Interstate 85 in Georgia
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway that travels northeast-to-southwest in the U. S. state of Georgia. It enters the state at the Alabama state line near West Point, Lanett, traveling through the Atlanta metropolitan area and to the South Carolina state line, where it crosses the Savannah River near Lake Hartwell. I-85 connects northern Georgia with Montgomery, Alabama, to the southwest, with South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia to the northeast. Within Georgia, I-85 is designated as the unsigned State Route 403. I-85 in Georgia travels parallel with the route of U. S. Route 29. However, from Atlanta northeast to South Carolina, I-85 ventures away from that route, traveling about halfway between US 29 and the combination of US 23 and US 123. Within the City of Atlanta, I-85 has a concurrency with I-75 known as the "Downtown Connector". After splitting from Downtown Connector, it is known as Northeast Expressway until its junction with I-285. I-85 enters the state of Georgia from Alabama via twin bridges over the Chattahoochee River, it skirts the town of West Point, with Kia's multibillion-dollar plant located adjacent to the freeway just east of West Point.
After leaving West Point, I-85 enters the LaGrange area, the first large town in Georgia on its route to the northeast. Northeast of LaGrange, I-85 has an interchange with the long spur freeway, I-185, to the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Area; this is the only connection between the Interstate Highway System. From LaGrange, I-85 heads northeastward towards Atlanta. Before reaching Atlanta, the highway runs through a widened stretch that includes six to eight lanes between exits 35 and 77, passing near the suburbs of Moreland, Fairburn, Union City, College Park and East Point as well as intersecting I-285 at its southwest end in of the most complex interchanges in the country, meanwhile providing access to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. I-85 runs along the northwestern boundary of the airport, providing access to the domestic terminal. I-75 services the International Terminals of the airport, which are located on the east side of the airport. At the southwestern edge of Atlanta's city limits, I-85 merges with I-75 to form the Downtown Connector, 12 to 14 lanes wide.
At the southern edge of downtown Atlanta, this freeway has an interchange with the major east-west Interstate Highway, I-20. The two freeways skirt the eastern edge of downtown, running due north, passing through the Georgia Tech campus and the Atlantic Station section of Atlanta before the two highways split, with I-75 exits via the right three lanes and heads northwest while I-85 uses the left three lanes and heads northeast. Heading northbound after the Brookwood Interchange with I-75, I-85 is routed along a ten lane wide viaduct from the Buford Highway Connector to State Route 400. Continuing northeast of Atlanta, I-85 continues through the northeastern suburbs, bypassing Chamblee and Doraville, where there is another intersection with I-285; the Interstate travels through the northeastern suburbs of Atlanta, including Lilburn, Lawrenceville. The Interstate has freeway interchanges with SR 316 in Duluth and I-985 in Suwanee, which provides a link to Gainesville. I-85 leaves the Atlanta area, continuing to travel through rural northeast Georgia.
At Lake Hartwell—which was formed by the damming of the Savannah River—I-85 crosses into South Carolina. I-85 has the first express lanes in Georgia, located in DeKalb counties. From Chamblee–Tucker Road to Old Peachtree Road, travelers that utilize the converted 15.5-mile lanes will be charged a toll varying from 10 to 90 cents per mile, depending on traffic conditions and usage. Though not signed on the freeway, they are HOT lanes, which means registered transport vehicles, carpools with three or more occupants and buses are exempt from toll charges as long as they are registered as such. Tolls are collected using an electronic toll collection system. All travelers that use the lane must have a Peach Pass sticker to avoid fines. Starting in November 2014, SunPass and NC Quick Pass are interoperable with Peach Pass, allowing motorists with those transponders to use the express lanes. Funds generated from the express lanes will be used to defray the costs of construction and maintenance of the lanes.
Long term revenue allocation is being studied and a decision about future excess revenues will be made in the project process. Proponents for the express lanes say it is to provide commuters with a more reliable, free-flow commute option. Detractors point out that existing infrastructure was reused for the express lanes and that commute times on the non-paying travel lanes have doubled since implementation. Constructed as a four- to six-lane expressway in the 1950s, the stretch of I-85 between the southern merge with I-75 and North Druid Hills Road was reconstructed as part of the Georgia Department of Transportation's Freeing the Freeways program; this project included rebuilding all overpasses, new HOV-ready ramps, a widen
Jackson County, Georgia
Jackson County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,485; the county seat is Jefferson. Jackson County comprises the Jefferson, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area. Most of the first non-Native American settlers came from Effingham County in 1786. On February 11, 1796, Jackson County was split off from part of Georgia; the new county was named in honor of Revolutionary War Lieutenant Colonel, Congressman and Governor James Jackson. The county covered an area of 1,800 square miles, with Clarksboro as its first county seat. In 1801, the Georgia General Assembly granted 40,000 acres of land in Jackson County for a state college. Franklin College began classes the same year, the city of Athens was developed around the school; the same year, a new county was developed around the new college town, Jackson lost territory to the new Clarke.
The county seat was moved to an old Indian village called Thomocoggan, a location with ample water supply from Curry Creek and four large springs. In 1804, the city was renamed Jefferson, after Thomas Jefferson. Jackson lost more territory in 1811 in the creation of Madison County, in 1818 in the creation of Walton and Hall counties, in 1858 in the creation of Banks County, in 1914 in the creation of Barrow County; the first county courthouse, a log and wooden frame building with an attached jail, was built on south side of the public square. In 1880, a third was built on a hill north of the square; this courthouse was the oldest continuously operating courthouse in the United States until 2004, when the current courthouse was constructed north of Jefferson. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 343 square miles, of which 340 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. The vast majority of Jackson County is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin, with just a small portion of the county's northern edge, between Maysville to just east of Commerce, located in the Broad River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin.
North Oconee River Sandy Creek Curry Creek Middle Oconee River Pond Fork Allen Creek Mulberry River Banks County - north Madison County - east Clarke County - southeast Gwinnett County - southwest Barrow County - west Hall County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 41,589 people, 15,057 households, 11,488 families residing in the county. The population density was 122 people per square mile. There were 16,226 housing units at an average density of 47 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.00% White, 7.78% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 1.07% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. 3.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,057 households out of which 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.50% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.70% were non-families. 19.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 31.80% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,349, the median income for a family was $46,211. Males had a median income of $34,063 versus $22,774 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,808. About 9.90% of families and 12.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.30% of those under age 18 and 17.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 60,485 people, 21,343 households, 16,479 families residing in the county; the population density was 178.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,752 housing units at an average density of 69.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 86.8% white, 6.8% black or African American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 2.7% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 21,343 households, 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.9% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.8% were non-families, 18.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.18. The median age was 37.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $51,506 and the median income for a family was $58,239. Males had a median income of $43,906 versus $33,248 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,473. About 11.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. Commerce City School District Jackson County School District Jefferson City School District Atlanta Dragway Chateau Elan Mayfield Dairy Visitors Center Sandy Creek Golf Course Tanger Outlet Center Crawford W. Long Museum Hurricane Shoals Park
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
Old Banks County Courthouse
The Old Banks County Courthouse is in Homer, Georgia. Construction was interrupted because of the American Civil War. Construction was paid for with $6,600 in Confederate money. Construction was finished in 1875; the building is a two-story brick courthouse with a stone foundation in the Greek Revival style. It is similar to many courthouses in Virginia, a result of the builders being from Virginia, it has Tuscan columns. The interior had a cross plan; the courtroom and judge's chambers are on the second floor, which are accessed by outside double stairways. A new courthouse replaced this one in 1987. There were plans to demolish the building, but the citizens voted by more than a 2:1 margin to save it, it was restored in 1987–1989 with funding through a hotel/motel tax. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980
Georgia's 9th congressional district
Georgia's 9th congressional district is represented by Republican Doug Collins. Catoosa Dade Dawson Fannin Forsyth Gilmer Gordon Habersham Hall Lumpkin Murray Pickens Union White Walker Whitfield Banks Clarke Dawson Elbert Fannin Forsyth Franklin Gilmer Habersham Hall Hart Jackson Lumpkin Madison Pickens Rabun Stephens Towns Union White Nathan Deal resigned his seat on March 21, 2010 in order to run for Governor of Georgia. A special election was held on June 8, 2010. Following redistricting, Tom Graves moved to the newly created 14th district; as of May 2015, there are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 9th congressional district who are living at this time; the most recent representative to die was Ed Jenkins on January 1, 2012. The most serving representative to die was Charlie Norwood on February 13, 2007. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 9th district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 9th district at GovTrack.us
U.S. Route 441 in Georgia
U. S. Route 441 in the state of Georgia is a north–south United States Highway, it runs from the Florida border near the Fargo city area to the North Carolina state line, north of Dillard. It is a spur route of US 41, it does have an intersection with another spur route of US 41 however US 341 in McRae-Helena. US 441 is signed concurrently with various state routes; the route is concurrent with State Route 89 for the first 56.9 miles. Other concurrencies include SR 64 in the Pearson area, SR 31 from south of Pearson to Dublin, SR 30 in the vicinity of McRae-Helena, SR 117 from near Rentz to south of Dublin, SR 19 within Dublin, SR 29 from Dublin to Milledgeville, SR 24 from Milledgeville to northwest of Watkinsville, SR 15 from the Watkinsville area to the North Carolina state line, SR 365 from Cordelia to Mount Airy. Concurrencies of US 441 with US Routes in Georgia include US 221 from south of Pearson state line to Douglas, US 319 from the south of Jacksonville to Dublin, US 280 in the vicinity of McRae-Helena, US 129 from Eatonton to Athens, US 278 in the Madison area, US 29 and US 78 within Athens, US 23 from Cornelia to the North Carolina state line, US 76 in Clayton.
US 441/SR 89 begins at the Florida state line in Echols County, but has no major junctions in the county. US 441 enters Clinch County southwest of Fargo. South of Fargo, it concurs with SR 94. SR 94 splits off in downtown Fargo. SR 89 heads north. In Homerville, US 441 junctions with US 84, SR 38, SR 187. North of Homerville, SR 89 junctions with SR 122. SR 89 enters Atkinson County south of Pearson. Just south of town, SR 89 terminates at US 221/SR 31/SR 64, however US 441 continues north along that multiplex until it reaches the town where SR 64 leaves at US 82. North of US 82, US 221/US 441/SR 31 becomes a four-lane undivided highway that runs northeast after the bridge over Pudding Creek curves to the northwest along the left bank of the Satilla River turns straight north to cross that river. Six miles the routes enter Douglas. Right at Douglas Municipal Airport US 221 leaves the US 441 multiplex at the intersection of SR 135/SR 32 Truck/SR 158 Truck and the southern terminus of SR 206. Shortly after this, US 441/SR 31 splits into a one-way pair just south of Trojan Lane.
Northbound US 441/SR 31 now runs along Madison Avenue, while southbound US 441/SR 31 runs along South Peterson Avenue. The streets intersect College Park Road, which leads to South Georgia State College off to the west, but three blocks intersects its first major intersection as the one way pair, SR 158. One block after the intersections with Cherry Street and Peterson Avenues enter the Downtown Douglas Historic District where they both cross Seaboard Coast Line Railroad grade crossings. Two to three blocks after the tracks, it has intersections with SR 32, a one-way pair along Ashley Street and Ward Street. Leaving the historic district at Jackson Street, South Peterson Avenue moves away from Madison Avenue, but the two streets start to move closer together again north of Church Street; the one-way pair ends north of North Chester Avenue and McNeal Drive, US 441/SR 31 crosses the Private First Class DeWayne King U. S. M. C. Memorial Bridge over Twenty Mile Creek. After Frank Vaughn Road, the route crosses an underground petroleum line right-of-way and an abandoned railroad line right-of-way next to it.
From there the street name changes from North Peterson Avenue to Douglas–Broxton Highway. North of a power line right-of-way. US 441/SR 31 continues straight north until it reaches the intersection of Leroy Sapp Road turns to the north-northeast before crossing a bridge over Seventeen Mile River. North of Riverbend Road, the routes curve from north-northeast to northwest and runs through local farmland. Within Broxton, the road is named Alabama Avenue, it makes a turn to the west just after the intersection with South Railroad Street and has a brief concurrency with SR 268 between Ocmulgee Street and west of Porea Street. Curving back to the northwest, it approaches the eastern terminus of former SR 706, resumes its presence in Southern Georgia farm and ranch territory; the road turns straight north before encountering an intersection with SR 107, which joins US 441/SR 31 in a short concurrency turns northwest again. Right after the bridge over Mill Creek, the concurrency with SR 107 is replaced by the one with US 319, as westbound SR 107 turns onto southbound US 319, northbound US 319 joins US 441/SR 31.
The first major landmark along US 319/US 441/SR 31 is the Jacksonville Ferry Bridge over the Ocmulgee River at the Coffee–Telfair county line the routes curve from northwest to northeast as they enter Jacksonville itself, where the road has a signalized intersection with SR 117. North of SR 117, US 319/US 441/SR 31 runs straight north and the first intersection is with Old Scotland Road, a de facto connecting road with SR 149, it continues to run straight north until it crosses a bridge over Alligator Creek, another one over Horse Creek, before curving north-northeast. The route curves to the northeast again as it runs through Workmore, which has a blinker light intersection with Telfair CR 240, a high school named for the community. North of there, the surrounding retain their rural status, with untouched forest land on the west side and random farm and ranch land, on the east side. A pair of roadside parks can be found south of Telfair CR 108. North of there, the road encounters the northern terminus of Telfair County Road 152 right n
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c