Deutsche Welle or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster. The service is available in 30 languages. DW's satellite television service consists of channels in English, German and Arabic. While funded by the German government, the work of DW is regulated by the Deutsche Welle Act, meaning that content is always independent of government influence. DW is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. DW offers updated articles on its news website and runs its own center for international media development, DW Akademie; the broadcaster's stated goals are to convey Germany as a "liberal, democratic state based on the rule of law", to produce reliable news coverage and to provide access to the German language. DW has been broadcasting since 1953, it is headquartered in Bonn. Television broadcasts are produced entirely in Berlin. Both locations create content for DW's news website; as of 2018, around 1,500 employees and 1,500 freelancers from 60 countries work for Deutsche Welle in its offices in Bonn and Berlin.
According to DW, its output reaches 157 million people worldwide every week. The Director-General of DW is Peter Limbourg. DW's first shortwave broadcast took place on 3 May 1953 with an address by the West German President, Theodor Heuss. On 11 June 1953, ARD public broadcasters signed an agreement to share responsibility for Deutsche Welle. At first, it was controlled by Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk. In 1955, NWDR split into Norddeutscher Rundfunk and Westdeutscher Rundfunk, WDR assumed responsibility for Deutsche Welle programming. In 1960, Deutsche Welle became an independent public body after a court ruled that while broadcasting to Germany was a state matter, broadcasting from Germany was part of the federal government's foreign-affairs function. On 7 June 1962 DW joined ARD as a national broadcasting station. Deutsche Welle was headquartered in the West German city of Cologne. After reunification, when much of the government relocated to Berlin, the station's headquarters moved to Bonn. * by Deutschlandfunk With German reunification in 1990, Radio Berlin International, East Germany's international broadcaster ceased to exist.
Some of the RBI staff joined Deutsche Welle and DW inherited some broadcasting facilities, including transmitting facilities at Nauen, as well as RBI's frequencies. DW began as RIAS-TV, a television station launched by the West Berlin broadcaster RIAS in August 1988; the fall of the Berlin Wall the following year and German reunification in 1990 meant that RIAS-TV was to be closed down. On 1 April 1992, Deutsche Welle inherited the RIAS-TV broadcast facilities, using them to start a German and English-language television channel broadcast via satellite, DW, adding a short Spanish broadcast segment the following year. In 1995, it began 24-hour operation. At that time, DW introduced a new logo. Deutsche Welle took over some of the former independent radio broadcasting service Deutschlandfunk's foreign-language programming in 1993, when Deutschlandfunk was absorbed into the new Deutschlandradio. In addition to radio and television programming, DW sponsored some published material. For example, the South-Asia Department published German Heritage: A Series Written for the South Asia Programme in 1967 and in 1984 published African Writers on the Air.
Both publications were transcripts of DW programming. In September 1994, Deutsche Welle was the first public broadcaster in Germany with an internet presence www-dw.gmd.de, hosted by the GMD Information Technology Research Center. For its first two years, the site listed little more than contact addresses, although DW's News Journal was broadcast in RealAudio from Real's server beginning in 1995, Süddeutsche Zeitung's initial web presence, which included news articles from the newspaper, shared the site. In 1996, it evolved into a news website using the URL dwelle.de. Deutsche Welle purchased the domain dw.com, which belonged to DiamondWare, in 2013. DW moved to the www.dw.com domain on 22 June 2015. DW's news site is in seven core languages, as well as a mixture of news and information in 23 other languages in which Deutsche Welle broadcasts. Persian became the site's eighth focus language in 2007. German and European news is DW's central focus, but the site offers background information about Germany and German language courses.
Deutsch, Warum Nicht? is a personal course for learning the German language, created by Deutsche Welle and the Goethe-Institut. In 2001, Deutsche Welle founded the German TV subscription TV channel for North American viewers; the project was shut down after four years owing to low subscriber numbers. It has since been replaced by the DW-TV channel. Unlike most other international broadcasters, DW-TV does not charge terrestrial stations for use of its programming, as a result and other programmes are rebroadcast on numerous public broadcasting stations in several countries, including the United States and New Zealand. In the Philippines, selected Anglophone programmes are shown nationwide on Net 25. Deutsche Welle is still suffering from financial and staffing cuts, its budget was reduced by about €75 million over five years, a
Bushidō is a Japanese collective term for the many codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life, loosely analogous to the indigenous European concept of chivalry. The "way" originates from the samurai moral values, most stressing some combination of sincerity, loyalty, martial arts mastery, honour until death. Born from Neo-Confucianism during times of peace in the Edo period and following Confucian texts, while being influenced by Shinto and Zen Buddhism, allowing the violent existence of the samurai to be tempered by wisdom and serenity. Bushidō developed between the 16th and 20th centuries, debated by pundits who believed they were building on a legacy dating back to the 10th century, although some scholars have noted that the term bushidō itself is "rarely attested in pre-modern literature". Under the Tokugawa shogunate, some aspects of warrior values became formalized into Japanese feudal law; the word bushidō was first used in Japan during the 17th century in Kōyō Gunkan, but did not come into common usage until after the 1899 publication of Nitobe Inazō's Bushido: The Soul of Japan.
In Bushido, Nitobe wrote: Bushidō is the code of moral principles which the samurai were required or instructed to observe... More it is a code unuttered and unwritten... It was an organic growth of centuries of military career. In order to become a samurai this code has to be mastered. Nitobe was the first to document Japanese chivalry in this way. In Feudal and Modern Japan, historian Arthur May Knapp wrote: The samurai of thirty years ago had behind him a thousand years of training in the law of honor, obedience and self-sacrifice... It was not needed to establish them; as a child he had but to be instructed, as indeed he was from his earliest years, in the etiquette of self-immolation. Many early literary works of Japan talk of warriors, but the term bushidō does not appear in text until the Edo period. From the literature of the 13th to 16th centuries, there exists an abundance of references to military ideals, although none of these should be viewed as early versions of bushidō per se. Carl Steenstrup noted that 13th- and 14th-century writings "portrayed the bushi in their natural element, eulogizing such virtues as reckless bravery, fierce family pride, selfless, at times senseless devotion of master and man".
Compiled over the course of three centuries, beginning in the 1180s, the Heike Monogatari depicts a fictionalized and idealized story of a struggle between two warrior clans, the Minamoto and the Taira, at the end of the 12th century—a conflict known as the Genpei War. Depicted throughout the epic is the ideal of the cultivated warrior; the warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as role models for the educated warriors of generations, although the ideals depicted by them were assumed to be beyond reach. During the early modern era, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms; the influence of Shinto, Buddhism and Confucianism in the Bushido's early development instilled among those who live by the code a religious respect for it. Yamaga-Soko, the Japanese philosopher given credit for establishing Bushido, said that "the first and surest means to enter into communion with the Divine is by sincerity."The sayings of Sengoku-period retainers and warlords such as Katō Kiyomasa and Nabeshima Naoshige were recorded or passed down to posterity around the turn of the 16th century when Japan had entered a period of relative peace.
In a handbook addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", Katō states: "If a man does not investigate into the matter of bushidō daily, it will be difficult for him to die a brave and manly death. Thus, it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well."Katō was a ferocious warrior who banned recitation of poetry, stating: "One should put forth great effort in matters of learning. One should read books concerning military matters, direct his attention to the virtues of loyalty and filial piety.... Having been born into the house of a warrior, one's intentions should be to grasp the long and the short swords and to die."Naoshige says that it is shameful for any man to die without having risked his life in battle, regardless of rank, that "bushidō is in being crazy to die. Fifty or more could not kill one such a man". However, Naoshige suggests that "everyone should know exertion as it is known in the lower classes". Japan enjoyed a period of relative peace from 1600 to the mid-19th century.
During this period, the samurai class played a central role in the policing and administration of the country. The bushidō literature of this time contains much thought relevant to a warrior class seeking more general application of martial principles and experience in peacetime, as well as reflection on the land's long history of war; the literature of this time includes: Budo Shōshinshu by Taira Shigesuke, Daidōji Yūzan Hagakure as related by Yamamoto Tsunetomo to Tsuramoto Tashiro. Bugei Juhappan A Book of Five Rings by Miyamoto MusashiThe Hagakure contains many sayings attributed to Sengoku-period retainer Nabeshima Naoshige regarding bushidō related philosophy early in the 18th century by Yamamoto Tsunetomo, a former retainer to Naoshige's grandson, Nabeshima Mitsushige; the Hagakure was compiled in the early 18th century, but was kept as a kind of "secret teaching" of the Nabeshima clan until the end of the Tokugawa bakufu. His saying, "I have found the way of the warrior is death", was a summation of the fo
Henderson Field (Guadalcanal)
Henderson Field is a former military airfield on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands during World War II. Built by the Japanese, the conflict over its possession was one of the great battles of the Pacific war. Today it is Honiara International Airport. After the occupation of the Solomon Islands in April 1942, the Japanese military planned to capture Port Moresby in New Guinea and Tulagi in the southern Solomons, extending their southern defensive perimeter establishing bases to support possible future advances. Seizure of Nauru, Ocean Island, New Caledonia and Samoa would cut supply lines between Australia and the United States, with the result of reducing or eliminating Australia as a threat to Japanese positions in the South Pacific; the airfield on Guadalcanal was first surveyed by Japanese engineers when they arrived in the area in early May, was known as "Lunga Point", or "Runga Point" to the Japanese, code named "RXI". The airfield would allow Japanese aircraft to patrol the southern Solomons, shipping lanes to Australia, the eastern flank of New Guinea.
There were two major construction units involved: 1,379 men in one and 1,145 in another scheduled to work on Midway Island once it was captured, arrived on 6 July 1942, commencing work after 9 July. Construction was observed and reported by Coastwatchers, the airfield's presence spawned American plans to capture Guadalcanal and use the airfield for Allied aircraft. About the middle of July, 250 additional civilians of the "Hama Construction Unit" arrived under the command of Inouree Hama, who had had 50 men on Gavutu previously. Specialists from the 14th Encampment Corps established radio stations on Tulagi, Gavutu and at RXI. Local labor was used in the construction. Airfield construction proceeded ahead of schedule and on the night of 6 August 1942, just before the American landing, the construction troops were given an extra sake ration for completing the airfield ahead of schedule. See: Guadalcanal Campaign and Battle for Henderson Field for more information On 7 August 1942, American forces of the United States 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions landed on the islands of Guadalcanal and Florida in the southern Solomon Islands with the objective of denying their use by the Japanese to threaten the supply and communication routes between the U.
S. Australia, New Zealand; the Allies intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases to support a campaign to capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The Marines overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders and captured Tulagi and Florida, as well as the nearly completed RXI airfield, being built by the Japanese on Guadalcanal; the captured airfield was named Henderson Field in honor of United States Marine Corps Major Lofton Henderson, commanding officer of VMSB-241, killed during the Battle of Midway while leading his squadron into action against the Japanese carrier forces, thereby becoming the first Marine aviator to perish during the battle. Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November 1942 to retake Henderson Field. Three major land battles, seven large naval battles, continual daily aerial battles culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November 1942, during which the last Japanese attempt to bombard Henderson Field from the sea and to land enough troops to retake it was defeated.
In December 1942, the Japanese abandoned further efforts to retake Guadalcanal and evacuated their remaining forces by 7 February 1943, while harassed and pursued by an offensive of the U. S. Army's XIV Corps, conceding the island to the Allies. Reconnaissance work was carried out by specially fitted Navy Liberator bombers operating from Henderson Field on Eniwetok and other islands in 1944. Royal New Zealand Air Force squadrons were using the air base during October and November 1944 for patrols and searches; the RNZAF provided No 52 Radar Unit in March 1943 with GCI radar, which could provide altitudes of approaching enemy planes. Henderson Field was abandoned after the war; the field was modernized and reopened in 1969 as Honiara International Airport, the main airport for the Solomon Islands. In the late 1970s the runway was lengthened. 44th FS 38th BG, 70th BS Fiji January – Feb 4, 1943 Fiji 42nd BG, 69th BS New Hebrides January – Oct 43 PDG 42nd BG, 75th BS? – Oct 21, 1943 Renard 38th BG, 70th BS Fiji?
– Oct 22, 43 Russells 347th FG, 67th FS New Caledonia Aug 22, 42 – June 43 42nd BG, 390th BS Fiji May 11 – Oct 22, 1943 Renard Carney Airfield Koli Airfield Kukum Field This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II, fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, in China; the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island and the Philippines; the Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945.
The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not distinguished from World War II in general, or was known as the War against Japan. In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the Southeast Asian Theater. However, the US Armed Forces considered the China-Burma-India Theater to be distinct from the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during the conflict. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a cabinet decision on 10 December 1941, to refer to both the war with the Western Allies and the ongoing war in China.
This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War. During the Allied military occupation of Japan, these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, the war became known as the Pacific War. In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945; the Axis states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. The leader of Thailand, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, became enthusiastic about the alliance after decisive Japanese victories in the Malayan Campaign and in 1942 sent the Phayap Army to assist the invasion of Burma, were former Thai territory, annexed by Britain were reoccupied.
The allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. Because of this, after the surrender in 1945, the stance of the United States was that Thailand should be treated as a puppet of Japan and be considered an occupied nation rather than as an ally; this was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. Involved were members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included the armies of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo, the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime. In the Burma Campaign, other members, such as the anti-Britsh Indian National Army of Free India and Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. Moreover, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Taiwan.
Collaborationist security units were formed in Hong Kong, the Philippines, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, British Borneo, former French Indochina as well as Timorese militia. These units the assisted Japanese war effort in their respective territories. Germany and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War; the German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities; the major Allied participants were the United States and their colonies, the Republic of China, engaged in bloody war against Japan since 1937, the United Kingdom (mos
Military swarming is a battlefield tactic designed to maximize target saturation, thereby overwhelm or saturate the defenses of the principal target or objective. On the other-hand, defenders can overcome attempts at swarming, by launching counter-swarming measures that are designed to neutralize or otherwise repel such attacks. Military swarming is encountered in asymmetric warfare where opposing forces are not of the same size, or capacity. In such situations, swarming involves the use of a decentralized force against an opponent, in a manner that emphasizes mobility, unit autonomy and coordination or synchronization. Military forces have used the principles of swarming without examining them explicitly, but there is now active research in consciously examining military doctrines that draw ideas from swarming. In nature and nonmilitary situations, there are other various forms of swarming. Biologically driven forms are complex adaptive systems, but have no central planning, simple individual rules, nondeterministic behavior that may or may not evolve with the situation.
Current military explorations into swarming address the spectrum of military operations, from strategic through tactical. An expert group evaluated swarming's role in the "revolution in military affairs" or force transformation, they observed that military swarming is tactical, sometimes operational and strategic, is a complement to other efforts rather than a replacement for them. Swarming is a logical extension of network-centric warfare, but the networks needed to make swarming routine will be available around 2010–2011. At present, the networking for swarming is only available in specific contexts. Enthusiasts of swarming sometimes apply it to situations that have superficial similarities, but do not qualify as swarms. While swarms do converge on a target, not every military action, where multiple units attacked from all sides of a target, constitute swarming. Other conflicts historical ones, fit a swarming paradigm, but the commanders involved did not use the concept. Historical examples help illustrate what modern analysts do and do not consider swarming.
Some historical examples with at least some aspect of swarming include: At the siege of Samarkand, Spitamenes used Bactrian horse archers in effective swarming attacks against a relief column sent by Alexander the Great. Bactrian horse archers surrounded various Macedonian phalanxes, staying out of range of their melee weapons, fired arrows until they had no more; the archers would withdraw to a supply point, but another swarm of horse archers would sometimes replace them, sometimes attack elsewhere. The Bactrians caused the phalanx to break formation, destroyed it. Alexander recognized his forces could not directly combat horse archers, but that the horse archers needed resupply of provisions and arrows. Alexander split his forces into five columns and began building fortifications in the areas where the Bactrians had resupplied, his anti-swarm tactics worked: cut off from resupply, the Bactrians had to meet the Macedonian phalanx, which were vastly superior in melee. Alexander made it priority to engage other light mobile forces.
Spitamenes was effective as long as his force were mobile, he had adequate communications with mounted couriers. Once he was forced into direct battle with heavy forces, he lost his head. At the Battle of the Jaxartes River, Alexander once again faced swarming tactics from an army of Scythian horse archers. Alexander sent a unit of heavy cavalry ahead of his main line; as expected, the Scythian horsemen surrounded the detached cavalry. At the right moment, Alexander's cavalry reversed direction and pushed half of the Scythians straight into the main phalanx of Alexander's army, where they were slaughtered. Upon seeing this, the remaining half of the Scythian army retreated from the battle. Mongols under Genghis Khan practiced an equivalent of swarming because their communications, which used flags and couriers, were advanced for the time. One of the standard tactics of Mongol military was the practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from larger groups and defended positions for ambush and counterattack.
Genghis Khan used the Yam system, which established a rear line of points for supplies and for remounts of fast-moving couriers. The remount system allowed horsemen to move much faster than the couriers of opponents without them; these couriers kept the Mongol senior and subordinate commanders informed, such that they could make fast decisions based on current information. In modern terms, the courier system provided the means of getting inside the opponent's OODA loop. With fast communications, the Mongols could make decisions not just on what they could see locally, but with that information oriented within the overall situation, they could decide and act while the enemy were still waiting for information. Outnumbered Mongols could beat larger forces by faster communications, which allowed units to withdraw and regroup while other groups continually stung the enemy, withdrew in turn, while the earlier group again hit the enemy. Swarming was present in the operations of Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan, but were replaced by melee and mass in the pre-industrial era.
More synchronized manoeuvre was paced by the availability of mobile communications. Blitzkrieg was a use of manoeuvre, but it was less flexible than operations in which every tank and aircraft had radios, far less flexible than forces that have effective networked information systems, they define swarming, in a military context, as "...seemingly amorphous, but it is a deliber
Siege of Port Arthur
The Siege of Port Arthur, the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War. Port Arthur had been regarded as one of the most fortified positions in the world. However, during the First Sino-Japanese War, General Nogi Maresuke had taken the city from the forces of Qing China in only a few days; the ease of his victory during the previous conflict, overconfidence by the Japanese General Staff in its ability to overcome improved Russian fortifications, led to a much longer campaign and far greater losses than expected. The Siege of Port Arthur saw the introduction of much technology used in subsequent wars of the 20th century including massive 28 cm howitzers capable of hurling 217-kilogram shells over 8 kilometers, as well as rapid-firing light howitzers, Maxim machine guns, bolt-action magazine rifles, barbed wire entanglements, electric fences, arc lamp searchlights, tactical radio signalling, hand grenades, extensive trench warfare, the use of modified naval mines as land weapons.
The Russian forces manning the defenses of Port Arthur under Major-General Baron Anatoly Stoessel consisted of 50,000 men and 506 guns. He had the option of removing the guns from the fleet to bolster the land defenses; the total population of Port Arthur at the time was around 87,000, which meant that a high proportion of the population were combatants. Russian improvements to the defences of Port Arthur included a multi-perimeter layout with overlapping fields of fire and making the best possible use of the natural terrain. However, many of the redoubts and fortifications were still unfinished, as considerable resources were either in short supply or had been diverted to improving the fortifications at Dalny, further north on the Liaodong Peninsula; the outer defense perimeter of Port Arthur consisted of a line of hills, including Hsiaokushan and Takushan near the Ta-ho River in the east, Namakoyama, Akasakayama, 174-Meter Hill, 203-Meter Hill and False Hill in the west. All of these hills were fortified.
1.5 kilometers behind this defensive line was the original stone Chinese wall, which encircled the Old Town of Lushun from the south to the Lun-ho River at the northwest. The Russians had continued the line of the Chinese wall to the west and south, enclosing the approaches to the harbor and the New Town of Port Arthur with concrete forts, machine gun emplacements, connecting trenches. General Stoessel withdrew to Port Arthur on July 30, 1904. Facing the Russians was the Japanese Third Army, about 150,000 strong, backed by 474 artillery guns, under the command of General Baron Nogi Maresuke; the shelling of Port Arthur began on August 7, 1904, by a pair of land-based 4.7-inch guns, was carried on intermittently until August 19, 1904. The Japanese fleet participated in shore bombardment, while in the northeast the army prepared to attack the two semi-isolated hills protruding from the outer defense perimeter: 600-foot high Takushan and the smaller Hsuaokushan; these hills were not fortified, but had steep slopes and were fronted by the Ta River, dammed by the Russians to provide a stronger obstacle.
The hills commanded a view over a kilometer of flat ground to the Japanese lines, it was thus essential for the Japanese to take these hills to complete their encirclement of Port Arthur. After pounding the two hills from 04:30 in the morning until 19:30 at night, General Nogi launched a frontal infantry assault, hampered by heavy rain, poor visibility and dense clouds of smoke; the Japanese were able to advance only as far as the forward slopes of both hills, many soldiers drowned in the Ta River. Night attacks resulted in unexpectedly high casualties, as the Russians used powerful searchlights to expose the attackers to artillery and machine gun cross-fire. Undeterred, Nogi resumed artillery bombardment the following day, August 8, 1904, but his assault stalled again, this time due to heavy fire from the Russian fleet led by the cruiser Novik. Nogi ordered his men to press on regardless of casualties. Despite some confusion in orders behind the Russian lines, which resulted in some units abandoning their posts, numerous Russian troops held on tenaciously, the Japanese managed to overrun the Russian positions through sheer superiority in numbers.
Takushan was captured at 20:00, the following morning, August 9, 1904, Hsiaokushan fell to the Japanese. Gaining these two hills cost the Japanese 1,280 wounded; the Japanese Army complained bitterly to the Navy about the ease with which the Russians were able to obtain naval fire support, in response the Japanese Navy brought in a battery of 12-pounder guns, with a range sufficient to ensure that there would be no recurrence of a Russian naval sortie. The loss of the two hills, when reported to the Tsar, caused him to consider the safety of the Russian Pacific Fleet trapped at Port Arthur, he sent immediate orders to Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft, in command of the fleet after the death of Admiral Stepan Makarov, to join the squadron at Vladivostok. Vitgeft put to sea at 08:30 on August 10, 1904, engaged the waiting Japanese under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō in what was to become known as the Battle of the Yellow Sea. On August 11, 1904, the Japanese sent an offer of temporary cease-fire to Port Arthur, so the Russians could allow