History Jambi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on spans to the Barisan Mountains in the west, its capital and largest city is Jambi. The province has a land area of 50,058 km2, it has a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 Census. Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. Jambi succeeded its southern economic and military rival, as the capital of the kingdom; the movement of the capital to Jambi was induced by the 1025 raid by pirates from the Chola region of southern India, which destroyed much of Palembang. In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region, when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch; this relationship declined by about 1770, the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years. In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch felt the need to control the actions of Jambi.
They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia, they met little resistance, Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, soldiers managed to capture and kill Taha, in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial management. Following the death of Jambi sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on 27 April 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi set as the Residency and entry into the territory Nederlandsch Indie.
Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the Governor General under Dutch Decree No. 20, dated 4 May 1906 with his inauguration held on 2 July 1906. Jambi province is divided into nine regencies and two cities, listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest estimates; the official language of Jambi province is Indonesian as in all parts of Indonesia. However Jambi is home to several indigenous languages and dialects such as Jambi Malay, Kerinci language, Kubu language, Lempur Malay, Rantau Panjang Malay, all of which are Malayan languages. Due to transmigration policy, many ethnic groups from various parts of Indonesia Java, Borneo and other parts of Sumatra brought their native languages as well; the non-Pribumi people such as the Chinese Indonesians speak several varieties of Chinese. Kerinci Seblat National ParkThe largest of the three national parks comprising the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, Kerinci Seblat has the distinction of being the second-largest national park in all of Southeast Asia, only after Lorentz National Park on Papua.
It is one of the Sumatran Tiger's last strongholds on the island, within its borders sits the highest active volcano in Southeast Asia - Mount Kerinci. Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, recognized as a world heritage site; the site was a Buddhist education centre that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India. Islam is the largest religion in beign practised by 96.5 % of the population. Minority religions are Christianity with 3%, Buddhism 0.97%, Confucianism 0.05% and Hinduism 0.25% of the population. Putri Tangguk, a Malay traditional folklore originated from Jambi Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth. 1993. Rivals and rituals in Jambi, South Sumatra. Modern Asian Studies 27:573-591. Official government site Fan site
Central Kalimantan, is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five provinces in the Indonesian part of Borneo, its provincial capital is Palangkaraya and in 2010 its population was over 2.2 million, while the latest official estimate is 2,368,654. The population growth rate was 3.0% per annum between 1990 and 2000, one of the highest provincial growth rates in Indonesia during that time. More than is the case in other province in the region, Central Kalimantan is populated by the Dayaks, the indigenous inhabitants of Borneo. Since the eighteenth century the central region of Kalimantan and its Dayak inhabitants were ruled by the Muslim Sultanate of Banjar. Following Indonesian independence after World War II, Dayak tribes demanded a province separate from South Kalimantan province. In 1957 South Kalimantan was divided to provide the Dayak population with greater autonomy from the Muslim population in the province; the change was approved by the Indonesian Government on 23 May 1957 under Presidential Law No. 10 Year 1957, which declared Central Kalimantan the seventeenth province of Indonesia.
President Sukarno appointed the Dayak-born national hero Tjilik Riwut as the first Governor and Palangkaraya the provincial capital. Central Kalimantan is the third largest Indonesian province by area with a size of 153,564.5 km2, about 1.5 times the size of the island of Java. It is bordered by West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces to the north, by the Java Sea to the south, by South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces to the east, by West Kalimantan province to west; the Schwaner Mountains stretch from the north-east of the province to the south-west, 80% of, covered in dense forest, peatland swamps, mangroves and traditional agriculture land. Highland areas in the north-east are remote and not accessible. Non-volcanic mounts are scattered in this area including Kengkabang, Liang Pahang and Ulu Gedang; the centre of the province is covered with tropical forest, which produces rattan and valuable timber such as Ulin and Meranti. The southern lowlands are dominated by peatland swamps.
Sabangau National Park is a protected peatland area internationally acknowledged as sanctuary for the endangered Orangutan. The peat swamp forests have been damaged by the Mega Rice Project, which unsuccessfully sought to turn large areas into rice paddies; the province's climate is wet weather equatorial zone with an eight-month rainy season, 4 months of dry season. Rainfall or precipitation is 2,776 - 3,393 mm per year with an average of 145 rainy days annually. Central Kalimantan has numerous rivers from the catchment areas to the north in the Schwaner Mountains, flowing to the Java Sea; the major rivers include: Barito River Kapuas River Kahayan River Katingan River Mentaya River Seruyan River Lamandau River Arut River Sabangau River Kumai River Jelai River Rivers are an important mode of transportation and a primary location for settlement. With undeveloped infrastructure, the province's economy relies on the rivers. Central Kalimantan is administratively divided into thirteen regencies - each headed by a regent - and one city, the latter being Palangka Raya.
These are as follows: In addition to the civil service, Central Kalimantan recognises a traditional governing system led by traditional leaders known as Demang. The province is divided into 67 traditional law areas known as Kademangan, headed by Demang; the system is intended to culturally recognise and preserve the customs and heritage of the Dayak tribes. Russia will build railroads from Central Kalimantan to East Kalimantan for coal transportation with estimated cost of US$2.4 billion. The population of Central Kalimantan is 74.31% Muslim, 18.6% Christian, 0.50% Hindu, 0.11% Buddhist, 6.26% other. The three major Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan are the Ngaju, Ot Danum and Dusun Ma'anyan Ot Siang; the three major tribes extended into several branches of prominent Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan such as Lawangan, Dusun Siang, Bantian and Kadori. In addition to the indigenous Dayak tribes, there are ethnic groups from other areas of Indonesia, including Javanese, Batak, Ambonese, Palembang, Banjarese, Papuan, Balinese and Chinese.
Deforestation in Borneo Fauna of Borneo Heart of Borneo Official website Official statistics for the province, provided by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics, may be accessed at Badan Pusat Statistik Propinsi Kalimantan Tengah
The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in Brunei, Labuan and parts of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. The Kedayan language bears a similarity to Brunei Malay, spoken by more than 530,000 people in Brunei, 46,500 in Sabah and 37,000 in Sarawak. In Sabah the Kedayan live in the cities of Sipitang, Kuala Penyu and Papar. In Sarawak the Kedayans reside in Lawas, Limbang and the Subis area; the Kedayan people are regarded as a sub-ethnic group of the Klemantan Dayak people. The origins of the Kedayans are uncertain; some of them believe their people were from Java, which they left during the reign of Sultan Bolkiah. Because of his fame as a sea captain and voyager, the Sultan was well-known to the people of Java and the Philippines, it is believed that when the Sultan arrived to the island of Java, he became interested in the local agricultural techniques. He brought some of the Javanese farmers back to his country to spread their techniques; the farmers inter-married with the local Bruneian Malay people, giving birth to the Kedayan ethnicity.
Most Kedayans have adopted Islam since the Islamic era of the Sultanate of Brunei. They have adopted Malay culture; the Kedayans are recognized as one of the indigenous people of Borneo. They are experts in making traditional medicines; the Kedayans are well known for their cultivation of medicinal plants, which they grow to treat a wide range of ailments and to make tonics. The language of one of the indigenous tribes, the Banjar people in Kutai, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, is said to share more than 90% of the vocabulary with the Kedayan language, despite the fact that the Banjarese do not refer to themselves as Kedayans. Both the Kedayans and the Banjarese are related, to a certain extent, because of the similarities in their languages. Sapawi Ahmad – Malaysia representative for Sipitang constituency Ahmad Lai Bujang – Malaysia representative for Sibuti constituency Pengiran Ahmad Raffae – The second of The head of State of Sabah
The Meratus Dayak inhabit the Meratus Mountains of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Banjar Kuala people would refer the Meratus people as Urang Baiju or Dayak Baiju, as they consider them to be the same as the Ngaju people. While the Banjar Hulu Sungai people would call the Meratus people as Urang Bukit, Dayak Bukit or Dayak Buguet. A Meratus Dayak's name changes over the course of her life. Children have "body names" that are not used after adolescence; when they have children and women acquire teknonyms. For a man this name is Ma X or Pa'an X, where X is the name of one of his children, or sometimes another word. For a woman it is Dun X, depending on which part of the Meratus area she lives in. Older men become Awat X and older women become Apih X. Local Meratus Dayak dialects are related linguistically to both Indonesian, to the Banjar language. Most Meratus Dayak can speak Banjar and Indonesian since government administrators conduct business in Indonesian and trade with the Banjar people is conducted in Banjar.
The Meratus people are divided into several sub-ethnics including:- Dayak Pitap people Dayak Alai people Dayak Labuhan people Dayak Atiran people Dayak Kiyu people Dayak Juhu people Dayak Hantakan people Dayak Labuan Amas people Dayak Loksado people Dayak Harakit people Dayak Paramasan people Dayak Kayu Tangi people Dayak Bangkalaan people Dayak Sampanahan people Dayak Riam Adungan people Dayak Bajuin people Dayak Sembamban Baru people and many more Gintur Dadas dance, a ritualistic dance practiced by the Dayak Meratus Halong people to summon ancestral spirits. Batandik, a dance performed to summon ancestral spirits during the Aruh Baharin ritual. Aruh Baharin, a ritual practiced by the Buddhist majority Dayak Balanghan people to close the paddy farming season after the completion of harvesting the field. Meratus Dayak are farmers, rice is the main crop. Rice cultivation occurs in swiddens. Swiddens are cultivated for a few years the forest is allowed to regenerate when the farmers move to a different swidden location to farm.
The farmers may return to a swidden, although there is at least 15 years between leaving and returning to a swidden. Meratus people collect forest products and trade with Banjar at markets outside the mountains. In these transactions Banjar act as middle men between the Meratus and other traders. Most Meratus live and farm in umbun which are considered the primary social units among the Meratus Dayak. Umbun are founded by a man and a woman a married couple, but sometimes a brother and sister, a widow and her adult son, or other male-female pairs. Umbun embrace a variety of dependents who have not yet founded their own umbun, including children and married and widowed adults; the founding pair is responsible for the umbun. Some Meratus have been moved into villages by government resettlement programs; the Meratus are classified as a "semi-nomadic" isolated tribe, are the target of government development programs as such. Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, In The Realm Of The Diamond Queen, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-00051-0
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental