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Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration is the local government of Bangkok, which includes the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand. The government is composed of two branches: the legislative; the administration's roles are to implement policies to manage Bangkok. Its purview includes transport services, urban planning, waste management, housing and highways, security services, the environment. According to the Thailand Future Foundation, Bangkok employs a workforce of 97,000, including 3,200 municipal officers in Bangkok city, 200 in the city Law Enforcement Department, 3,000 in district offices; the Governor of Bangkok is the head of the local government of Bangkok. The governor is the chief executive of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the governor is elected to a renewable term of four years it is one of the two directly elected executive offices in the kingdom. The office is comparable to that of a city mayor; the current incumbent is Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang. He was appointed by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha using Section 44 of the interim charter to replace Sukhumbhand Paribatra.

The reason given for his ouster was "...because he was involved in many legal cases." The powers and role of the office of Governor of Bangkok in accordance with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2528 are as follows: Formulate. Head the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Appoint and remove deputy governors, board members, city officials, public servants. Coordinate and carry out the orders of the Cabinet of Thailand, the Prime Minister of Thailand, the Ministry of Interior. Oversee the smooth running of the various agencies and services of the city; the governor is invested with the same powers as any other governor of a province of Thailand and any other mayor. The power to draw up legislation and bills for the city, to be considered in the Bangkok Metropolitan Council. Since 1973 the city was administered by a single executive appointed by the cabinet from city civil servants; however soon it was determined that the executive office should a popularly elected office instead.

The passage of the Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2518, created the Bangkok Metropolis to replace Bangkok Province and created an elected governor with a four-year term. The first election for the office was held on the 10 August 1975. Thamnoon Thien-ngern was elected as the first Governor of Bangkok. Conflicts between the governor and the Bangkok Metropolitan Council, became so fierce that Thanin Kraivichien, the Prime Minister of Thailand removed him and reinstated the appointment system. Elections resumed with the passing of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528. Elections were held on 14 November 1985. Unless otherwise indicated, they were elected; the Bangkok Metropolitan Council or BMC is the legislative branch of the administration. It is vested with primary legislative powers as well as the power to scrutinize and advise the governor; the council is headed by the Chairman of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council. The current chairman, since 2013, is Captain Kriangsak Lohachala.

The number of members depends on the size of Bangkok's population. One member represents one hundred thousand people. There are 60 members, elected from 57 constituencies in Bangkok; each is elected to a four-year term. The last election was held on 30 April 2006; the council is divided into 11 general committees with five to nine members appointed by the councillors themselves: Committee of Cleanliness and Environment Committee for Checking the Minutes of Sittings and for Considering Closure of the Minutes of the Secret Sittings Committee for the Affairs of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council Committee for the Public Works and Utilities Committee for Education and Culture Committee for Health Committee for Community Development and Social Welfare Committee for Local Administration and Orderliness Committee for Economics and Follow-up of Budget Utilization Committee for Tourism and Sports Committee for Traffic and Drainage The Secretariat of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council is the executive agency of the council.

The secretariat helps the council in all its roles including drafting of legislation, organisation of sessions and procedures of the council. The secretariat helps members of the council by providing research and legal counsel; the secretariat is headed by the Secretary of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council The current secretary is Manit Tej-Apichok. The secretariat itself is divided into nine sections: General Administration Section Council and Committee Meetings Section Working Committees Section Legislation Section Legal Section Foreign Affairs Section Council Service Section Academic Section Secretary Section Krungthep Thanakom Co. Ltd. is the BMA's holding company for public investment projects such as the concession for the BTS Skytrain and a 20 billion baht underground cable project. The Bangkok City Council reported in February 2018 that, of Bangkok's 874 fire trucks, only 88 were in "good" condition. Another 340 were rated "only just usable", 232 were "dilapidated", 225 were parked permanently.

Firefighting boats were found to be in the same sh

Legal XML

Legal XML is a non-profit organization developing open standards for legal documents and related applications. The building block for Legal XML standards is eXtensible Markup Language. LegalXML is a member section within OASIS, the not-for-profit, global consortium that drives the development and adoption of e-business standards. Members themselves set the LegalXML agenda, using the open OASIS technical process expressly designed to promote industry consensus and unite disparate efforts. LegalXML produces standards for electronic court filing, court documents, legal citations, criminal justice intelligence systems, others. OASIS members participating in LegalXML include lawyers, application vendors, government agencies and members of academia. LegalDocML and LegalRuleML are affiliated proposals of the LegalXML committee. OASIS LegalDocumentML TC: Models and manages legal documents as authorial, authentic and persistent digital resources; the work will be based upon the Akoma Ntoso project XML schema.

The United States Library of Congress created the Markup of US Legislation in Akoma Ntoso challenge in July 2013 to create representations of selected US bills using the most recent Akoma Ntoso standard within a couple months for a $5000 prize, the Legislative XML Data Mapping challenge in September 2013 to produce a data map for US bill XML and UK bill XML to the most recent Akoma Ntoso schema within a couple months for a $10000 prize. OASIS LegalRuleML TC: Enabling legal arguments to be created and compared using rule representation tools. OASIS LegalXML Electronic Court Filing TC: Using XML to create and transmit legal documents among attorneys, courts and others. OASIS LegalXML eNotarization TC: Developing technical requirements to govern self-proving electronic legal information. Akoma Ntoso LexML Brasil Legal XML official site

Sandusky, Ohio

Sandusky is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. Situated in northern Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, Sandusky is midway between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east. According to 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,793, the Sandusky, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area had 77,079 residents. In 2011, Sandusky was ranked No. 1 by Forbes as the "Best Place to Live Cheaply" in the United States. The city has a median family income of $64,000. Sandusky is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company and its flagship amusement park, Cedar Point. Cedar Point has one of the largest collections of roller coasters in the world and is regarded as one of the best amusement parks. Cedar Point includes 17 roller coasters; the National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky as a Tree City USA. The accepted etymology is that the name "Sandusky" is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning "water" or andusti, "cold water". In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the word as "Chinouski".

Sandusky Bay is identified as "Lac Sandouské" on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle. The name "L. Sandoski" appears on a 1733 map. Sandusky Bay was called Lac Ondaské, in another French transliteration of the Wyandot, it was used as the name of an English trading post on the north side of the bay, a French Fort Sandoské that replaced it, a British Fort Sandusky on the south shore of the bay, an American Fort Sandusky upriver at what is now Fremont. This area was a center of trading and fortifications since the 18th century: the English and Americans had trading posts and forts built on both the north and south sides of Sandusky Bay. Development by European Americans of the city of Sandusky, starting in 1818, on the southeast shore of Sandusky Bay, followed settlement of the war of 1812. Part of the city enveloped the site of an earlier small village named "Portland"; the city of Sandusky encompassed most of the entire township, called Portland. Some of the city was built on land occupied by a Native-American man named Ogontz, therefore the city is said to have been built on "Ogontz' place".

Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a major stop for refugee slaves on the Underground Railroad, as some would travel across Lake Erie to reach freedom in Canada. Although Ohio was a free state, they felt at risk from slavecatchers because of bonuses offered under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850; as depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, many refugee slaves seeking to get to Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario. Sandusky‘s original plat was designed by surveyor Hector Kilbourne according to a modified grid plan, known today as the Kilbourne Plat. Kilbourne became the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge known as Science Lodge #50, still in operation on Wayne Street, his design featured a street grid with avenues cutting diagonally to create patterns reminiscent of the symbols of Freemasonry. On September 17, 1835, Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, which brought change to the town.

Industrial areas developed near the railroad and goods were transported through the port. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way, but since the late 20th century, Battery Park Marina was developed on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad after restructuring of the industry reduced traffic on the line. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed. Most of the downtown industrial area is being redeveloped for other purposes, including marina dockage; the English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes. Said Dickens, who rode the newly constructed MR&LE railroad from Tiffin, At two o'clock we took the railroad. We put up at a comfortable little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night, had no choice but to wait there next day, until a steamboat bound for Buffalo appeared; the town, sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season.

The city developed as a center of paper-making. With a mill in the industrial area near the lake, the Hinde & Dauch Paper Company was the largest employer in the city in the early 1900s. Sandusky is located at 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.91 square miles, of which 9.73 square miles is land and 12.18 square miles is water. Sandusky occupies the defunct township Portland and borders the following townships: Margaretta Township - west and south Perkins Township - south Huron Township - east Sandusky has a humid continental climate, typical of much of the central United States, with warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with an average January high temperature of 32 °F, an average January low temperature of 19 °F, with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 28.4 inches of snow per winter. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with an average July high temperature of 82 °F, an average July low temperature of 66°.

Summer weather is more stable humid with thunderstorms common. Fall is the driest seas

Minuscule 23

Minuscule 23, ε 1183, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, written on vellum. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th-century, it has marginalia. The codex contains a text of the four Gospels with some lacunae, on 230 parchment leaves; the text is written in one column per 22 lines per page. The initial letters in gold and colour; the text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is a division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections, it contains lists of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin. It has the Latin Vulgate version down to Luke 4:18; the Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx in Luke 10. In Luke 1 and Luke 20 it represents textual cluster Π1441. Verse John 21:25 is omitted; the manuscript was written in Italy. It is dated by the INTF to the 11th-century.

It was examined and collated by Griesbach and Scholz. It was described by Paulin Martin. C. R. Gregory saw the manuscript in 1885, it is housed at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. List of New Testament minuscules Textual criticism

Arkansas Highway 110

Highway 110 is a designation for three east–west state highways in north central Arkansas. One segment of 16.71 miles runs east from US Highway 65 at Botkinburg to Highway 9/Highway 16 near Shirley. A second route of 3.15 miles begins at Highway 16/Highway 92 in Greers Ferry and runs east to the lake shore of Greers Ferry Lake. A third segment of 20.43 miles begins at the Sugar Maple Dr/Old Tr intersection outside Heber Springs and runs east to Highway 16 in Pangburn. Highway 110 begins at US 65 in Botkinburg in northern Van Buren County; the highway winds east through Plant into Stone County. Although only running in the county for 1.45 miles, the highway passes the historic Joe Guffey House in Old Lexington, a property listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Upon returning to Van Buren County the highway continues southeast to terminate at Highway 9/Highway 16 near Shirley; the route does not intersect any other state highways along its routing. Highway 110 begins at Highway 16/Highway 92 in Greers Ferry in western Cleburne County.

The highway runs southeast through an undeveloped part of the small town to Shiloh Park on Greers Ferry Lake. State maintenance ends at the shore of the lake, where the highway continued south to Heber Springs prior to the damming of the Little Red River in 1962. Highway 110 begins on the east side of Greers Ferry Lake on Eden Isle; the highway crosses an isthmus to enter Heber Springs. The highway has a junction with Highway 107 before entering downtown Heber Springs and beginning a concurrency with Highway 25B for several blocks. While downtown, the highways enter the Heber Springs Commercial Historic District, including the T. E. Olmstead & Son Funeral Home, Cleburne County Courthouse, all listed on the NRHP. Highway 25B turns north to end the concurrency at 2nd St as Highway 110 runs east past the Woman's Community Club Band Shell in Spring Park before a junction with Highway 5/Highway 25. Following this junction the highway passes Sugarloaf Mountain and crosses the Little Red River on its way to Wilburn.

After Wilburn the highway turns south and runs through Hiram before entering White County and terminating at Highway 124 in Pangburn near Highway 16. Highway 110 first appears on the 1936 state highway map between Shirley and US 65 south of Leslie as an unimproved earth trunk line route. By 1945, the western terminus was moved south to Botkinburg. During the same time, a highway running east from Heber Springs to the Little Red River was designated Highway 110, marked as a gravel road. Highway 110 was rerouted onto a new alignment in July 1958, crossing the river at a new location and continuing east to Wilburn. Following this realignment, the portion, signed Highway 110 was renumbered Highway 210, a routing that remains today. Following the completion of the Greers Ferry Dam by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1962, Greers Ferry Lake flooded the original alignment of Highway 16 between Greers Ferry and Heber Springs, separating the alignments. Highway 16 was rerouted to the southwest, the former segments were added to the state highway system in June 1965.

In May 1973 the highway was extended from Wilburn to Hiram. A county highway from Pangburn to the Cleburne County line was added to the state highway system in May 1973 as Highway 110; the route's discontinuity between the White/Cleburne County line and Hiram of 3.64 miles was removed when the intermediate highway became Highway 110 in February 1974. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 110 at Wikimedia Commons

Biwajima Station

Biwajima Station is a railway station in the city of Kiyosu, Aichi Prefecture, operated by Central Japan Railway Company and the Tōkai Transport Service Company. Biwajima Station is served by the Tōkaidō Main Line, is located 370.0 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Tokyo Station. It is a terminal station for the TKJ Jōhoku Line, is located 11.2 kilometers from the opposite terminus at Kachigawa. The station has two island platforms connected by a footbridge; the station building has automated ticket machines, TOICA automated turnstiles and a staffed ticket office. Biwajima Station was opened on April 1, 1886 as Kiyosu Station on the Japanese Government Railway Tōkaidō Line; the station was relocated to its present location and renamed to its present name on April 16, 1906. The JGR became the JNR after World War II; the station building was rebuilt in March 1953. Along with the division and privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control and operation of the Central Japan Railway Company.

All freight services came to an end in 2006. A new station building was completed in December 2008. In fiscal 2013, the station was used by an average of 3886 passengers daily. Former Nishibiwajima Town Hall List of Railway Stations in Japan Yoshikawa, Fumio. Tokaido-sen 130-nen no ayumi. Grand-Prix Publishing ISBN 4-87687-234-1. Media related to Biwajima Station at Wikimedia Commons official home page