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Mersekhemre Ined

Mersekhemre Ined was a pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty the thirty-fifth king of this dynasty. As such he would have reigned from Memphis over Middle and Upper Egypt for a short time either during the early or mid-17th century, from 1672 until 1669 BC or from 1651 until 1648 BC, he may be the same king as Mersekhemre Neferhotep II. The identity of Mersekhemre Ined with respect to Neferhotep II is still in doubt. Two royal statues of a king named Mersekhemre Neferhotep were uncovered by Georges Legrain in 1903 in the Karnak Cachette and are now in the Egyptian Museum, CG 42023 and CG 42024. Additionally, a king Mersekhemre Ined is mentioned in entry 7.6 of the Turin Canon and a king Mersekhemre appears in the Karnak king list, entry VI, 2. Egyptologists Jürgen von Beckerath, Detlef Franke, Jacques Kinnaer, Rolf Krauss and Donald B. Redford conclude that the Mersekhemre Ined of the Turin canon and Mersekhemre Neferhotep are one and the same person. In contrast, Kim Ryholt sees in these documents the references to two distinct rulers with the same official royal name, as for example in the case of Merhotepre Sobekhotep V and Merhotepre Ini.

Rather, Ryholt identifies Neferhotep II with a king "Mer...re" on column 8 row 16 of the Turin canon, which would place Neferhotep II at the end of the 13th Dynasty the dynasty's 46th ruler. However, this entry of the Turin canon may refer to Mershepsesre Ini II instead, with Neferhotep II being the same king as Mersekhemre Ined. According to the latest reading of the Turin canon by Kim Ryholt, Mersekhemre Ined reigned for 3 years, 1 to 4 months and 1 day, he ruled Middle and Upper Egypt while the Hyksos 14th or 15th Dynasty already controlled large parts of the Delta region during Mersekhemre Ined's time on the throne in the late 13th Dynasty

Germano Celant

Germano Celant is an Italian art historian and curator who coined the term "Arte Povera" in 1967 and wrote many articles and books on the subject. Germano Celant attended the University of Genoa, where he studied history of art with Eugenio Battisti. In 1963 he worked as assistant editor for Marcatrè, a Genoa-based magazine about architecture, design and literature founded by Rodolfo Vitone, Eugenio Battisti, Paolo Portoghesi, Diego Carpitella, Maurizio Calvesi, Umberto Eco, Vittorio Gelmetti and Edoardo Sanguineti. In 1967, his manifesto of Arte Povera, Notes for a Guerilla, was published in Flash Art; the concept of Arte Povera seemed to be that in Italy art was quite different from the America due to the different circumstances at the time. Italy was going through an industrial period but was not making the pop art that coincided with the established economy as opposed to American artists like Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, other pop artists; the Italian artists were going for a humanism in their art and not for the coolness and calculated machine-made imagery of the pop artists.

"Arte Povera" was formed around two nucleus: one in Turin, with artists such as Michelangelo Pistoletto, Mario Merz, Marisa Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Giulio Paolini, Giovanni Anselmo, Piero Gilardi. Celant went on to organize Arte Povera exhibitions at Galleria La Bertesca in Genoa, Galleria De' Foscherari in Bologna, a three-day performance event called "Arte Povera & Azioni Povere at Amalfi". In 1974, Celant curated the Catalogue Raisonné of Italian artist Piero Manzoni, he curated many exhibitions including "Identité italienne. L'art en Italie depuis 1959", "Italian art, 1900-1945", "Italian Metamorphosis 1943-1968". In 1997, he was the director of the Venice Biennale and in 2004, he curated the exhibition "Art and Architecture" in Genoa when the city was nominated European Capital of Culture. Since 1977, he has been a contributing editor to Artforum and since 1991 he has been a contributing editor to Interview. In 1988, Celant was appointed Senior Curator of Contemporary Art at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City.

Since 1993, Celant has been serving as Artistic Director of the Prada Foundation in Milan, which begun as PradaMilanoarte that year. Under his leadership, the foundation has over the years presented shows of Walter de Maria, Louise Bourgeois, Anish Kapoor, David Smith, Michael Heizer, Sam Taylor-Wood, Steve McQueen, among others, in Milan and Venice. In conjunction with the Venice Biennale 2009, Celant organized the second major survey of John Wesley, at the boarding-school buildings on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, his 2012 show "The Small Utopia. Ars Multiplicata" at Ca' Corner della Regina, tackled the issue of art in the age of mechanical reproduction and how artists from Marcel Duchamp to Andy Warhol have used multiplication of various sorts, it contained over 600 items, produced between 1900 and 1975, included design, glassware, film, magazines and sound recordings. Celant continues to curate exhibitions at other venues. In collaboration with the Fondazione Lucio Fontana, he mounted the 2012 survey “Lucio Fontana: Ambienti Spaziali” at Gagosian Gallery, New York.

Celant is married to fellow curator Paris Murray. In 2006, the couple purchased a Milan paper factory building converted by the architect Pierluigi Cerri into a 10,000-square-foot house. Germano Celant on IMDb