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A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, slogan or other message. A flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms is called a banner of arms. A bar-shaped piece of non-cloth advertising material sporting a name, slogan, or other marketing message. Banner-making is an ancient craft. Church banners portray the saint to whom the church is dedicated; the word derives from Old French baniere, from Late Latin bandum, borrowed from a Germanic source. Cognates include Italian bandiera, Portuguese bandeira, Spanish bandera; the vexillum was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army. The word vexillum itself is a diminutive of the Latin word, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence that vexilla were "little sails" i.e. flag-like standards. In the vexillum the cloth was draped from a horizontal crossbar suspended from the staff. A heraldic banner called a banner of arms, displays the basic coat of arms only: i.e. it shows the design displayed on the shield and omits the crest, helmet or coronet, supporters, motto or any other elements associated with the full armorial achievement.

A heraldic banner is square or rectangular. A distinction exists between the heraldic standard; the distinction, however, is misunderstood or ignored. For example, the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is in fact a banner of the royal arms. In the old testament, the prophet Isaiah was commanded to exalt his voice. Habakkuk received a similar order to write a vision upon tables that could be read by one who runs past it. Banners in churches have, in the past, been used for processions, both inside and outside of the church building. However, the emphasis has, in recent years, shifted markedly towards the permanent or transient display of banners on walls or pillars of churches and other places of worship. A famous example of large banners on display is Liverpool R. C. Cathedral, where the banners are designed by a resident artist. Banners are used to communicate the testimony of Jesus Christ by evangelists and public ministers engaged in Open Air Preaching; the iconography of these banners included mines, factories, but visions of the future, showing a land where children and adults were well-fed and living in tidy brick-built houses, where the old and sick were cared for, where the burden of work was lessened by new technology, where leisure time was increasing.

The same kind of banners are used in many other countries. Many, but not all of them, have red as a dominant colour. In Australia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, trade union banners were unfurled with pride in annual Eight Hour Day marches which advocated ‘Eight Hours Labour, Eight Hours Recreation and Eight Hours Rest’; these marches were one of the most prominent annual celebrations. In Sydney alone, by the early twentieth century, thousands of unionists representing up to seventy different unions would take part in such parades, marching behind the banner emblematic of their trade. Most of these banners have not survived; the State Library of NSW in Sydney has a small collection of trade union banners that were donated to the Library in the early 1970s such as a Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia banner thought to have been made c. 1913-1919. The Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia was formed in 1873 and joined the Amalgamated Metal Workers Union in 1972.

The banner features a kneeling figure in the centre surrounded by scroll work and is decorated with Australian native flowers and images representative of the work of the Union's members such as a New South Wales Government Railways 34 class steam locomotive, the Hawkesbury River rail bridge built in 1889, a furnace. The reverse of the banner shows the warship "Australia" at sea; the banner is canvas and was painted by Sydney firm Althouse & Geiger, master painters and decorators. Founded in 1875, the company is still in operation; the banner is a powerful interpretive tool in communicating the experience and the history of the Australian labour movement. For more on the design and making of these banners, see Banner-making. Sports fans buy or make banners to display in the grandstands. Team banners contain the logo, name or nickname and the team colors. Banners on individual competitors can contain a drawing of the player. Sports banners may honor notable players or hall-of-fame athletes and commemorate past championships won.

These types of sports banners are hung from rafters in stadiums. The Miami Heat, an NBA Team, hangs division titles and championship banners at the top of the rafters in their home stadium, American Airlines Arena. Similar to other sports banners, they feature the color palette of the team's logo, the logo, names of players, championship winning years. In North American indoor professional sports, the previous season's champion traditionally does not install their awarded championship banner until moments prior to their first home game of the season that follows, in a procedure, chiefly referred to as "raising the banner". Uruguay's Club Nacional de Football supporters made

Photosynthetic reaction centre

A photosynthetic reaction center is a complex of several proteins and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis. Molecular excitations, either originating directly from sunlight or transferred as excitation energy via light-harvesting antenna systems, give rise to electron transfer reactions along the path of a series of protein-bound co-factors; these co-factors are light-absorbing molecules such as chlorophyll and phaeophytin, as well as quinones. The energy of the photon is used to excite an electron of a pigment; the free energy created is used to reduce a chain of nearby electron acceptors, which have progressively higher redox-potentials. These electron transfer steps are the initial phase of a series of energy conversion reactions resulting in the conversion of the energy of photons to the storage of that energy by the production of chemical bonds. Reaction centers are present in all green plants and many bacteria. A variety in light-harvesting complexes exist between the photosynthetic species.

Green plants and algae have two different types of reaction centers that are part of larger supercomplexes known as P700 in photosystem I and P680 in photosystem II. The structures of these supercomplexes are large; the reaction center found in Rhodopseudomonas bacteria is best understood, since it was the first reaction center of known structure and has fewer polypeptide chains than the examples in green plants. A reaction center is laid out in such a way that it captures the energy of a photon using pigment molecules and turns it into a usable form. Once the light energy has been absorbed directly by the pigment molecules, or passed to them by resonance transfer from a surrounding light-harvesting complex, they release two electrons into an electron transport chain. In green plants, the electron transport chain has many electron acceptors including phaeophytin, plastoquinone, cytochrome bf, ferredoxin, which result in the reduced molecule NADPH and the storage of energy; the passage of the electron through the electron transport chain results in the pumping of protons from the chloroplast's stroma and into the lumen, resulting in a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane that can be used to synthesise ATP using the ATP synthase molecule.

Both the ATP and NADPH are used in the Calvin cycle to fix carbon dioxide into triose sugars. Two classes of reaction centres are recognized. Type I, found in green-sulfur bacteria and plant/cyanobacterial PS-I, use iron sulfur clusters as electron acceptors. Type II, found in chloroflexus, purple bacteria, plant/cyanobacterial PS-II, use quinones. Not only do all members inside each class share common ancestry, but the two classes by means of common structure, appear related; this section deals with the type II system found in purple bacteria. The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center has been an important model to understand the structure and chemistry of the biological process of capturing light energy. In the 1960s, Roderick Clayton was the first to purify the reaction center complex from purple bacteria. However, the first crystal structure was determined in 1984 by Hartmut Michel, Johann Deisenhofer and Robert Huber for which they shared the Nobel Prize in 1988; this was significant for being the first 3D crytal structure of any membrane protein complex.

Four different subunits were found to be important for the function of the photosynthetic reaction center. The L and M subunits, shown in blue and purple in the image of the structure, both span the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, they are structurally similar to one another, both having 5 transmembrane alpha helices. Four bacteriochlorophyll b molecules, two bacteriophaeophytin b molecules molecules, two quinones, a ferrous ion are associated with the L and M subunits; the H subunit, shown in gold, lies on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. A cytochrome subunit, here not shown, contains four c-type hemes and is located on the periplasmic surface of the membrane; the latter sub-unit is not a general structural motif in photosynthetic bacteria. The L and M subunits bind the light-interacting cofactors, shown here in green. Reaction centers from different bacterial species may contain altered bacterio-chlorophyll and bacterio-phaeophytin chromophores as functional co-factors; these alterations cause shifts in the colour of light.

The reaction center contains two pigments that serve to collect and transfer the energy from photon absorption: BChl and Bph. BChl resembles the chlorophyll molecule found in green plants, due to minor structural differences, its peak absorption wavelength is shifted into the infrared, with wavelengths as long as 1000 nm. Bph has the same structure as BChl; this alteration causes a lowered redox-potential. The process starts when light is absorbed by two BChl molecules that lie near the periplasmic side of the membrane; this pair of chlorophyll molecules called the "special pair", absorbs photons at 870 nm or 960 nm, depending on the species and, thus, is called P870 or P960, with P standing for "pigment"). Once P absorbs a photon, it ejects an electron, transferred through another molecule of Bchl to the BPh in the L subunit; this initial charge separation yields a negative charge on the BPh. This process takes place in 10 picoseconds; the charges on the P+ and the BPh− c

2013–14 Notre Dame Fighting Irish men's basketball team

The 2013–14 Notre Dame Fighting Irish men's basketball team represented the University of Notre Dame during the 2013–14 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The team played its home games at the Purcell Pavilion at the Joyce Center in Indiana; this marked Notre Dame's inaugural season in the Atlantic Coast Conference, having moved from the Big East Conference. They finished the season 6 -- 12 in ACC play to finish in a three-way tie for 11th place, they lost in the first round of the ACC Tournament Wake Forest. The Fighting Irish finished the 2012–13 season 25–10, with an 11–7 record in Big East play, they reached the semifinals of the Big East Tournament, their fourth consecutive trip to that round in their final appearance before departing to the ACC. However, for a third year in a row they were eliminated by Louisville; the Irish earned a #7 seed for the NCAA Tournament, where they were eliminated in the second round by Iowa State. Senior forward Jack Cooley was named First Team All-Big East, while junior guard Jerian Grant was named Second Team All-Big East.

Additionally, sophomore guard Pat Connaughton was named to the Big East Championship All-Tournament Team, the first Irish player to be so honored since Scott Martin in 2011. On September 12, 2012, Notre Dame announced that they had accepted an invitation to join the ACC in all sports except for football. Discussions with both the Big East and the ACC led to an agreement for the Irish to join the ACC starting with 2013-14 calendar year. Notre Dame basketball announced its first slate of conference games on April 23, 2013; as "partner schools" with Georgia Tech and Boston College, Notre Dame will always play home-and-away series with those two schools each year, play the remaining 11 ACC teams on a rotating basis as part of an 18-game conference schedule. The Irish were scheduled for their first-ever game in the ACC-Big Ten Challenge. On May 8 it was confirmed; the full 2013-14 schedule was unveiled August 22. In the poll taken at ACC Media Days in October, the Irish were picked to finish fifth in their first season in the new conference.

Notre Dame recruited four players from the high school senior class of 2012–13, each of whom signed letters-of-intent in November 2012. The recruiting class, which featured three players from the state of Indiana, was ranked among the top 20 in the nation by,, ESPN. During preseason practices, the Irish suffered two notable injuries in their sophomore class. First, forward Zach Auguste suffered a broken wrist on October 10. Expected to be out for up to six weeks, he was ready by the time of the season opener on November 8. On October 26, the school confirmed sophomore Eric Katenda underwent knee surgery that will keep him out for up to six weeks; when the preseason rankings were released by two major college basketball polls, Notre Dame was #21 in the AP Poll and #22 by the USA Today/Coaches Poll. The school announced on November 8 that sophomore Cameron Biedschied will sit out the 2013–14 season. Biedschied had no injury issues necessitating the redshirt, but arrived at the decision with Coach Brey that he would benefit academically and athletically by sitting out a year, citing his struggles in conference play during his freshman year.

On December 26, after the fall semester concluded, Biedscheid requested and received permission to contact other schools in order to transfer. On December 22, the school announced that Jerian Grant would be suspended for the remainder of the 2013–14 season due to an "academic matter". Grant wrote in a note posted on the school's athletic website that, "It is my full intention to return to Notre Dame as soon as possible following the 2014 spring semester. I intend to do whatever it takes to earn my degree and finish out my college basketball career here." 2013–14 Notre Dame Fighting Irish women's basketball team

Eleonore of Liechtenstein

Maria Eleonore of Liechtenstein née Oettingen-Oettingen and Oettingen-Spielberg was a princess of Liechtenstein by marriage to Prince Karl Borromäus of Liechtenstein, a politically influential Austrian salonist. Between 1768 and 1790, she acted as the political adviser of Emperor Joseph II through her salon or discussion circle, she was born as a Princess of Oettingen-Oettingen and Oettingen-Spielberg, daughter of Prince Johann Aloys of Oettingen-Spielberg and Princess Therese of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg. She was educated in a French convent in Strasbourg; when she was fifteen, she inherited wast estates from her aunt in Bohemia, she and her sister Maria Leopoldine were introduced at the imperial court in Vienna and appointed maid of honour to the empress Maria Theresa of Austria, during which service they became acquainted with the imperial family. On 30 March 1761, in Vienna, she married Prince Karl Borromäus of Liechtenstein, she and her spouse were the ancestors of a line of the Princely Family of Liechtenstein.

Eleonore spent her summers in her estates in her winters in Vienna. She had a love affair with the Irish general Charles O'Donnell, which attracted attention, but he died in 1771. From 1768 onward, she held a discussion circle with a group of people including Emperor Joseph II, through him became influential upon the affairs of state. Joseph II was in love with Eleonore of Liechtenstein and attempted to convince her to be his mistress in 1771–1772, but she declined, they became lifelong friends. For two decades, her salon circle of five princesses exerted influence upon the affairs of state through their connection with Joseph II: their circle consisted of Princess Eleonore of Liechtenstein, Princess Maria Josepha von Clary und Aldringen, Princess Maria Sidonia Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, Princess Leopoldine of Liechtenstein, they met once and, from 1780, four times a week to discuss politics. Eleonore's relation to Joseph was not in lack of tension, she did disagree with his church politics, criticized him on his restlessness.

The salon of the five princesses lost their influence as state advisers upon Joseph's death in 1790. During the Second Congress of Rastatt, she opposed the pro-French policy of chancellor Johann Amadeus von Thugut, she was adverse to State Chancellor Klemens von Metternich, she is pointed out to be behind his deposition as Dresden ambassador. She opposed him arranging the marriage between Marie-Louise of Austria and emperor Napoleon in 1810. Eleonore of Liechtenstein has left letters which gives an important image of contemporary life in the Austrian court life, she had seven children: Princess Maria Josepha Eleonore Nicolaus, married in Vienna on 29 January 1782 Johann Nepomuck Graf von Harrach zu Rohrau und Thannhausen, without issue. Prince Karl Joseph Emanuel Albinus, married in Vienna on 28 September 1789 Marianne Josepha Gräfin von Khevenhüller-Metsch, had issue: Prince Joseph Wenzel Franz Anastasius, a Priest in Salzburg. Prince Emanuel Joseph Kaspar Melchior Balthasar. Prince Moritz Joseph Johann Baptist Viktor, married in Eisenstadt on 13 April 1806 Marie Leopoldine Prinzessin Esterházy von Galántha, had issue: Prince Franz de Paula Joseph Aloys Crispin and without issue.

Prince Aloys Gonzaga Joseph Franz de Paula Theodor and without issue. Adam Wolf: Fürstin Eleonore Liechtenstein, 1745–1812, nach Briefen und Memoiren ihrer Zeit. Wien 1875 Jacob von Falke: Geschichte des fürstlichen Hauses Liechtenstein. 3. Band, Wien 1882. Raoul Auernheimer: Metternich. Staatsmann und Kavalier. München 1977, S. 37 f. Günther Ebersold: August Reichsfürst von Bretzenheim. Norderstedt 2004, S. 242 ff. Derek Beales: Joseph II. 2 Bände, Cambridge University Press 1987/2009, vor allem Band 1, S. 324–337, Abbildung 17a, Band 2, S. 20–25. Rebecca Gates-Coon: The Charmed Circle. Joseph II and the "Five Princesses," 1765–1790. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana 2015, unter anderem S. 2, 120–127, 343 f

The "Demo" Tape

The "Demo" Tape is the first mixtape released by R. Kelly in June 2009; the mixtape was to keep fans over until Kelly's forthcoming album was released. Hosted by DJ Drama and DJ Skee and released under each of their mixtape brands, Gangsta Grillz and Skeetox. R. Kelly performs some original songs as well; the mixtape received mixed reviews by fans alike. R&B singer and longtime Kelly fan Trey Songz released a diss track, "Death of Autotune", a freestyle of Jay-Z's "D. O. A." In the song, Trey expressed his disappointment in R. Kelly's use of the auto-tune effect throughout the mixtape, he explained on his blog that he disliked the use of it on Kelly's previous album, Double Up. He ended by saying, "the King, consider them thrown. I just want R. Kelly back..." Chris Brown has stated this mixtape as an influence to his own debut mixtape

Steve Rosenberg (journalist)

Steve Rosenberg is a British TV and radio journalist. He is the BBC's Moscow correspondent. Rosenberg grew up in North London, he is Jewish. Following A-levels at Chingford Senior High, he attended the University of Leeds. In 1991 he achieved a first class degree in Russian Studies. After graduating, in August 1991 Rosenberg moved to Moscow and spent the next fifteen years in the Russian capital. During summer holidays at senior school, he worked at the BBC's teletext service Ceefax. After moving to Moscow in 1991 to teach English in the Moscow State Technological University STANKIN, Rosenberg secured work with CBS News in the network's Moscow Bureau, he spent the next six years at CBS, working first as a translator assistant producer, producer. Between 1994-96 he was part of the CBS crew covering the first war in Chechnya. In 1997, Rosenberg became a producer in the BBC's Moscow Bureau. In 2000, he was appointed Reporter for the BBC in Moscow. Three years he became Moscow correspondent. Among the stories he covered in that period was the Kursk submarine disaster, the Nord Ost Theatre siege and the aftermath of the Beslan school attack.

In 2003 he interviewed Russian oligarch Roman Abramovich. Between 2006-10, Rosenberg was the BBC Berlin correspondent, covering stories in Germany and across Europe. In 2010 he returned to Russia for a second stint as Moscow correspondent; as a Eurovision fan, Rosenberg covered the contest staged in Baku, Azerbaijan in 2012, where he demonstrated his piano playing skills when appearing on the Ken Bruce show the morning before the Eurovision Song Contest 2012. He played a short excerpt from every Eurovision winning song. In the show, he took part in a "Eurovision Popmaster", narrowly losing the competition to the author of The Eurovision Song Contest - The Official History, John Kennedy O'Connor. Rosenberg played the piano to former Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev after an interview. In 2015, the Government of Ukraine issued a decree banning several journalists, including Rosenberg, from entering the country over his coverage of the War in Donbass; the decree stated those banned were a "threat to national interests" or engaged in promoting "terrorist activities".

The BBC labelled the ban "a shameful attack on media freedom". The Ukrainians retracted the ban just a day later