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Banking in the United States

Banking in the United States began in the late 1790s along with the country's founding and has developed into influential and complex system of banking and financial services. Anchored by New York City and Wall Street, it is centered on various financial services namely private banking, asset management, deposit security; the earliest remnants of the banking industry can be traced to 1790 when the Bank of Pennsylvania was founded to fund the American Revolutionary War. After merchants from the Thirteen Colonies needed a currency as a medium of exchange, the Bank of North America was opened to facilitate more advanced financial transactions; as of 2018, the largest banks the United States were JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo and Goldman Sachs. It is estimated that banking assets were equal to 56 percent of the U. S. economy. In the early 1700s, merchants traveled from Britain to the United States and established the Bank of Pennsylvania in 1790 to fund the American Revolutionary War.

During this time, the Thirteen Colonies had not established currency and used informal trade to finance their daily activities. On January 4, 1782, the first commercial bank in the U. S. Bank of North America, opened. Soon after U. S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton created the Bank of the United States, a national bank meant to maintain American taxes and pay off foreign debt. After President Andrew Jackson closed the bank in 1832 and redirect all bank assets into U. S. state banks. State banks began printing money sparking run away inflation and leading to the Panic of 1837. Investment banking began in the 1860s with the establishment of Jay Cooke & Company, one of the first issuers of government bonds. In 1863, the National Bank Act was passed to create a national currency, a federal banking system, make public loans; however at this time not all states had yet formally joined the union. In Oklahoma territory, which did not become a state until 1907, Muskogee mayor H. B. Spaulding resigned in 1902 from his position as vice-president of the Territorial Trust and Surety Company, after his Spaulding Mercantile Company was given a charter to found a private bank.

In 1903 several more private banks were founded. One contemporary banker from Oklahoma defending the vitality of these private non-US banks did note that a small number of bank failures had resulted from a "dip in deposits due to partial crop failure". In 1913 the Federal Reserve began executing monetary policy; the Great Depression saw to the separation between investment and commercial banking known as the "Glass-Steagall Act", but the Act was repealed in 1991 leading to the 2008 financial crisis. While most of these countries have only one bank regulator, in the U. S. banking is regulated at both the federal and state level. Depending on its type of charter and organizational structure, a banking organization may be subject to numerous federal and state banking regulations. Unlike Switzerland and the United Kingdom, the U. S. maintains separate securities and insurance regulatory agencies—separate from the bank regulatory agencies—at the federal and state level. U. S. banking regulations address privacy, fraud prevention, anti-money laundering, anti-terrorism, anti-usury lending, the promotion of lending to lower-income populations.

Some individual cities enact their own financial regulation laws. The central banking system of the United States, called the Federal Reserve system, was created in 1913 by the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act in response to a series of financial panics a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System have expanded and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system, its duties today, according to official Federal Reserve documentation, are to conduct the nation's monetary policy and regulate banking institutions, maintain the stability of the financial system and provide financial services to depository institutions, the U. S. government, foreign official institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is a United States government corporation created by the Glass–Steagall Act of 1933, it provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, up to $250,000 per depositor per bank.

As of November 18, 2010, the FDIC insures deposits at 6,800 institutions. The FDIC examines and supervises certain financial institutions for safety and soundness, performs certain consumer-protection functions, manages banks in receiverships. Since the start of FDIC insurance on January 1, 1934, no depositor has lost any insured funds as a result of a bank failure; the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a U. S. federal agency established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter and supervise all national banks and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States. Thomas J. Curry was sworn in as the 30th Comptroller of the Currency on April 9, 2012; the Office of Thrift Supervision is a U. S. federal agency under the Department of the Treasury. It was created in 1989 as a renamed version of another federal agency. Like other U. S. federal bank regulators, it is paid by the banks it regulates. On July 21, 2011, the Office of Thrift Supervision became part of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.

Bank mergers happen for many reasons in normal business, for example, to create a

Vedikkai En Vadikkai

Vedikkai En Vadikkai is a 1990 Indian Tamil film, directed by Visu. The film stars S. V. Shekhar, Rekha and Manorama in lead roles; the film had musical score by Sankar Ganesh. Kaavi sattai Kandaswami and Bhuwaneshwari are siblings. Manorama and Kishmu have a daughter Shruthi, they both had a difference of opinion years before as a result of which they don't talk to each other. Shruti calls Visu to get her married to her lover. Meanwhile, Manorama takes the help of Visu to get S V Sekar married to Neelaveni. Ravi, a poet, cheats Pallavi, a fan of him and ditches her. Visu decides to help Shruthi to get married to her lover and by that to renew his relationship with his sister's family. S V Sekar loves Rekha, but hesitate to marry her as it would affect his sister's marriage as Rekha is a daughter of a couple who had an inter-caste marriage. Pallavi comes to Ravi's home to seek justice for her, but Ravi claims that she is making a false accusation in order to ruin his status and good will in the media world.

Visu challenges Kishmu. How Visu helps all these people and solves their problems is the story. Soundtrack was composed by Sankar Ganesh. Kanakuruvi Thaana - Mano Jayathi Jayathi - K. S. Chithra Kanna Un Kuyilai - Vani Jayaram Maanamulla Roshamulla - S. P. Sailaja N. Krishnaswamy of The Indian Express praised the performances of lead actors and called Balakrishnan's cinematography "component". Vedikkai En Vadikkai on YouTube

Role suction

Role suction is a term introduced in the United States by Fritz Redl in the mid-20th century to describe the power of a social group to allocate roles to its members. W. R. Bion's group dynamics further explored the ways whereby the group allocates particular functions to particular individuals in order to have its covert emotional needs met. Among occurring group roles are those of the scapegoat for the group's troubles. In mixed gender groups, women may be disproportionately pressured by role suction into playing a nurturing/peacemaker role. Behind role suction, such forces as projective identification and countertransference have been singled out as operating at an unconscious level in the group. Role lock – confirming mutual suction into complementary roles, such as victim and abuser – is ensured by the intermeshing of projective identifications; the ease whereby people pick out those who play complementary games, the psychological splitting of good and bad help fuel such role differentiation.

Bion has described his experience as a group therapist when he "feels he is being manipulated so as to be playing a part, no matter how difficult to recognize, in somebody else's phantasy...a temporary loss of insight, a sense of experiencing strong feelings, at the same time a belief that their existence is quite adequately justified by the objective situation". Bion's work has been used to illustrate the part played by role suction in the selection of group leaders – dependent groups favouring narcissistic leaders, the fight/flight group paranoids. R. D. Laing considered that a central part of the therapist's job was "not to allow himself to collude with the patients in adopting a position in their phantasy-system: and, not to use the patients to embody any phantasy of their own" – to resist role suction. Therapists however have explored how a measure of adaptation to patients' role suction – a degree of role responsiveness – can be a useful element in the therapeutic use of the countertransference.

The British anti-psychiatrists explored the theme of group suction in connection with role attribution in the family nexus, as well as with the allocations of roles in the wider social system, David Cooper suggesting that'there are always good or bad, loved or hated'mothers' and'fathers', older or younger'brothers' and'sisters'...in any institutional structure”. A wider variety of roles can however be found in organizational life, the person-in-role acting as a container for the group forces. Debate has arisen about how far the group imposes roles, how far the individual's own personality goes to meet the group halfway. Earl Hopper has used the term personification to challenge Redl's concept, suggesting instead that group roles reflect the underlying personality of the individual involved. However, Kibel objects that in many cases the roles imposed are in fact ego-dystonic. From the point of view of systems centered therapy, the debate relates to the interface between a personal system and the psycho-dynamics of social systems themselves.

L. Horowitz, “Projective Identification in Dyads and Groups”, International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 33:259-79 Motherwell/J. J. Shay, Complex Dilemmas in Group Therapy Robert M. Young, “Mental space and group relations”