SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bangka Island

Bangka is an island lying east of Sumatra, administratively part of Sumatra, with a population of about 1 million. It is the 9th largest island in Indonesia and the main part of Bangka-Belitung Province, being one of its namesakes alongside the smaller Belitung across the Gaspar Strait; the provincial capital, Pangkal Pinang, lies on the island. The island is administratively divided into a chartered city. Bangka is an island province together with Belitung Island. Bangka lies just east of Sumatra, separated by the Bangka Strait; the size is about 12,000 km². Most of the geographical faces of the island consists of lower plains, small hills, beautiful beaches, white pepper fields and tin mines; the largest town is Pangkal Pinang which serves as the capital of Bangka-Belitung Province. Sungai Liat is the second largest city in Bangka island. Mentok is the principal port in the west; the other important towns are Toboali in the southern region, Koba an important tin mining town located on the southern part of the island, Belinyu, a town famous for its seafood products.

There are 4 sea ports in Bangka. It was intended; the population was 626,955 in 1990, 960,692 in the 2010 census. During the glacial periods, Bangka was connected to mainland Asia with the larger islands of Java and Borneo as part of the Sunda Shelf, got separated once the sea level rose; the Kota Kapur inscription, dated from 686 CE, was found in Bangka in 1920, showed Srivijayan influence on the island around the 7th century. The island was conquered by an expedition from Majapahit, led by Gajah Mada, which appointed local rulers and established social structures; as the empire declined, Bangka fell into neglect. Bangka was recorded as Pengjia hill in the 1436 Xingcha Shenglan, compiled by the Chinese soldier Fei Xin during the treasure voyages of Admiral Zheng He. Contemporary records show that the area - close to the busy Strait of Malacca and waters of the Musi River - had significant presence of Chinese traders. On, the island was taken over by the Johor and Minangkabau Sultanates which introduced Islam to the island.

It continued to pass to the Banten Sultanate before it was inherited by the nearby Palembang Sultanate sometime in the late 17th century. Soon after, around 1710, tin was discovered on the island which attracted migrants from across the archipelago and beyond. Descendants of the Chinese immigrants from Guangdong, still form a large portion of modern Bangka's inhabitants; as tin mining developed further, the Palembang Sultanate sent for experts in Malay Peninsula and China. The Dutch East India Company managed to secure a monopolistic tin purchase agreement in 1722, but hostilities began to develop between the Sultan and the Dutch. During the British Invasion of Java in 1811, then-Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin attacked and massacred the staff of the Dutch post on the island, he was deposed and executed by the British. His successor ceded Bangka to Britain in 1812, but in 1814 Britain exchanged it with the Dutch for Cochin in India following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. Around the late years of the 18th century, Bangka was an important production center of tin in Asia, with annual outputs hovering around 1,250 tons.

In 1930 Bangka had a population of 205,363. Japan occupied the island from February 1942 to August 1945 during World War II; the Japanese military perpetrated the Bangka Island massacre against Australian nurses and British and Australian servicemen and civilians. During the Indonesian National Revolution, republican leaders Sukarno and Hatta were exiled in Bangka in the aftermath of Operation Kraai. Bangka became part of independent Indonesia in 1949; the island, together with neighboring Belitung, was part of South Sumatra province, but in 2000 the two islands became the new province of Bangka-Belitung. In the recent years, tin mining has declined notedly, although it is still a major part of the island's economy. Bangka is home to a number of communist Indonesians who have been under house arrest since the 1960s anti-Communist purge and are not permitted to leave the island. Since c. 1710, Bangka has been one of the world's principal tin-producing centers. Tin production is an Indonesian government monopoly, there is a tin smelter at Muntok.

White pepper is produced on the island. The majority of the inhabitants are Malays and Chinese Hakkas; the population is split between those work on the tin mines, palm oil plantations, rubber plantations and those who work on pepper farms. Islands of Indonesia

Multimedia information retrieval

Multimedia information retrieval is a research discipline of computer science that aims at extracting semantic information from multimedia data sources. Data sources include directly perceivable media such as audio and video, indirectly perceivable sources such as text, semantic descriptions, biosignals as well as not perceivable sources such as bioinformation, stock prices, etc; the methodology of MMIR can be organized in three groups: Methods for the summarization of media content. The result of feature extraction is a description. Methods for the filtering of media descriptions Methods for the categorization of media descriptions into classes. Feature extraction is motivated by the sheer size of multimedia objects as well as their redundancy and noisiness. Two possible goals can be achieved by feature extraction: Summarization of media content. Methods for summarization include in the audio domain, for example, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, Zero Crossings Rate, Short-Time Energy. In the visual domain, color histograms such as the MPEG-7 Scalable Color Descriptor can be used for summarization.

Detection of patterns by auto-correlation and/or cross-correlation. Patterns are recurring media chunks that can either be detected by comparing chunks over the media dimensions or comparing media chunks to templates. Typical methods include Linear Predictive Coding in the audio/biosignal domain, texture description in the visual domain and n-grams in text information retrieval. Multimedia Information Retrieval implies that multiple channels are employed for the understanding of media content; each of this channels is described by media-specific feature transformations. The resulting descriptions have to be merged to one description per media object. Merging can be performed by simple concatenation. Variable-sized descriptions – as they occur in motion description – have to be normalized to a fixed length first. Used methods for description filtering include factor analysis, singular value decomposition and the extraction and testing of statistical moments. Advanced concepts such as the Kalman filter are used for merging of descriptions.

All forms of machine learning can be employed for the categorization of multimedia descriptions though some methods are more used in one area than another. For example, hidden Markov models are state-of-the-art in speech recognition, while dynamic time warping – a semantically related method – is state-of-the-art in gene sequence alignment; the list of applicable classifiers includes the following: Metric approaches Nearest Neighbor methods Risk Minimization Density-based Methods Neural Networks Heuristics The selection of the best classifier for a given problem can be performed automatically, for example, using the Weka Data Miner. The quality of MMIR Systems depends on the quality of the training data. Discriminative descriptions can be extracted from media sources in various forms. Machine learning provides categorization methods for all types of data. However, the classifier can only be as good as the given training data. On the other hand, it requires considerable effort to provide class labels for large databases.

The future success of MMIR will depend on the provision of such data. The annual TRECVID competition is one of the most relevant sources of high-quality ground truth. MMIR provides an overview over methods employed in the areas of information retrieval. Methods of one area are employed on other types of media. Multimedia content is merged. MMIR methods are, therefore reused from other areas such as: Bioinformation analysis Biosignal processing Content-based image and video retrieval Face recognition Audio and music classification Automatic content recognition Speech recognition Technical chart analysis Video browsing Text information retrievalThe International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval documents the development of MMIR as a research discipline, independent of these areas. See Handbook of Multimedia Information Retrieval for a complete overview over this research discipline

Maunawili, Hawaii

Maunawili is a residential census-designated place in the City & County of Honolulu, Koʻolaupoko District, Island of Oʻahu, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the CDP had a population of 2,040. Situated mauka of Kalanianaʻole Highway between Castle Junction and Castle Hospital, Maunawili is nearly all private homes, a few churches. There are no commercial establishments. However, residents are only minutes from Kailua. Maunawili Valley extends behind the prominent windward peak known as Olomana; the residential developments extend only part way back into the valley, quite large and wet, supporting limited agriculture behind the housing. Water from the numerous streams is diverted by a ditch to much drier Waimānalo to support agricultural activities there. A golf course and agricultural research station are located in the valley; the agriculture research station is home to a sugar cane and cacao breeding program. An attraction of increasing popularity is the Maunawili Demonstration Trail, a state-maintained trail that traverses the breadth of upper Maunawili Valley from the Pali Highway to Waimānalo.

A connecting side trail is accessible from the neighborhood in upper Maunawili. The U. S. postal code for Maunawili is the same as for Kailua: 96734. Maunawili is located at 21°22′36″N 157°45′37″W. Lying adjacent to Maunawili is the community of Kailua. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,869 people, 1,458 households, 1,224 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,399.0 people per square mile. There are 1,491 housing units at an average density of 428.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 36.62% White, 0.55% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 28.47% Asian, 8.79% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 24.93% from two or more races. 5.79 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,458 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.7% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.0% were non-families.

11.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.10 and the average family size 3.31. In the CDP the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were just 83.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $82,148, the median income for a family was $84,294. Males had a median income of $51,078 versus $36,324 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $30,551. 2.5% of the population and 1.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 3.6% of those under the age of 18 and 2.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The Hawaii Department of Public Safety operates the Women's Community Correctional Center in Maunawili.

The Hawaii Department of Human Services's Hawaii Youth Correctional Facility is located in Maunawili. Hawaii Department of Education operates public schools. Maunawilli Elementary School and Kailua High School are located in Maunawili CDP