The Bank Charter Act 1844, sometimes referred to as the Peel Banking Act of 1844, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England. It is one of the Bank of England Acts 1694 to 1892; until the mid-nineteenth century, commercial banks in Britain and Ireland were able to issue their own banknotes, notes issued by provincial banking companies were in circulation. Under the 1844 Act, bullionism was institutionalized in Britain, creating a ratio between the gold reserves held by the Bank of England and the notes that the Bank could issue, limited the issuance of non-gold-backed Bank of England notes to up to £14 million; the Act placed strict curbs on the issuance of notes by the country banks, barring any new "banks of issue" in England and Wales and thus beginning the process of centralizing banknote issuance. The Act was a victory for the British Currency School, who argued that the issue of new banknotes was a major cause of price inflation.
Although the Act required new notes to be backed by gold or government debt, the government retained the power to suspend the Act in case of financial crisis, this in fact happened several times: in 1847 and 1857, during the 1866 Overend Gurney crisis. While the act restricted the supply of new notes, it did not restrict the creation of new bank deposits, these would continue to increase in size over the course of the 19th century. Bank deposits are sums of money that a bank, backed by considerable collateral, may choose to deposit in the holder’s account as a loan which requires repayment with interest; the money comes into existence when the bank creates the deposit, when the loan is paid off, the money disappears from the bank’s balance sheet. While a loan is a cash advance provided by the bank to the customer, in the long term the effect of unrestricted creation of bank deposits can lead to inflation in the markets into which that money is channelled, such as the property market through banks' mortgage lending.
As a result of the Act, as provincial banking companies merged to form larger banks, they lost their right to issue notes. The English private banknote disappeared, leaving the Bank of England with a monopoly of note issue in England and Wales; the last private bank to issue its own banknotes in England and Wales was Fox and Company in 1921. The Bank Notes Act 1845 adopted a year was more lenient; as in England, there could be no new banks of issue. Furthermore, banks in Scotland could issue more than their 1845 circulation amount, as long as the additional circulation was backed pound-for-pound with gold reserves at head office. A generation and much to the envy of English competitors, the Scottish banks took advantage of their exclusion from the 1833 ruling on London offices to open up in the capital without having to sacrifice their banknote issues. Today three commercial banks in Scotland and four in Northern Ireland continue to issue their own sterling banknotes, regulated by the Bank of England.
The Banking Act 2009 abolished the "weekly return" of the number of banknotes issued by the Bank of England: "Section 6 of the Bank Charter Act 1844 shall cease to have effect". Henry Meulen – a critic who saw the Bank Charter Act as a cause of economic depression and political revolution Banknotes of the pound sterling – a list of note-issuing banks in the Sterling area Banknotes of Scotland Banknotes of Northern Ireland Fractional reserve banking Central bank How Money is Created by Banks – 5-minute video explaining how money is created today Text of the Bank Charter Act 1844 as in force today within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk. Bank Charter Act 1844 - full text
Arkansas State University Three Rivers is a public community college in Malvern, Arkansas. It was named College of the Ouachitas for the Ouachita Mountains, which cross through this portion of the state and the Ouachita River which flows through the area. In 2020, it changed to its current name. ASUTR has 1,500 students annually through its degree programs, technical courses, community educational offerings. ASUTR was established in 1969 as Ouachita Vocational Technical School; the inaugural classes took place in January 1972, with 292 students enrolled in the certificate programs, such as automotive repair, food service, cosmetology. In 1991, Governor Bill Clinton signed legislation that reorganized the state's vo-tech institutions into two-year accredited colleges; the newly renamed Ouachita Technical College subsequently offered a broader degree of associate programs, such as nursing, business administration, manufacturing technology, criminal justice. As the number of programs began to expand, the school changed its name in 2011 to College of the Ouachitas to better reflect its comprehensive mission.
On January 1, 2020 the college joined the ASU System. ASUTR is governed by a seven-member Board of Trustees, appointed by the Governor; each trustee serves a seven-year term. The ASUTR campus was located in a former segregated high school building in Hot Springs, shuttered in the 1960s. Following the accreditation of the school, the City of Malvern adopted a 1 cent sales tax to fund the college. New campus buildings were constructed in the 1990s and early 2000s, including a library in 1999. ASUTR is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, its programs have been approved by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education and the Arkansas State Board of Vocational Education. Official website College of the Ouachitas entry in the Encyclopedia of Arkansas
Jean Hélion was a French painter whose abstract work of the 1930s established him as a leading modernist. His midcareer rejection of abstraction was followed by nearly five decades as a figurative painter, he was the author of several books and an extensive body of critical writing. He was born at Couterne, the son of a taxi driver and a dressmaker. After spending his first eight years with his grandmother, he rejoined his parents in Amiens, where he went to school. Although he experimented with painting pictures on cardboard as a schoolboy, his greater love was poetry. Interested in chemistry as well, Hélion began working as an assistant to a pharmacist in 1918, set up a laboratory in his bedroom, he wrote, "... I dreamed and was attracted by shapes and colors which proceeded from the reality of things and were their essence. My passion for inorganic chemistry arose from my fondness for these shapes, these crystals, these colours, this analysis of a revealed truth." In 1920 he enrolled in the study of chemistry at l'Institut Industriel du Nord in Lille, but left for Paris in 1921 without finishing the course.
In Paris he worked as an architectural apprentice. He experienced what he called the great turning point of his life while on a research project at the Louvre, where he discovered the works of Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne, decided to become a painter, his first paintings date from 1922–23. In 1925 he abandoned his architectural studies and began attending figure drawing classes at the Académie Adler. Hélion's early works are similar to manner to Soutine, he met Otto Freundlich in 1925 and described him as the first abstract painter he had met, saying, "At that time I had no idea there was such a thing as abstract art." The next year he was introduced to cubism by the Uruguayan painter Joaquín Torres-García, in 1928 he exhibited for the first time, showing two paintings at the Salon des Indépendants. His work of this period still lifes, is close in style to that of Torres-García, with simplified color and bold outlines. In 1930, he joined the group Art Concret and adopted a vocabulary of abstract rectilinear form that derived from the Neoplasticists Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg.
During the following years Hélion's art evolved to include volumetric forms. He became recognized as a leading abstract painter, as well as an eloquent critic and theoretician whose writings were published in Cahiers d'Art and elsewhere during the 1930s. Hélion moved to the United States in July 1936, staying in New York and Virginia. While he continued painting abstractly, he felt that his work was tending toward representation, he began drawing from life, his reading of Baudelaire directed him toward a concept of modernity in which the most ephemeral aspects of contemporary life are reconciled with the timeless and the geometric. He believed that Seurat, who he called "the last great master, Léger, the greatest after him" exemplified this Baudelairian modernism. Hélion's work underwent a radical change—one that would confound his admirers—when he abandoned abstraction decisively in 1939, his first large-scale figurative canvas, With Cyclist, revealed a simplified and streamlined treatment of form, related to Léger's style of the 1930s.
In a 1939 letter to Pierre-Georges Bruguière, Hélion revealed his long-range plan:For ten years I think I shall look and love the life around us—passers-by, gardens, shops and everyday movement. When I have mastered the means and acquired the baggage of characters and attitudes to give me the ease I now have in non-figurative art, I shall begin on a new period, which I have glimpsed in the last few days: I shall give painting back its moral and didactic power. I shall attack great scenes that will no longer be descriptive, but also'significant', like the great works of Poussin. In response to the emergency of World War II, Hélion returned to France in 1940 and joined the armed forces. Taken prisoner on June 19, 1940, he was held on a prison ship at Stettin an der Oder until February 13, 1942, when he escaped. Four days he made his way to Paris, his book about his experiences, became a best-seller in the United States. Hélion resumed work in 1943 with a series of depersonalized images of men in hats.
Deliberative as always, he painted many close variations on favorite themes, including women at open windows and men reading newspapers. In the following years he developed the cartoon-like aspect of the style. A major work of 1947, À rebours, is one of several compositions in which a female nude is represented upside down. In 1949 and 1950 he painted a series of awkward, bony female nudes in bare interiors. In 1951 came another of the abrupt changes that mark his career, as Hélion adapted a naturalistic style. For the next several years he concentrated on figures and still lifes, depicted in a studio setting, his friend Balthus, who had hoped Hélion would "forget Léger", expressed approval of the new works, saying, "For the first time in one of your paintings, one can feel happiness and wonder."In the 1960s his manner reverted to something closer to his style of the 1940s, but with a new breadth. A chemical sensitivity forced him to abandon oils for acrylics, which he used for the rest of his career.
During the next two decades he would paint several large triptychs. His subject matter revealed, as it always had, a preoccupation with sometimes idiosyncratic themes: artists and models, s
The 1963 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 76th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 1963 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland. Brian McDonald scored Dublin's goal in a small-rectangle scuffle involving six defenders and four attackers. Galway narrowed the gap to one point near the end. Referee Eamon Moules denied Galway a last-minute penalty. Galway were beaten by a Simon Behan goal. Man of the match was Leo Hickey. Dublin: Pascal Flynn. Galway: Michael Moore. Sub: Brian Geraghty for Seán Cleary
Mikheil Asatiani was a prominent Georgian psychiatrist, one of the founders of scientific psychiatry in Georgia. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1907 and began work at the psychiatric clinic in Moscow, he became head of the Department of Psychiatry of the Tbilisi State University in 1921 and served on the editorial board of the journal Psikhoterapia. In 1925, he established and headed until his death the Psychiatric Research Institute in Tbilisi, which posthumously was named after him, he directed hundreds of scientific researches and produced some 40 works on clinical psychiatry and psychotherapy. He is an author of original method of "reproductive experiences". One year before his death Mikheil was asked by an unknown youngster to visit a house on a given address and see a sick, he accepted and when he came to the address, surprised householders asked whence he had known the address. He learns that that youngster had long before been died. Just after this he suffered from mental disorder leading to his death in a year.
The fact that he could see, though temporarily, souls is said to be an omen of death
Streptomyces olivaceoviridis is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces, isolated from soil. Streptomyces olivaceoviridis produces xylanase. BLAAK, Harald. "Characteristics of an exochitinase from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis, its corresponding gene, putative protein domains and relationship to other chitinases". European Journal of Biochemistry. 214: 659–669. Doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb17966.x. PMID 8319677. Ding, C. H.. Q.. T.. T.. "High activity xylanase production by Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86". World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 20: 7–10. Doi:10.1023/B:WIBI.0000013278.24679.ed. Ai, Zhilu. "Immobilization of Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86 xylanase on Eudragit S-100 for xylo-oligosaccharide production". Process Biochemistry. 40: 2707–2714. Doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.12.006. Romaguera, A. Journal of Bacteriology. 174: 3450–4. Doi:10.1128/jb.174.11.3450-3454.1992. PMC 206026. PMID 1592803. Fujimoto, Z. "Crystal structure of Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86 beta-xylanase containing xylan-binding domain".
Journal of Molecular Biology. 300: 575–85. Doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3877. PMID 10884353. Xiao, X. "The novel Streptomyces olivaceoviridis ABC transporter Ngc mediates uptake of N-acetylglucosamine and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose". Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG. 267: 429–39. Doi:10.1007/s00438-002-0640-2. PMID 12111550. Hassan, F. "A family 19 chitinase from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis ATCC 11238 expressed in transgenic pea affects the development of T. harzianum in vitro". Journal of Biotechnology. 143: 302–8. Doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2009.08.011. PMID 19699767. Sharma, edited by K. G. Mukerji, B. P. Chamola, A. K.. Glimpses in botany. New Delhi: APH Pub. Corp. ISBN 81-7648-204-8. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ed.-in-chief, George M. Garrity. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. New York: Springer Science + Business Media. ISBN 978-0-387-68233-4. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Singh, Ramesh Chander Kuhad, Ajay. Lignocellulose biotechnology: future prospects. New Delhi: I. K. International Pub. House. ISBN 978-81-88237-58-6.
CS1 maint: extra text: authors list List of Streptomyces species Type strain of Streptomyces olivaceoviridis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase