The gravitational force, or more g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass"; when the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses; the g-force acceleration is the cause of an object's acceleration in relation to free fall. The g-force acceleration experienced by an object is due to the vector sum of all non-gravitational and non-electromagnetic forces acting on an object's freedom to move. In practice, as noted, these are surface-contact forces between objects.
Such forces cause stresses and strains on objects, since they must be transmitted from an object surface. Because of these strains, large g-forces may be destructive. Gravitation acting alone does not produce a g-force though g-forces are expressed in multiples of the acceleration of a standard gravity. Thus, the standard gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface produces g-force only indirectly, as a result of resistance to it by mechanical forces; these mechanical forces produce the g-force acceleration on a mass. For example, the 1 g force on an object sitting on the Earth's surface is caused by mechanical force exerted in the upward direction by the ground, keeping the object from going into free fall; the upward contact force from the ground ensures that an object at rest on the Earth's surface is accelerating relative to the free-fall condition.. Stress inside the object is ensured from the fact that the ground contact forces are transmitted only from the point of contact with the ground.
Objects allowed to free-fall in an inertial trajectory under the influence of gravitation only, feel no g-force acceleration, a condition known as zero-g. This is demonstrated by the "zero-g" conditions inside an elevator falling toward the Earth's center, or conditions inside a spacecraft in Earth orbit; these are examples of coordinate acceleration without a sensation of weight. The experience of no g-force, however it is produced, is synonymous with weightlessness. In the absence of gravitational fields, or in directions at right angles to them and coordinate accelerations are the same, any coordinate acceleration must be produced by a corresponding g-force acceleration. An example here is a rocket in free space, in which simple changes in velocity are produced by the engines and produce g-forces on the rocket and passengers.. The unit of measure of acceleration in the International System of Units is m/s2. However, to distinguish acceleration relative to free fall from simple acceleration, the unit g is used.
One g is the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface and is the standard gravity, defined as 9.80665 metres per second squared, or equivalently 9.80665 newtons of force per kilogram of mass. Note that the unit definition does not vary with location—the g-force when standing on the moon is about 0.181 g. The unit g is not one of the SI units. "g" should not be confused with "G", the standard symbol for the gravitational constant. This notation is used in aviation in aerobatic or combat military aviation, to describe the increased forces that must be overcome by pilots in order to remain conscious and not G-LOC. Measurement of g-force is achieved using an accelerometer. In certain cases, g-forces may be measured using suitably calibrated scales. Specific force is another name, used for g-force; the term g-force is technically incorrect. While acceleration is a vector quantity, g-force accelerations are expressed as a scalar, with positive g-forces pointing downward, negative g-forces pointing upward.
Thus, a g-force is a vector of acceleration. It is an acceleration that must be produced by a mechanical force, cannot be produced by simple gravitation. Objects acted upon only by gravitation experience no g-force, are weightless. G-forces, when multiplied by a mass upon which they act, are associated with a certain type of mechanical force in the correct sense of the term force, this force produces compressive stress and tensile stress; such forces result in the operational sensation of weight, but the equation carries a sign change due to the definition of positive weight in the direction downward, so the direction of weight-force is opposite to the direction of g-force acceleration: Weight = mass × −g-forceThe reason for the minus sign is that the actual force on an object produced by a g-force is in the opposite direction to the sign of the g-force, since in physics, weight is not the force that produces the acceleration, but rather the equal-and-opposite reaction force to it. If the direction upward is taken as positive positive g-force produces a force/w
A fixed-wing aircraft is a flying machine, such as an airplane or aeroplane, capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft, ornithopters; the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are not rigid. Gliding fixed-wing aircraft, including free-flying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain altitude. Powered fixed-wing aircraft that gain forward thrust from an engine include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles. Most fixed-wing aircraft are flown by a pilot on board the craft, but some are designed to be unmanned and controlled either remotely or autonomously. Kites were used 2,800 years ago in China, where materials ideal for kite building were available; some authors hold that leaf kites were being flown much earlier in what is now Sulawesi, based on their interpretation of cave paintings on Muna Island off Sulawesi.
By at least 549 AD paper kites were being flown, as it was recorded in that year a paper kite was used as a message for a rescue mission. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources list other uses of kites for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men and communication for military operations. Stories of kites were brought to Europe by Marco Polo towards the end of the 13th century, kites were brought back by sailors from Japan and Malaysia in the 16th and 17th centuries. Although they were regarded as mere curiosities, by the 18th and 19th centuries kites were being used as vehicles for scientific research. Around 400 BC in Greece, Archytas was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was steam, said to have flown some 200 m; this machine may have been suspended for its flight. One of the earliest purported attempts with gliders was by the 11th-century monk Eilmer of Malmesbury, which ended in failure.
A 17th-century account states that the 9th-century poet Abbas Ibn Firnas made a similar attempt, though no earlier sources record this event. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Cayley was building and flying models of fixed-wing aircraft as early as 1803, he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. In 1884, the American John J. Montgomery made controlled flights in a glider as a part of a series of gliders built between 1883–1886. Other aviators who made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, protégés of Octave Chanute. In the 1890s, Lawrence Hargrave conducted research on wing structures and developed a box kite that lifted the weight of a man, his box kite designs were adopted. Although he developed a type of rotary aircraft engine, he did not create and fly a powered fixed-wing aircraft.
Sir Hiram Maxim built a craft that weighed 3.5 tons, with a 110-foot wingspan, powered by two 360-horsepower steam engines driving two propellers. In 1894, his machine was tested with overhead rails to prevent it from rising; the test showed. The craft was uncontrollable, which Maxim, it is presumed, because he subsequently abandoned work on it; the Wright brothers' flights in 1903 with their Flyer I are recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". By 1905, the Wright Flyer III was capable of controllable, stable flight for substantial periods. In 1906, Brazilian inventor Alberto Santos Dumont designed and piloted an aircraft that set the first world record recognized by the Aéro-Club de France by flying the 14 bis 220 metres in less than 22 seconds; the flight was certified by the FAI. This was the first controlled flight, to be recognised, by a plane able to take off under its own power alone without any auxiliary machine such as a catapult.
The Bleriot VIII design of 1908 was an early aircraft design that had the modern monoplane tractor configuration. It had movable tail surfaces controlling both yaw and pitch, a form of roll control supplied either by wing warping or by ailerons and controlled by its pilot with a joystick and rudder bar, it was an important predecessor of his Bleriot XI Channel-crossing aircraft of the summer of 1909. World War I served as a testbed for the use of the aircraft as a weapon. Aircraft demonstrated their potential as mobile observation platforms proved themselves to be machines of war capable of causing casualties to the enemy; the earliest known aerial victory with a synchronised machine gun-armed fighter aircraft occurred in 1915, by German Luftstreitkräfte Leutnant Kurt Wintgens. Fighter aces appeared. Following WWI, aircraft technology continued to develop. Alcock and Brown crossed the Atlantic non-stop for the first time in 1919; the first commercial flights took place between the United States and Canada in 1919.
The so-called Golden Age of Aviation occurred between the two World War
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle. They relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of its sides. Trigonometric functions are important in the study of triangles and modeling periodic phenomena, among many other applications; the most familiar trigonometric functions are the sine and tangent. In the context of the standard unit circle, where a triangle is formed by a ray starting at the origin and making some angle with the x-axis, the sine of the angle gives the y-component of the triangle, the cosine gives the x-component, the tangent function gives the slope. For angles less than a right angle, trigonometric functions are defined as ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angle, their values can be found in the lengths of various line segments around a unit circle. Modern definitions express trigonometric functions as infinite series or as solutions of certain differential equations, allowing the extension of the arguments to the whole number line and to the complex numbers.
Trigonometric functions have a wide range of uses including computing unknown lengths and angles in triangles. In this use, trigonometric functions are used, for instance, in navigation and physics. A common use in elementary physics is resolving a vector into Cartesian coordinates; the sine and cosine functions are commonly used to model periodic function phenomena such as sound and light waves, the position and velocity of harmonic oscillators, sunlight intensity and day length, average temperature variations through the year. In modern usage, there are six basic trigonometric functions, tabulated here with equations that relate them to one another. With the last four, these relations are taken as the definitions of those functions, but one can define them well geometrically, or by other means, derive these relations; the notion that there should be some standard correspondence between the lengths of the sides of a triangle and the angles of the triangle comes as soon as one recognizes that similar triangles maintain the same ratios between their sides.
That is, for any similar triangle the ratio of the hypotenuse and another of the sides remains the same. If the hypotenuse is twice as long, so are the sides, it is these ratios. To define the trigonometric functions for the angle A, start with any right triangle that contains the angle A; the three sides of the triangle are named as follows: The hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle, in this case side h. The hypotenuse is always the longest side of a right-angled triangle; the opposite side is the side opposite in this case side a. The adjacent side is the side having both the angles in this case side b. In ordinary Euclidean geometry, according to the triangle postulate, the inside angles of every triangle total 180°. Therefore, in a right-angled triangle, the two non-right angles total 90°, so each of these angles must be in the range of as expressed in interval notation; the following definitions apply to angles in this range. They can be extended to the full set of real arguments by using the unit circle, or by requiring certain symmetries and that they be periodic functions.
For example, the figure shows sin for angles θ, π − θ, π + θ, 2π − θ depicted on the unit circle and as a graph. The value of the sine repeats itself apart from sign in all four quadrants, if the range of θ is extended to additional rotations, this behavior repeats periodically with a period 2π; the trigonometric functions are summarized in the following table and described in more detail below. The angle θ is the angle between the hypotenuse and the adjacent line – the angle at A in the accompanying diagram; the sine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the opposite side to the length of the hypotenuse. The word comes from the Latin sinus for gulf or bay, given a unit circle, it is the side of the triangle on which the angle opens. In that case: sin A = opposite hypotenuse The cosine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to the length of the hypotenuse, so called because it is the sine of the complementary or co-angle, the other non-right angle; because the angle sum of a triangle is π radians, the co-angle B is equal to π/2 − A.
In that case: cos A = adjacent hypotenuse The tangent of an angle is the ratio of the length of the opposite side to the length of the adjacent side, so called because it can be represented as a line segment tangent to the circle, i.e. the line that touches the circle, from Latin linea tangens or touching line. In our case: tan A = opposite adjacent Tangent may be represented in terms of sine and cosine; that is: tan A = sin A cos A = opposite
Road surface textures are deviations from a planar and smooth surface, affecting the vehicle/tyre interaction. Pavement texture is divided into: microtexture with wavelengths from 0 mm to 0.5 millimetres, macrotexture with wavelengths from 0.5 millimetres to 50 millimetres and megatexture with wavelengths from 50 millimetres to 500 millimetres. Microtexture is the collaborative term for a material's crystallographic parameters and other aspects of micro-structure: such as morphology, including size and shape distributions. Microtexture has wavelengths shorter than 0.5 mm. It relates to the surface of the binder, of the aggregate, of contaminants such as rubber deposits from tires; the mix of the road material contributes to dry road surface friction. Road agencies do not monitor mix directly, but indirectly by brake friction tests. However, friction depends on other surface properties, such as macro-texture. Macrotexture is a desired property and an undesired property. Short MaTx waves, about 5 mm, reduce tyre/road noise.
On the other hand, long wave MaTx increase noise. MaTx provide wet road friction at high speeds. Excessive MaTx increases rolling resistance and thus fuel consumption and CO2 emission contributing to global warming. Proper roads have MaTx of about 1 mm Mean Profile Depth. Macrotexture is a family of wave-shaped road surface characteristics. While vehicle suspension deflection and dynamic tyre loads are affected by longer waves, road texture affects the interaction between the road surface and the tyre footprint. Macrotexture has wavelengths from 0.5 mm up to 50 mm. Road agencies monitor macrotexture using measurements taken with highway speed laser or inertial profilometers. Megatexture is a result of pavement distress, causing noise and vibration. Megatexture has wavelengths from 50 mm up to 500 mm; some examples of road damages with much MeTx are potholes and uneven frost heaves. MeTx below 0.2 mm Root-Mean-Square is considered normal on proper roads. MaTx and MeTx are measured with laser/inertial profilographs.
Since MiTx has so short waves, it is preferably measured by dry friction brake tests rather than by profiling. Profilographs that record texture in both left and right wheel paths can be used to identify road sections with hazardous split friction; the profilograph is a device used to measure pavement surface roughness. In the early 20th century, profilographs were low speed rolling devices. Today many profilographs are advanced high speed systems with a laser based height sensor in combination with an inertial system that creates a large scale reference plane, it is used by construction crews or certified consultants to measure the roughness of in-service road networks, as well as before and after milling off ridges and paving overlays. Modern profilographs are computerized instruments; the data collected by a profilograph is used to calculate the International Roughness Index, expressed in units of inches/mile or mm/m. IRI values range from 0 upwards to several hundred in/mile; the IRI value is used for road management to monitor road quality issues.
Many road profilographs are measuring the pavements cross slope, longitudinal gradient and rutting. Some profilographs take digital videos while profiling the road. Most profilographs record the position, using GPS technology, yet another common measurement option is cracks. Some profilograph systems include a ground penetrating radar, used to record asphalt layer thickness. Another type of profilograph system is for measuring the surface texture of a road and how it relates to the coefficient of friction and thus to skid resistance. Pavement texture is divided into three categories. Microtexture cannot be measured directly, except in a laboratory. Megatexture is measured using a similar profiling method as when obtaining IRI values, while macrotexture is the measurement of the individual variations of the road within a small interval of a few centimeters. For example, a road which has gravel spread on top followed by an asphalt seal coat will have a high macrotexture, a road built with concrete slabs will have low macrotexture.
For this reason, concrete is grooved or roughed up after it is laid on the road bed to increase the friction between the tire and road. Equipment to measure macrotexture consists of a distance measuring laser with an small spot size and data acquisition systems capable of recording elevations spaced at 1 mm or less; the sample rate is over 32 kHz. Macrotexture data can be used to calculate the speed-dependent part of friction between typical car tires and the road surface in both dry and wet conditions. Microtexture affects friction as well. Lateral friction and cross slope are the key reaction forces acting to keep a cornering vehicle in steady lateral position, while it is subject to exiting forces arising from speed and curvature. Cross slope and curvature can be measured with a road profilograph, in combination with friction-related measurements can be used to identify improperly banked curves, which can increase the risk of motor vehicle accidents. Road pavement profilometers use a distance measuring laser (suspended approxi
Camber angle is the angle made by the wheels of a vehicle. It is used in the design of suspension. If the top of the wheel is farther out than the bottom, it is called positive camber. Camber angle alters the handling qualities of a particular suspension design; this is because it places the tire at a better angle to the road, transmitting the forces through the vertical plane of the tire rather than through a shear force across it. This effect is compensated for by maximizing the contact patch area. Note that this is only true for the outside tire during the turn. Caster angle will compensate this to a degree, as the top of the outside tire will tilt inward and the inner tire will tilt outward. On the other hand, for maximum straight-line acceleration, the greatest traction will be attained when the camber angle is zero and the tread is flat on the road. Proper management of camber angle is a major factor in suspension design, must incorporate not only idealized geometric models, but real-life behavior of the components.
What was once an art has now become much more scientific with the use of computers, which can optimize all of the variables mathematically instead of relying on the designer's intuitive feel and experience. As a result, the handling of low-priced automobiles has improved dramatically. In cars with double wishbone suspensions, camber angle may be fixed or adjustable, but in MacPherson strut suspensions, it is fixed; the elimination of an available camber adjustment may reduce maintenance requirements, but if the car is lowered by use of shortened springs, the camber angle will change. Excessive camber angle can lead to impaired handling. Significant suspension modifications may correspondingly require that the upper control arm or strut mounting points be altered to allow for some inward or outward movement, relative to longitudinal centerline of the vehicle, for camber adjustment. Aftermarket plates with slots for strut mounts instead of just holes are available for most of the modified models of cars.
There are certain other aftermarket solutions. Camber bolts with eccentrics allow adjustable camber on some vehicles; these bolts feature large washers that offset. This turning will make insignificant change. Control arms with adjustable ball joints is the other solution to allow side-by-side adjustability. With these control arms installed, tire camber can be changed by moving the tires. One tightens the bolts to lock the ball joint in such position. Adjustable length control rods is another aftermarket solution for camber angle change. Though, this is a solution for the vehicles, that employ control rods, not a-arms. Control rods locate suspension points and keep them in place, hence changing overall length of the rods influences the camber angle. Off-road vehicles such as agricultural tractors use positive camber. In such vehicles, the positive camber angle helps achieve a lower steering effort; some single-engined general aviation aircraft that are meant to operate from unimproved surfaces, such as bush planes and cropdusters, have their taildragger gear's main wheels equipped with positive-cambered main wheels to better handle the deflection of the landing gear, as the aircraft settles on rough, unpaved airstrips.
Camber thrust Caster angle Kingpin Toe Vehicle dynamics Camber and Race Car Suspension Tuning Camber, Toe - What does it all mean? Suspension 101 - Camber and Toe
Track transition curve
A track transition curve, or spiral easement, is a mathematically-calculated curve on a section of highway, or railroad track, in which a straight section changes into a curve. It is designed to prevent sudden changes in lateral acceleration. In plane, the start of the transition of the horizontal curve is at infinite radius, at the end of the transition, it has the same radius as the curve itself and so forms a broad spiral. At the same time, in the vertical plane, the outside of the curve is raised until the correct degree of bank is reached. If such an easement were not applied, the lateral acceleration of a rail vehicle would change abruptly at one point, with undesirable results. With a road vehicle, the driver applies the steering alteration in a gradual manner, the curve is designed to permit that by using the same principle. On early railroads, because of the low speeds and wide-radius curves employed, the surveyors were able to ignore any form of easement, but during the 19th century, as speeds increased, the need for a track curve with increasing curvature became apparent.
Rankine's 1862 "Civil Engineering" cites several such curves, including an 1828 or 1829 proposal based on the "curve of sines" by William Gravatt, the curve of adjustment by William Froude around 1842 approximating the elastic curve. The actual equation given in Rankine is that of a cubic curve, a polynomial curve of degree 3, at the time known as a cubic parabola. In the UK, only from 1845, when legislation and land costs began to constrain the laying out of rail routes and tighter curves were necessary, were the principles beginning to be applied in practice. The'true spiral', whose curvature is linear in arclength, requires more sophisticated mathematics to compute than the proposals that were cited by Rankine. Several late-19th century civil engineers seem to have derived the equation for this curve independently. Charles Crandall gives credit to one Ellis Holbrook, in the Railroad Gazette, Dec. 3, 1880, for the first accurate description of the curve. Another early publication was The Railway Transition Spiral by Arthur N. Talbot published in 1890.
Some early 20th century authors call the curve "Glover's spiral" and attribute it to James Glover's 1900 publication. The equivalence of the railroad transition spiral and the clothoid seems to have been first published in 1922 by Arthur Lovat Higgins. Since "clothoid" is the most common name given the curve, but the correct name is'the Euler spiral'. While railroad track geometry is intrinsically three-dimensional, for practical purposes the vertical and horizontal components of track geometry are treated separately; the overall design pattern for the vertical geometry is a sequence of constant grade segments connected by vertical transition curves in which the local grade varies linearly with distance and in which the elevation therefore varies quadratically with distance. Here grade refers to the tangent of the angle of rise of the track; the design pattern for horizontal geometry is a sequence of straight line and curve segments connected by transition curves. The degree of banking in railroad track is expressed as the difference in elevation of the two rails quantified and referred to as the superelevation.
Such difference in the elevation of the rails is intended to compensate for the centripetal acceleration needed for an object to move along a curved path, so that the lateral acceleration experienced by passengers/the cargo load will be minimized, which enhances passenger comfort/reduces the chance of load shifting. It is important to note that superelevation is not the same as the roll angle of the rail, used to describe the "tilting" of the individual rails instead of the banking of the entire track structure as reflected by the elevation difference at the "top of rail". Regardless of the horizontal alignment and the superelevation of the track, the individual rails are always designed to "roll"/"cant" towards gage side to compensate for the horizontal forces exerted by wheels under normal rail traffic; the change of superelevation from zero in a tangent segment to the value selected for the body of a following curve occurs over the length of a transition curve that connects the tangent and the curve proper.
Over the length of the transition the curvature of the track will vary from zero at the end abutting the tangent segment to the value of curvature of the curve body, numerically equal to one over the radius of the curve body. The simplest and most used form of transition curve is that in which the superelevation and horizontal curvature both vary linearly with distance along the track. Cartesian coordinates of points along this spiral are given by the Fresnel integrals; the resulting shape matches a portion of an Euler spiral, commonly referred to as a "clothoid", sometimes "Cornu spiral". A transition curve can connect a track segment of constant non-zero curvature to another segment with constant curvature, zero or non-zero of either sign. Successive curves in the same direction are sometimes called progressive curves and successive curves in opposite directions are called reverse curves; the Euler spiral provides the shortest transition subject to a given limit on the rate of change of the track supere
Downforce is a downwards thrust created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a car. The purpose of downforce is to allow a car to travel faster through a corner by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more grip; the same principle that allows an airplane to rise off the ground by creating lift from its wings is used in reverse to apply force that presses the race car against the surface of the track. This effect is referred to as "aerodynamic grip" and is distinguished from "mechanical grip", a function of the car's mass and suspension; the creation of downforce by passive devices can be achieved only at the cost of increased aerodynamic drag, the optimum setup is always a compromise between the two. The aerodynamic setup for a car can vary between race tracks, depending on the length of the straights and the types of corners; because it is a function of the flow of air over and under the car, downforce increases with the square of the car's speed and requires a certain minimum speed in order to produce a significant effect.
Some cars have had rather unstable aerodynamics, such that a minor change in angle of attack or height of the vehicle can cause large changes in downforce. In the worst cases this can cause the car to experience lift, not downforce. Two primary components of a racing car can be used to create downforce when the car is travelling at racing speed: the shape of the body, the use of airfoils. Most racing formulae have a ban on aerodynamic devices that can be adjusted during a race, except during pit stops; the downforce exerted by a wing is expressed as a function of its lift coefficient: D = 1 2 W H F ρ v 2 where: D is downforce W is wingspan H is the chord of the wing if F is wing area basis, or the thickness of the wing if using frontal area basis F is the lift coefficient ρ is air density v is velocity In certain ranges of operating conditions and when the wing is not stalled, the lift coefficient has a constant value: the downforce is proportional to the square of airspeed. In aerodynamics, it is usual to use the top-view projected area of the wing as a reference surface to define the lift coefficient.
The rounded and tapered shape of the top of the car is designed to slice through the air and minimize wind resistance. Detailed pieces of bodywork on top of the car can be added to allow a smooth flow of air to reach the downforce-creating elements; the overall shape of a street car resembles an airplane wing. All street cars have aerodynamic lift as a result of this shape. There are many techniques. Looking at the profile of most street cars, the front bumper has the lowest ground clearance followed by the section between the front and rear tires, followed yet by a rear bumper with the highest clearance. Using this method, the air flowing under the front bumper will be constricted to a lower cross sectional area, thus achieve a lower pressure. Additional downforce comes from the rake of the vehicles' body, which directs the underside air up and creates a downward force, increases the pressure on top of the car because the airflow direction comes closer to perpendicular to the surface. Volume does not affect the air pressure because it is not an enclosed volume, despite the common misconception.
Race cars will exemplify this effect by adding a rear diffuser to accelerate air under the car in front of the diffuser, raise the air pressure behind it to lessen the car's wake. Other aerodynamic components that can be found on the underside to improve downforce and/or reduce drag, include splitters and vortex generators; some cars, such as the DeltaWing, do not have wings, generate all of their downforce through their body. The amount of downforce created by the wings or spoilers on a car is dependent on two things: The shape, including surface area, aspect ratio and cross-section of the device, The device's orientation. A larger surface area creates greater drag; the aspect ratio is the width of the airfoil divided by its chord. If the wing is not rectangular, aspect ratio is written AR=b2/s, where AR=aspect ratio, b=span, s=wing area. A greater angle of attack of the wing or spoiler, creates more downforce, which puts more pressure on the rear wheels and creates more drag; the function of the airfoils at the front of the car is twofold.
They create downforce that enhances the grip of the front tires, while optimizing the flow of air to the rest of the car. The front wings on an open-wheeled car undergo constant modification as data is gathered from race to race, are customized for every characteristic of a particular circuit. In most series, the wings are designed for adjustment during the race itself when the car is serviced; the flow of air at the rear of the car is affected by the front wings, front wheels, driver's helmet, side pods and exhaust. This causes the rear wing to be less aerodynamically efficient than the front wing, because it must generate more than twice as much downforce as the front wings in order to maintain the handling to balance the car, the rear wing typicall