Navaminda Kasatriyadhiraj Royal Thai Air Force Academy
The Navaminda Kasatriyadhiraj Royal Thai Air Force Academy is the main academy that trains air force cadets for the Royal Thai Air Force. In 1950, the Royal Thai Air Force started recruiting officers which completed their training from other institutions to work in the air force. Over time, as the number of military operations increased, the air force saw a need to build an air force academy to train new cadets. In the same year, the Directorate of Education and Training of the RTAF proposed to the commander for the creation of such an academy and this was approved by cabinet on 14 November 1952; the academy was opened on 7 May 1953 as the Royal Thai Air Force Academy, with a first intake of 30 cadets. The academy was moved to its current location on 24 June 1963 near Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base. In 2013, King Bhumibol Adulyadej renamed the academy as the Navaminda Kasatriyadhiraj Royal Thai Air Force Academy, in commemoration of the academy's 60th year; the RTNA provides undergraduate programs in computer and materials science.
This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Thai Wikipedia
Royal Air Force College Cranwell
The Royal Air Force College is the Royal Air Force training and education academy which provides initial training to all RAF personnel who are preparing to be commissioned officers. The College provides initial training to aircrew cadets and is responsible for all RAF recruiting along with officer and aircrew selection. Established as a naval aviation training centre during World War I, the College was established as the world's first air academy in 1919. During World War II, the College was closed and its facilities were used as a flying training school. Reopening after the War, the College absorbed the Royal Air Force Technical College in 1966; the Royal Air Force College is based at RAF Cranwell near Sleaford in Lincolnshire, is sometimes titled as the Royal Air Force College Cranwell. Cranwell was first established in 1916 as the Royal Navy air training centre and airships were operational there until the end of World War I. In December 1915, after the Royal Naval Air Service had broken away from the Royal Flying Corps, Commodore Godfrey Paine was sent to Cranwell to start a naval flying training school in order that the Royal Navy would no longer need to make use of the Central Flying School.
The Royal Navy's Central Depot and Training Establishment opened on 1 April 1916 at Cranwell under Paine's leadership. In 1917 Paine was succeeded by Commodore Luce and in 1918 following the foundation of the Royal Air Force in April, Brigadier-General Briggs took over; as a Royal Air Force establishment, Cranwell became the headquarters of No. 12 Group for the last few months of the war. After the cessation of hostilities in November 1918, the Chief of the Air Staff, Sir Hugh Trenchard was determined to maintain the Royal Air Force as an independent service rather than let the Army and Navy control air operations again; the establishment of an air academy, which would provide basic flying training, provide intellectual education and give a sense of purpose to the future leaders of the service was therefore a priority. Trenchard chose Cranwell as the College's location because, as he told his biographer: "Marooned in the wilderness, cut off from pastimes they could not organise for themselves, the cadets would find life cheaper and more wholesome."
In practice this meant that Cranwell cadets could not reach the temptations of London in their free time. When first occupied, the site was empty fields: it is now ornamented by several avenues of mature trees, many commemoratively marked with plaques naming the distinguished guests who planted them 1920–1970; the Royal Air Force College was formed on 1 November 1919 as the RAF College under the authority of its first commandant Air Commodore Charles Longcroft. On 5 February 1920 the College was raised to command status, it is the oldest military air academy in the world. On 20 June 1929, an aeroplane piloted by Flight Cadet C J Giles crashed on landing at the College and burst into flames. A fellow flight cadet, William McKechnie pulled Giles, incapable of moving himself, from the burning wreckage. McKechnie was awarded the Empire Gallantry Medal for his actions. In 1936 the College was reduced from command to group status within Training Command and the commandant ceased to hold the title of Air Officer Commanding RAF Cranwell.
Just before the outbreak of World War II, the Air Ministry closed the College as an initial officer training establishment. With the need to train aircrew in large numbers it was redesignated the RAF College Flying Training School and it did not return to its former function until 1947, it was in 1947 that the Equipment and Secretarial Branch cadets were admitted to the College alongside the traditional flight cadets. The postwar restoration of the College was a period of uncertainty. Recruiting failed to find enough qualified candidates to fill each entry The pilot washout rate approached 50 per cent, so RAF authorities debated whether flying training to professional levels should be separated from a officer training course. Cranwell cadets were in 1950 equipped and treated as airmen, i.e. had to clean their own quarters and uniforms impeccably, while undergoing both flying training and college-level courses in engineering. By 1960 they were dressed as officers, served by batmen. In the same period the 1957 Defence White Paper suggested the RAF would replace human pilots by guided missiles, at least for home defence of the UK.
These vicissitudes are documented in Haslam's narrative and the personal memoir of a New Zealand cadet 1951–53. In 1952 a College Memorial Chapel was established within College Hall. Ten years it was relocated to the new College Church, St Michael and All Angels, situated nearby to the south-east of College Hall. In 1966 the Royal Air Force Technical College at RAF Henlow, a similar cadet college for engineering officers, was merged with the College at Cranwell; the College functioned 1919–71 as a cadet college graduates receiving permanent RAF commissions after a residential course of two to three years. These trainees now include women, the Royal Air Force College Cranwell is today the RAF's only initial officer training establishment. Prior to the construction of the neo-classical College Hall, training took place in old naval huts. In the 1920s Sir Samuel Hoare battled for a substantial College building. Architect's plans were drawn up in 1929 for the present-day College. After some disagreement between Hoare and architect James West, the building plans incorporated design aspects of Christopher Wren's Royal Hospital at Chelsea.
In September 1933 the building was completed.
École de l'air
The École de l'Air is a military school and grande école training line officers in the French Air Force. It is located at Salon-de-Provence Air Base in France. In 1922, the École du génie of Versailles, was entrusted with the mission to train all officers and aircrew in aeronautics; the École militaire et d’application de l’Aéronautique was set up in 1925. The officer cadets from the non-commissioned officers' corps and young officers from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique attended training at Versailles for two years. For pilots, their training continued at Avord and Cazaux, where they trained in aerial combat and bombing. President Albert Lebrun created the École de l'Air by Presidential decree in 1933; the school's first class began training November 4, 1935. The school's motto, Faire Face is a tribute to Capitaine Georges Guynemer, a World War I fighter ace In 1937, the school moved into still-unfinished buildings in Salon, Bouches-du-Rhône; the outbreak of World War II forced the school to relocate several times from 1939 to 1945, to sites including Bordeaux and Marrakech.
It was not until 1946. The school received the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre from President Vincent Auriol in 1947. Other specialized schools joined the École de l'Air, including the École du commissariat de l'Air, which trains administrative and financial officers, in 1953, the Cours Spécial de l'École de l'Air, which trains exchange cadets from French-speaking African countries, in 1973. In 1969, the École de l'Air began an exchange program with the United States Air Force Academy, for eight cadets per school each year; the school first accepted women in 1976. Since 2008, The École de l'Air proposes two mastères spécialisés courses in aviation safety aircraft airworthiness and aerospace project management in partnership with the École nationale de l'aviation civile and the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace. In 2015, The École de l'air launched a MOOC titled Compréhension de l’Arme Aérienne on France Université Numérique's platform. Stéphane Abrial, French General, the previous Commander of Allied Command Transformation Caroline Aigle, first woman fighter pilot in the French Air Force Patrick Baudry, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien, former CNES spationaut Olivier Dassault, French politician serving as a deputy in the French National Assembly Léopold Eyharts, ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigneré, French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut Fleury Marius, French aviator Francis Pollet, Director of the Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées Jacques Rosay, Vice President Chief Test Pilot of the aircraft manufacturer Airbus Michel Tognini, French test pilot, brigadier general in the French Air Force, a former CNES and ESA astronaut
Matiur Rahman (military pilot)
Matiur Rahman was a flight lieutenant of Pakistan Air Force and a recipient of Bir Sreshtho, Bangladesh's highest military gallantry award for his actions during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. He attempted to escape from Pakistan and join the Bangladesh Liberation War, to hijack a Lockheed T-33 aircraft being flown by a 21 year old Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas, conducting his second solo flight. Rahman stopped the aircraft on the runway, climbed into the cockpit and steered the aircraft toward the Indian border, but Rashid Minhas fought against him through the mechanically linked controls. Minhas released the canopy, since he was not properly strapped in, Rahman flew out of the ocockpit; the jet was flying too low for Minhas to recover. For his support to the state of Bangladesh, Rahman was decorated by Bangladesh with the Bir Sreshtho award. Matiur Rahman was born on 29 November 1941 in Old Dhaka Aga Sadek Road 109 in his ancestral houses "Mobarok Lodge", his father was Maulvi Abdus Samad and his mother was Syeda Khatun Mobarakunnesa.
Among nine brothers and two sisters, Rahman was the sixth. He completed his primary education at Dhaka Collegiate School. After that he was admitted into Pakistan Air Force School Sargodha in West Pakistan. On 15 August 1961, he joined the Pakistan Air Force Academy at Risalpur. On 22 June 1963, Matiur Rahman was commissioned as a pilot officer from the 36th GD Course and was posted at No. 2 Squadron of Mauripur Air Base at Karachi in West Pakistan. After that he completed the Jet Conversion Training on T-33 jet trainers in that base, he passed the course with a mark of 75.66% and was earmarked for Fighter Conversion Training. Fighter Conversion Training took place in F-86 Sabre Jets, this course he passed with a mark of 81%, he was posted in Peshawar due to his bright result in the Fighter Conversion Course. His rank was Flying Officer during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. After the war, he went back to Sargodha to attend the Mig Conversion Course, he was promoted to the rank of Flight Lieutenant in 1967.
Flight Lieutenant Matiur Rahman smuggled the family of Group Captain Taher Quddus on Royal Saudi Arabian C-130 transport plane bound for Riyadh during the liberation war of Bangladesh. Matiur Rahman and his family went to Dhaka for a two-month vacation at the end of January 1971, he was staying in the village of Ramanagar in Raypur during the military operation of 25 March 1971 conducted by the Pakistan army in the name of Operation Searchlight. Despite being a member of the PAF, Rahman opened a training camp in Vairab and started training Bengali people who were willing to join the Mukti Bahini, he formed a small defence force with a few collected weapons. His camp was bombed by the PAF on 14 April 1971, but Rahman changed the place of his camp. Thus, his crew and he was saved from the bombing. Rahman returned to Dhaka on 23 April and returned to Karachi on 9 May with his family. Matiur Rahman was an instructor pilot at PAF Base Masroor in 1971, he was planning to defect to India with a plane to join the Bangladesh Liberation War.
On 20 August 1971, Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas was scheduled to fly with a Lockheed T-33 training plane. Rahman saw Minhas about to take off and asked to join him, he jumped into the instructor seat, he attempted to hijack the T-33 in midair from Karachi, Pakistan to India to join the liberation movement. Minhas sent a message to control tower. Minhas wrestled with Rahman for control and crashed the plane in Pakistan's territory which caused the death of both pilots; the plane never crashed near the border but in Pakistan. After over 30 years of negotiations, Rahman's body was returned to Bangladesh on 24 June 2006 for a ceremonial and symbolic reburial in 2006. Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson Tasneem Aslam described it as a'goodwill gesture', he was buried at the Martyred Intellectuals Graveyard, in Mirpur, with full military honours. His original burial in a grave in fourth class employees graveyard in Pakistan and the hanging of his photo at the entrance of Mashrur Airbase identifying him as a Traitor had been a sore point between Bangladesh and Pakistan for decades.
There is a docudrama based on Matiur's life named Ognibolaka where Bangladeshi film actor Riaz has acted in the role of Matiur and television actress Tarin played the role of his wife Mili. The Bangladesh Air Force's Air Base at Jessore is named after him; the air force gives out a trophy named after him for best performance in the flying training. Birshreshto Matiur Rahman trophy, named after him, is awarded for the best Individual Research Paper of Air Wing in Defence Services Command and Staff College. Dining halls in the Cadet Colleges of Bangladesh are named after him. মুক্তিযুদ্ধ বিষয়ক মন্ত্রণালয়
Royal Danish Air Force Academy
The Royal Danish Air Force Academy educates and commissions all officers for the Royal Danish Air Force. The Air Force Officer Academy function was initiated in 1951 by the creation of the Royal Danish Air Force; the Air Force officers school is located in Jonstrup near Værløse. Army: The Royal Danish Military Academy located at Frederiksberg Palace in Copenhagen. Navy: The Royal Danish Naval Academy located at Holmen naval base in Copenhagen. Emergency Management Agency: The Emergency Management Officers School located at Bernstorff Palace in Gentofte
Royal Military College of Canada
The Royal Military College of Canada abbreviated as RMC, is the military college of the Canadian Armed Forces, is a degree-granting university training military officers. RMC was established in 1876 and is the only federal institution in Canada with degree-granting powers; the Royal Military College of Canada Degrees Act, 1959 empowers the college to confer degrees in arts and engineering. Programs are offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels, both on campus as well as through the college's distance learning programme via the Division of Continuing Studies. Located on Point Frederick, a 41-hectare peninsula in Kingston, the college is a mix of historic buildings and more modern academic and dormitory facilities. Officer cadets of the Royal Military College of Canada are trained in what are known as the "four pillars" of academics, officership and bilingualism; the Royal Military College of Canada prepares officer cadets for a career in the profession of arms and continues the development of other Canadian Armed Forces members and civilians with an interest in defence issues.
RMC provides programs and courses of higher education and professional development to meet the needs of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence. RMC is responsible to: Provide a university education in both official languages in appropriate disciplines designed on a broad base to meet the unique needs of the Canadian Armed Forces Develop qualities of leadership in officer cadets Develop the ability to communicate in both official languages for officer cadets Develop a high standard of physical fitness Stimulate an awareness of the ethic of the military profession Conduct research activities in support of RMC and to meet the needs of Defence Research Agencies The RMC priorities are: To build high quality, world-class programs in areas of importance to the Canadian Armed Forces and to Canada To promote national and international collaborations and partnerships To promote interdisciplinary co-operation; the RMC mission is to educate and develop Officer Cadets for leadership careers of effective service in the Canadian Armed Forces – the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army.
For most students under the ROTP, education is free and a monthly salary is paid which meets incidentals. The courses are offered both on site and by distance learning in both official languages: English and French. After graduation, Officers are to give two months of service for each subsidized month of education. RMC offers 19 undergraduate programs in Arts and Engineering. RMC offers 34 graduate studies opportunities, including 14 doctorates. In addition to the Faculty of Arts and Science, the Division of Continuing Studies offers undergraduate and graduate level programs including the "Officer Professional Military Education" program; the Department of Applied Military Science offers a graduate level program – the Land Force Technical Staff Programme and an undergraduate/community college level program – the Army Technical Warrant Officer's Programme. All undergraduate students are required to complete the core curriculum, designed to provide a balanced liberal arts and military education.
The Core Curriculum consists of Economics, Mathematics, Calculus, Military history of Canada, Canadian History and Civics. Tuition fees at the undergraduate level vary from $2,780 – $3,710 for Canadian undergraduate students and $2,780 – $3,165 for Canadian Graduate students; the tuition fees for international students vary from $8,750 – $9,000 for undergraduate students and $6,200 – $6,700 for graduate students. The lower tuition amounts are for the arts and sciences programs, while the higher amounts are for the engineering programs; because of commitments of military service following graduation, education is free for most on-campus undergraduates. Funding has been put in place to support civilian students, who are eligible for admission to the master's and doctoral programs to work alongside graduate students who are members of the Canadian Armed Forces; the research at RMCC focusses on areas of direct and indirect benefit to the Department of National Defence. RMC conducts both academic and contracted research on electrical and computer engineering, chemistry, chemical engineering and environmental engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, international security and the economics of defence.
Both members of the Canadian Forces and civilian students are eligible for admission to the master's and doctoral programs. The undergraduate student body, known as the Cadet Wing, is sub-divided into 13 squadrons of 70 college cadets each; each squadron is subdivided into three flights, with each flight further subdivided into three sections. The squadrons are led by senior cadets under the guidance of the squadron commander. Note: The dates given are for the current organization of the wing and does not include former squadrons or the same squadrons under different names. For example, 1 Squadron was the first squadron at RMC, meaning 1 squadron has existed since the College's founding in 1876, but has only been known as Hudson Squadron since 1948. In 2007, a former squadron of the Royal Military Colloge Saint-Jean, Jolliet Squadron, was stood up at RMC as 13
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit