on 5 August 1960 it gained full independence, with Maurice Yaméogo as President. After protests by students and labour unions, Yaméogo was deposed in the 1966 coup d'état, led by Sangoulé Lamizana, who became President, his rule coincided with the Sahel drought and famine, facing problems from the country's traditionally powerful trade unions he was deposed in the 1980 coup d'état, led by Saye Zerbo.
Encountering resistance from trade unions again, Zerbo's government was overthrown in the 1982 coup d'état, led by Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo. The leader of the leftist faction of Ouédraogo's government, Thomas Sankara, became Prime Minister but was imprisoned. Efforts to free him led to the popularly-supported 1983 coup d'état. Sankara renamed the country Burkina Faso and launched an ambitious socioeconomic programme which included a nationwide literacy campaign, land redistribution to peasants and road construction and the outlawing of female genital mutilation, forced marriages and polygamy. Sankara was overthrown and killed in the 1987 coup d'état led by Blaise Compaoré – deteriorating relations with former coloniser France and its ally the Ivory Coast were the reason given for the coup. In 1987, Blaise Compaoré became President and, after an alleged 1989 coup attempt, was elected in 1991 and 1998, elections which were boycotted by the opposition and received a low turnout, as well as in 2005.
He remained head of state until he was ousted from power by the popular youth upheaval of 31 October 2014, after which he was exiled to the Ivory Coast. Michel Kafando subsequently became the transitional President of the country. On 16 September 2015, a military coup d'état against the Kafando government was carried out by the Regiment of Presidential Security, the former presidential guard of Compaoré. On 24 September 2015, after pressure from the African Union, ECOWAS and the armed forces, the military junta agreed to step down, Michel Kafando was reinstated as Acting President. In the general election held on 29 November 2015, Roch Marc Christian Kaboré won in the first round with 53.5% of the vote and was sworn in as President on 29 December 2015. The 2018 CIA World Factbook provides this summary of the issues facing Burkina Faso. "The country experienced terrorist attacks in its capital in 2016, 2017 and 2018, continues to mobilize resources to counter terrorist threats". In 2018, several governments were warning their citizens not to travel into the northern part of the country and into several provinces in the East Region.
The CIA report states that "Burkina Faso's high population growth, recurring drought and perennial food insecurity, limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens". The report is optimistic in some aspects concerning activities being done with assistance by the International Monetary Fund. "A new three-year IMF program, approved in 2018, will allow the government to reduce the budget deficit and preserve critical spending on social services and priority public investments". Called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara; the words "Burkina" and "Faso" both stem from different languages spoken in the country: "Burkina" comes from Mossi and means "upright", showing how the people are proud of their integrity, while "Faso" comes from the Dyula language and means "fatherland". The "bè" suffix added onto "Burkina" to form the demonym "Burkinabè" comes from the Fula language and means "men or women".
The CIA summarizes the etymology as "name translates as "Land of the Honest Men". The French colony of Upper Volta was named for its location on the upper courses of the Volta River; the northwestern part of present-day Burkina Faso was populated by hunter-gatherers from 14000 BC to 5000 BC. Their tools, including scrapers and arrowheads, were discovered in 1973 through archaeological excavations. Agricultural settlements were established between 3600 and 2600 BC; the Bura culture was an Iron-Age civilization centred in the southwest portion of modern-day Niger and in the southeast part of contemporary Burkina Faso. Iron industry, in smelting and forging for tools and weapons, had developed in Sub-Saharan Africa by 1200 BC. From the 3rd to the 13th centuries AD, the Iron Age Bura culture existed in the territory of present-day southeastern Burkina Faso and southwestern Niger. Various ethnic groups of present-day Burkina Faso, such as the Mossi and Dyula, arrived in successive waves between the 8th and 15th centuries.
From the 11th century, the Mossi people established several separate kingdoms. In the 1890s, during the European Scramble for Africa, the territory of Burkina Faso was invaded by France, colonial control was established following a wa
French West Africa
French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, French Sudan, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta and Niger. The capital of the federation was Dakar; the federation existed from 1895 until 1960. Until after the Second World War none of the Africans living in the colonies of France were citizens of France. Rather, they were "French subjects", lacking rights before the law, property ownership rights, rights to travel, dissent, or vote; the exception was the Four Communes of Senegal: those areas had been towns of the tiny Senegal Colony in 1848 when, at the abolition of slavery by the French Second Republic, all residents of France were granted equal political rights. Anyone able to prove they were born in these towns was French, they could vote in parliamentary elections, dominated by white and Métis residents of Senegal. The Four Communes of Senegal were entitled to elect a deputy to represent them in the French parliament in 1848–1852, 1871–1876, 1879–1940.
In 1914, the first African, Blaise Diagne, was elected as the deputy for Senegal in the French Parliament. In 1916, Diagne pushed a law through the National Assembly granting full citizenship to all residents of the so-called Four Communes. In return, he promised to help recruit millions of Africans to fight in World War I. Thereafter, all black Africans of Dakar, Gorée, Saint-Louis, Rufisque could vote to send a representative to the French National Assembly; as the French pursued their part in the scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s, they conquered large inland areas, at first ruled them as either a part of the Senegal colony or as independent entities. These conquered areas were governed by French Army officers, dubbed "military territories". In the late 1890s, the French government began to rein in the territorial expansion of its "officers on the ground", transferred all the territories west of Gabon to a single governor based in Senegal, reporting directly to the Minister of Overseas Affairs.
The first governor-general of Senegal was named in 1895, in 1904, the territories he oversaw were formally named French West Africa. Gabon would become the seat of its own federation French Equatorial Africa, to border its western neighbor on the modern boundary between Niger and Chad. After the Fall of France in June 1940 and the two battles of Dakar against the Free French Forces in July and September 1940, authorities in West Africa declared allegiance to the Vichy regime, as did the colony of French Gabon in AEF. Gabon fell to Free France after the Battle of Gabon in November 1940, but West Africa remained under Vichy control until the Allied landings in North Africa in November 1942. Following World War II, the French government began a process of extending limited political rights in its colonies. In 1945 the French Provisional Government allocated ten seats to French West Africa in the new Constituent Assembly called to write a new French Constitution. Of these five would be elected by five by African subjects.
The elections brought to prominence a new generation of French-educated Africans. On 21 October 1945 six Africans were elected, the Four Communes citizens chose Lamine Guèye, Senegal/Mauritania Léopold Sédar Senghor, Ivory Coast/Upper Volta Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Dahomey/Togo Sourou-Migan Apithy, Soudan-Niger Fily Dabo Sissoko, Guinea Yacine Diallo, they were all re-elected to the 2nd Constituent Assembly on 2 June 1946. In 1946, the Loi Lamine Guèye granted some limited citizenship rights to natives of the African colonies; the French Empire was renamed the French Union on 27 October 1946, when the new constitution of the French Fourth Republic was established. In late 1946 under this new constitution, each territory was for the first time able elect local representatives, albeit on a limited franchise, to newly established General Councils; these elected bodies had only limited consultative powers. The Loi Cadre of 23 June 1956 brought universal suffrage to elections held after that date in all French African colonies.
The first elections under universal suffrage in French West Africa were the municipal elections of late 1956. On 31 March 1957, under universal suffrage, territorial Assembly elections were held in each of the eight colonies; the leaders of the winning parties were appointed to the newly instituted positions of Vice-Presidents of the respective Governing Councils — French Colonial Governors remained as Presidents. The Constitution of the French Fifth Republic of 1958 again changed the structure of the colonies from the French Union to the French Community; each territory was to become a "Protectorate", with the consultative assembly named a National Assembly. The Governor appointed by the French was renamed the "High Commissioner", made head of state of each territory; the Assembly would name an African as Head of Government with advisory powers to the Head of State. The federation ceased to exist after the September 1958 referendum to approve this French Community. All the colonies except Guinea voted to remain in the new structure.
Guineans voted overwhelmingly for independence. In 1960, a further revision of the French constitution, compelled by the failure of the French Indochina War and the tensions in Algeria, allowed members of the French Community to unilaterally change their own constitutions. Senegal and former French Sudan became the Mali Federation, while