The Bank of America Corporation is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, with central hubs in New York City, Hong Kong and Toronto. Founded in San Francisco, Bank of America was formed through NationsBank's acquisition of BankAmerica in 1998, it is the second largest banking institution in the United States, after JPMorgan Chase. As a part of the Big Four, it services 10.73% of all American bank deposits, in direct competition with Citigroup, Wells Fargo, JPMorgan Chase. Its primary financial services revolve around commercial banking, wealth management, investment banking. One branch of its history stretches back to Bank of Italy, founded by Amadeo Pietro Giannini in 1904, which provided Italian immigrants who faced service discrimination various banking options. Headquartered in San Francisco, Giannini acquired Banca d'America e d'Italia in 1922; the passage of landmark federal banking legislation facilitated rapid growth in the 1950s establishing a prominent market share.
After suffering a significant loss after the 1998 Russian bond default, BankAmerica, as it was known, was acquired by the Charlotte-based NationsBank for US$62 billion. Following what was the largest bank acquisition in history, the Bank of America Corporation was founded. Through a series of mergers and acquisitions, it built upon its commercial banking business by establishing Merrill Lynch for wealth management and Bank of America Merrill Lynch for investment banking in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Both Bank of America and Merrill Lynch Wealth Management retain large market shares in their respective offerings; the investment bank is considered within the "Bulge Bracket" as the third largest investment bank in the world, as of 2018. Its wealth management side manages US$1.081 trillion in assets under management as the second largest wealth manager in the world, after UBS. In commercial banking, Bank of America operates—but does not maintain retail branches—in all 50 states of the United States, the District of Columbia and more than 40 other countries.
Its commercial banking footprint encapsulates 46 million consumer and small business relationships at 4,600 banking centers and 15,900 automated teller machines. The bank's large market share, business activities, economic impact has led to numerous lawsuits and investigations regarding both mortgages and financial disclosures dating back to the 2008 financial crisis, its corporate practices of servicing the middle class and wider banking community has yielded a substantial market share since the early 20th century. As of August 2018, Bank of America has a $313.5 billion market capitalization, making it the 13th largest company in the world. As the sixth largest American public company, it garnered $102.98 billion in sales as of June 2018. Bank of America was ranked #24 on the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Bank of America was named the "World's Best Bank" by the Euromoney Institutional Investor in their 2018 Awards for Excellence; the Bank of America name first appeared with the formation of Bank of America, Los Angeles.
In 1928, it was acquired by Bank of Italy of San Francisco, which took the Bank of America name two years later. The eastern portion of the Bank of America franchise can be traced to 1784, when Massachusetts Bank was chartered—the first iteration of FleetBoston, which Bank of America acquired in 2004. In 1874, Commercial National Bank was founded in Charlotte; that bank merged with American Trust Company in 1958 to form American Commercial Bank. Two years it became North Carolina National Bank when it merged with Security National Bank of Greensboro. In 1991, it merged with C&S / Sovran Corporation of Norfolk to form NationsBank; the central portion of the franchise dates to 1910, when Commercial National Bank and Continental National Bank of Chicago merged in 1910 to form Continental & Commercial National Bank, which evolved into Continental Illinois National Bank & Trust. From a naming perspective, the history of Bank of America dates back to October 17, 1904, when Amadeo Pietro Giannini founded the Bank of Italy in San Francisco.
In 1922, Bank of America, Los Angeles was established with Giannini as a minority investor. The two banks merged in 1928 and consolidated it with other bank holdings to create what would become the largest banking institution in the country. In 1986, Deutsche Bank AG acquired 100% of Banca d'America e d'Italia, a bank established in Naples in 1917 following the name-change of Banca dell'Italia Meridionale with the latter established in 1918. In 1918, another corporation, Bancitaly Corporation, was organized by A. P. Giannini, the largest stockholder of, Stockholders Auxiliary Corporation; this company acquired the stocks of various banks located in New York City and certain foreign countries. In 1918, the Bank opened a Delegation in New York in order to follow American political and financial affairs more closely. In 1928, Giannini merged his bank with Bank of Los Angeles, headed by Orra E. Monnette. Bank of Italy was renamed on November 3, 1930, to Bank of America National Trust and Savings Association, the only such designated bank in the United States at that time.
Giannini and Monnette headed the resulting company. Giannini introduced branch banking shortly after 1909 legislation in California allowed for branch banking in the state, establishing the bank's first branch outside San Francisco in 1909 in San Jose. By 1929 the bank had 453 banking offices in California with aggregate resources of over US$1.4 bill
Jana Kolarič is a Slovene author and translator. She is the author of plays and novels for both children and adults, has been recognised as an exceptional artist by the Ministry of Culture, she has won a number of literary awards. Jana Kolarič was born on 17 September 1954 in Maribor, where she attended elementary and secondary school. In 1979 she completed her AGRF course in Ljubljana with a degree in TV directing, she worked in a variety of jobs after completing her studies, including as consultant for educational TV, lecturer in art education, mentor of a drama group, cultural animator and editor of school books for a publishing house. As of 2010 she was working as a translator of literature poetry and fairy tales, by lecturing, she is married and the mother of four children. Jana Kolarič has published poems and plays. In 1976 she created a successful play for Salon Expon. While working for the Tuma publishing house she was responsible for Primadona, a collection of 12 plays with detailed staging instructions adapted to schools.
She joined the Slovene Writers' Association in January 2004. She received recognition as a leading artist from the Ministry of Culture in October 2004. In 2004 she published a drama for adults, Kdo le so oni?, in 2005 a collection of puzzles, Ugibanke male, oblecene v šale. Kolarič drew the puzzles in this book, designed for children. Kolarič's debut science fiction novel Izpred kongresa, a satire of Slovene society featuring adults being cloned at a huge clinic, was first published in 2006 with the funding of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia, it received special mention by the jury in a modern Slovene novel competition run by the Mladinska Knjiga publishing house. Kolarič translated two children's picture books for the Miš publishing house: Moja sestra Zala and Kuštravi Slave z Mlekarske pristave, she published a collection of short dramatic scripts Dobro jutro, lutke for the Genija publishing house. In 2008 she published her second novel, co-authored with Draga Alina, draga Brina.
As of 2010 her second co-authored novel was ready for publication, Zima z ognjenim šalom. In a 2009 interview Kolarič noted that the market for Slovene literature was small and it was hard to make money. Most writers had a full-time job in education, wrote when they had the time, she had to take whatever work was available, including teaching, writing books and sometimes helping stage plays. She felt that the media raised impossible expectations of a woman's role, describing a super-woman with a stylish way of life, the perfect professional artist, who supports her children and parents, and, a breadwinner and markets their own books, she felt that women writers had to overcome prejudice against negative views of emotional aspects of their work, labeled as "sentimental", "melodramatic" or "weak". She had won competitions only. Kolarič's radio play Upanje na bogastvo won third prize at the 60th anniversary competition of Trieste Radio Studios. Trieste Radio Studios staged the play in 2007, her radio play Odiseja 3000 won first prize in the 2007 Radia Slovenija competition, was staged by Radio Slovenija in 2008.
The children's play is about life on different planets. Her short story Barva marsovskih hlac was selected in the International Board on Books for Young People Slovene section as representative of Slovenia in the March 2009 world youth anthology in India. In 2011 her story Goli goli won third place in a competition organized by Ljubljana's Student Publishing Company. In 2013 Jana Kolaric won the first Literary Death Match competition in Ljubljana, where she read a short story with a tragic and unexpected end about a woman babysitting her niece. Books published by Kolarič include: Translations by Kolarič include
Jane Stanhope, Countess of Harrington, was a society hostess and heiress who served as a lady of the Bedchamber to the British queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Jane Fleming was the eldest of five children of Sir John Fleming, 1st Baronet and his wife Jane, as well as the elder sister of the scandalous Seymour Dorothy Fleming; the death of her father in 1763 left her and her sisters co-heiresses to an enormous fortune of £100,000. At the age of 23, Jane Fleming became engaged to the two years older Charles Stanhope, Viscount Petersham, a war hero who had returned from North America to England, his father, the 2nd Earl of Harrington, was indebted and the legal negotiations between the two families led to the postponement of the marriage. By October 1778, rumours began circulating that the match would never take place. Lord Petersham became Earl of Harrington on his father's death the following April, the marriage took place in at St Marylebone in London on 23 May; the new Countess of Harrington was soon praised for generosity, as she settled the debts her husband had inherited from her father-in-law and funded the re-purchase of Stable Yard House in St James's.
The money she brought into the marriage enabled Lord Harrington to raise an infantry regiment, with which the couple departed for Jamaica in 1780. When they returned the next year, Lady Harrington became noted for her fashion sense and physical attractiveness. Although she became a gambler like many of her class, Lady Harrington was "blessed with domestic happiness, a lovely progeny, every endearment that can make life desirable." Surrounded by aristocracy of loose morals, she was considered an epitome of virtue, while her younger sister scandalised the society by having sexual relations with 27 men other than her husband. She was contrasted with her mother-in-law, Caroline Stanhope, Countess of Harrington, seen as a "fallen woman". A somewhat talented painter, Lady Harrington helped establish John Glover's career as art instructor in the early 1790s, may have taken lessons from him, she was well acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, who painted two famous portraits of her, as well as portraits of her mother and brother-in-law Sir Richard Worsley.
In 1794, she became a lady of the Bedchamber to Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of King George III. Much favoured by Queen Charlotte, Lady Harrington served as lady of the Bedchamber until the Queen's death in 1818. Lord and Lady Harrington maintained their popularity into their old age. "Their sempiternal occupation of tea-drinking" was noted by one of their contemporaries, who found that "neither in Nankin, nor Canton was the teapot more assiduously and replenished" than in their home. Lady Harrington predeceased her husband, dying at St James's Palace on 3 February 1824, she was buried at the Westminster Abbey on 12 February." Charles Stanhope, 4th Earl of Harrington. He was married to daughter of Samuel Foote. Maj-Gen. Hon. Lincoln Edwin Robert Stanhope. Anna Maria Stanhope, Duchess of Bedford, she was married to 7th Duke of Bedford. Leicester FitzGerald Charles Stanhope, 5th Earl of Harrington, he married daughter of William Green and Ann Rose Hall. His parents-in-law were residents of Jamaica.
Rev. Hon. FitzRoy Henry Richard Stanhope. Anglican Dean of St Buryan and Anglican Rector of Catton and of Wressle in Yorkshire, he married illegitimate daughter of the Hon. Charles Wyndham, they were parents of Charles Stanhope, 7th Earl of Harrington, his younger brother Percy Stanhope and of several other children. Maj. Hon. Sir Francis Charles Stanhope, he had three children by daughter of James Wilson of Parsonstown Manor, County Meath. Rev. Hon. Henry William Stanhope. Anglican Rector of Gawsworth. Lady Caroline Anne Stanhope, she was married to Edward Ayshford Sanford. Lady Charlotte Augusta Stanhope, she was married to 3rd Duke of Leinster. They were parents to 4th Duke of Leinster and another three children. Hon. Augustus Stanhope