Bhils or Bheels are an Indo-Aryan speaking ethnic group in West India. They speak a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages; as of 2013, Bhils were the largest tribal group in India. Bhils are listed as indigenous people of the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan - all in the western Deccan regions and central India - as well as in Tripura in far-eastern India, on the border with Bangladesh. Bhils are divided into a number of endogamous territorial divisions, which in turn have a number of clans and lineages. Most Bhils now speak the language of the region they reside in, such as Marathi, Gujarati or a Hindustani dialect. In Azamgarh and Jaunpur, the Bhil are now a community of settled farmers, with a significant minority who are landless agricultural labourers. A significant subsidiary occupation remains gathering; the Bhil are traditionally Hindu, with Nirdhi following Islam, few sub-groups in the Dangs following Christianity. They continue to worship tribal deities such as Sitla Mata.
The Bhil are classified as a Scheduled Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tripura under the Indian government's reservation program of positive discrimination. The Bhil are divided into a number of endogamous territorial divisions, which in turn have a number of clans and lineages; the main divisions in Gujarat are the Barda, Dungri Garasia, Vasava, while in Maharashtra, the Bhil Mavchi and Kotwal are their main sub-groups. In Rajasthan, they exist as Bhil Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhilala, Pawra and Vasave; the language spoken by Bhils throughout their geographic distribution is Bhili. Bhili has about up to 36 identified dialects and pronunciation differs by region. Bhili is based on Gujarati, but dialects of Bhili merge into more widely-spoken languages such as Marathi in the southeast and Rajasthani in the northwest. Estimates of individuals speaking the language are inaccurate as speakers of minor languages like Bhili have sometimes been treated as having major languages as their mother tongue.
Bhils have unique culture. The Bhilala sub-division is known for its Pithora painting. Ghoomar is a traditional folk dance of Bhil tribe. Ghoomar is the symbol of womanhood. Young girls declare that they are stepping into the shoes of women. Main foods of Bhils are maize, onion and chili which they cultivate in their small fields, they collect vegetables from the local forests. Wheat and rice are used at time of other special occasions only, they keep self-made bows and arrows, knives, axes etc. with them as weapons for self-defense and hunting the wild fauna which form the major part of their diet. They profusely use alcohol distilled by them from the flower of Mahua. On festive occasions various special preparation from the dish rich, i.e maize, barley and rice. Bhils are traditionally non-vegetarian; every village has its own local deity and families too have their Jatidev and Kuldevi, symbolised by stones.'Bhati dev' and'Bhilat dev' are their serpent-god.'Baba dev' is their village god. Karkulia dev is their crop god, Gopal dev is their pastoral god, Bag dev is their Lion god, Bhairav dev is their dog god.
Some of their other gods are Indel dev, Bada dev, Tejaji, Lotha mai, Orka Chichma and Kajal dev. They have extreme and staunch faith in superstitious beliefs and Bhopas for their physical and psychological treatments. There are a number of festivals, viz. Rakhi, Dashera, Holi which are celebrated by the Bhils, they celebrate some traditional festivals viz. Akhatij, Howan Mata ki Chalavani, Sawan Mata ki jatar, Nawai, Gal, Dhobi, Indel, Doha etc with ceremonious zeal and ethusiasm. During some festivals there are a number of tribal fairs held at different places of districts. Navratri mela, Bhagoria mela etc; the chief means of their recreation is folk dances. Women dance at birth celebrations, marriage functions and on a few festivals in traditional Bhili style accompanied by a drum beat, their dances include the Lathi dance, Dhol dance, marriage dance, Holi dance, Battle dance, Bhagoria dance, Deepawal dance and hunting dance. Musical instruments include the Harmonium, Kundi, Apang, Tabla, Jhanjh and Thali.
They are made from local products. Bhil painting is characterised by the use of multi-coloured dots as in-filling. Bhuri Bai was the first Bhil artist to paint using readymade colours and paper. Other known Bhil artists include Sher Singh, Ram Singh and Dubu Bariya. Badwa Notes Citations Gond & Bhil Tribal Art — Madhya Pradesh, archived from the original on 22 June 2015; the desert dwellers of Rajasthan: Bishnoi and Bhil peoples Bhil Tribe In Rajasthan Genetic Affinity of the Bhil and Gond Mentioned in Epic Ramayana
Yogi Gorakhnath was a Hindu yogi and saint, the founder of the Nath tradition. He is considered as one of the two notable disciples of Matsyendranath, his followers are found in India at the place known as Garbhagiri, in Ahmednagar in the state of Maharashtra. These followers are called yogis, Darshani or Kanphata; the details of his biography are unknown and disputed. He was one of nine saints known as Navnath and is popular in Maharashtra, India. Hagiographies describe him as more than a human teacher and someone outside the laws of time who appeared on earth in different ages. Historians state Gorakhnath lived sometime during the first half of the 2nd millennium CE, but they disagree in which century. Estimates based on archaeology and text range from Briggs' 15th- to 12th-century to Grierson's estimate of the 14th-century. Gorakhnath is considered a Maha-yogi in the Hindu tradition, he did not emphasize a specific metaphysical theory or a particular Truth, but emphasized that the search for Truth and the spiritual life is a valuable and normal goal of man.
Gorakhnath championed Yoga, spiritual discipline and an ethical life of self-determination as a means to reaching samadhi and one's own spiritual truths. Gorakhnath, his ideas and yogis have been popular in rural India, with monasteries and temples dedicated to him found in many states of India in the eponymous city of Gorakhpur. Historians vary in their estimate on. Estimates based on archaeology and text range from Briggs' 11th- to 12th-century to Baba Farid documents and Jnanesvari manuscripts leading Abbott to connect Gorakhnath to the 13th-century, to Grierson who relying on evidence discovered in Gujarat suggests the 14th-century, his influence is found in the numerous references to him in the poetry of Kabir and of Guru Nanak of Sikhism, which describe him as a powerful leader with a large following, thereby suggesting he lived around the time these spiritual leaders lived in India. Historical texts imply that Gorakhnath was a Buddhist in a region influenced by Shaivism, he converted to Hinduism championing Shiva and Yoga.
Gorakhnath led a life as a passionate exponent of ideas of Kumarila and Adi Shankara that championed the Yoga and Advaita Vedanta interpretation of the Upanishads. Gorakhnath considered the controversy between dualism and nondualism spiritual theories in medieval India as useless from practice point of view, he emphasized that the choice is of the yogi, that the spiritual discipline and practice by either path leads to "perfectly illumined samadhi state of the individual phenomenal consciousness", states Banerjea; the hagiography on Gorakhnath describe him to have appeared on earth several times. The legends do not provide a time or place where he was born, consider him to be superhuman. North Indian hagiographies suggest. Other hagiographies on Gorakhnath in and Bihar suggest; these hagiographies are inconsistent, offer varying records of the spiritual descent of Gorakhnath. All name Matsyendranath as two teachers preceding him in the succession. Though one account lists five gurus preceding Adinath and another lists six teachers between Matsyendranath and Gorakhnath, current tradition has Adinath identified with Lord Shiva as the direct teacher of Matsyendranath, himself the direct teacher of Gorakhnath.
The legends in the Nath tradition assert that he traveled across the Indian subcontinent, accounts about him are found in some form in several places including Nepal, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Bengal, Kathiawar, Maharashtra and Sri Lanka. The Nath tradition states that its traditions existed before Gorakhnath, but the movement's greatest expansion happened under the guidance and inspiration of Gorakhnath, he produced a number of writings and today is considered the greatest of the Naths. It has been purported. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakhnath spent time in meditation. According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine of Gorakhnath is at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about one kilometer from Ganeshpuri, India. According to legends Gorakhnath and Matsyendranath did penance in Kadri Temple at Mangalore, Karnataka, they are instrumental in laying Shivlingam at Kadri and Dharmasthala. The temple of Gorakhnath is situated on hill called Garbhagiri near Vambori, Tal Rahuri.
There is a famous temple of Gorakhnath in the state of Odisha. The Gorakhnath Math is a monastery of the Nath monastic group named after the medieval saint, Gorakhnath, of the Nath sampradaya; the math and town of Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh is named after him. The monastery and the temple perform various cultural and social activities and serve as the cultural hub of the city; the monastery publishes texts on the philosophy of Gorakhnath. Some scholars associate the origins of Hatha yoga with the Nath yogis, in particular Gorakhnath and his guru Matsyendranath. According to British indologist James Mallinson, this association is false. In his view, the origins of hatha yoga should be associated with the Dashanami Sampradaya of Advaita Vedanta, the mystical figure of Dattatreya, the Rāmānandīs. While the origins of Hatha yoga are disputed, according to Guy Beck – a professor of Religious Studies known for his studies on Yoga and music, "the connections between Goraknath, the Kanphatas and Hath
The Nāgarī script is the ancestor of Devanagari and other variants, was first used to write Prakrit and Sanskrit. The term is sometimes used as a synonym for Devanagari script, it came in vogue during the first millennium CE. The Nāgarī script has roots in the ancient Brahmi script family; some of the earliest epigraph evidence attesting to the developing Sanskrit Nāgarī script in ancient India is from the 1st to 4th century CE inscriptions discovered in Gujarat. The Nāgarī script was in regular use by 7th century CE, had evolved into Devanagari and Nandinagari scripts by about the end of first millennium of the common era. Nagari comes from नगर; the Nāgarī script appeared in ancient India as a central-eastern variant of the Gupta script. In turn it branched off into several scripts, such as Nandinagari; the 7th century Tibetan king Srong Btsan Sgam Po ordered that all foreign books be transcribed into Tibetan language, sent his ambassador Tonmi Sambota to India to acquire alphabet and writing methods, who returned with Sanskrit Nāgarī script from Kashmir corresponding to 24 Tibetan sounds and innovating new symbols for 6 local sounds.
The museum in Mrauk-u in the Rakhine state of Myanmar held in 1972 two examples of Nāgarī script. Archaeologist Aung Thaw writes: "... epigraphs in mixed Sanskrit and Pali in North-eastern Nāgarī script of the 6th century dedicated by Niti Candra and Vira Candra", of a dynasty hailing from Vesáli in India. Brahmi script Brahmic scripts Devanagari Nandinagari Sylheti Nagari Lipi
Mewar or Mewāḍ is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan state of India. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Pirawa Tehsil of Jhalawar District of Rajasthan and Mandsaur of Madhya Pradesh and some parts of Gujarat. For centuries, the region was ruled by Rajputs; the princely state of Udaipur emerged as an administrative unit during the period of British East India Company governance in India-ruled and remained until the end of the British Raj era. The Mewar region lies between the Aravali Range to the northwest, Ajmer to the north and the Vagad region of Rajasthan to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state to the southeast and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan to the east; the word "Mewar" is the ancient name of the region. The earliest epigraph that mentions the word "Medapata" is a 996-997 CE inscription discovered at Hathundi; the word "pata" or "pataka" refers to an administrative unit. According to the historian G. C. Raychaudhuri, Medapata was named after the Meda tribe, mentioned in Varāhamihira's Brihat-Samhita.
The 1460 Kumbhalgarh inscription associates the Medas with Vardhana-giri. Historian Sashi Bhusan Chaudhuri associates the ancient Medas with the modern Mer people; the 1285 CE Mount Abu inscription of the Guhila king Samarasimha provides the following etymology while describing the military conquests of his ancestor Bappa Rawal: "This country which was, in battle submerged in the dripping fat of wicked people by Bappaka bears the name of Śrī Medapāṭa." Historian Anil Chandra Banerjee dismisses this as a "poetic fancy". The northern and eastern portions of Mewar are made up of an elevated plateau while the western and southern portions were rocky and hilly with dense forests; the watershed divide between drainage of the Bay of Bengal and drainage of the Gulf of Khambhat runs through the centre of Mewar. The northern and eastern part of Mewar is a sloping plain, drained by the Bedach and Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal River, a tributary of the Yamuna River.
The southern and western part of the region is hilly, marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Khambhat through Gujarat state. The Aravalli Range, which forms the northwestern boundary of the region, is composed of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material; the region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion. Protected areas include the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, the Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary. Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, is higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain falls in the period of June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon; the state of Mewar was founded around 530. In 1568, Emperor Akbar conquered the capital of Mewar.
In 1576, Maharana Pratap, the ruler of Mewar, was defeated at the Battle of Haldighati and Gogunda and Kumbalgarh were conquered. However through guerilla warfare, Mahrana Pratap recaptured Western Mewar. In 1615, Amar Singh accepted Mughal suzerainty over Mewar; when Udaipur State joined the Indian Union in 1949 it had been ruled by the Rajputs of Mori and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years. Chittaurgarh was the capital of Sisodia clans of Rajputs of Mewar. Bapa Rawal is considered the founder of the Mewar state. While his predecessors had enjoyed control over limited areas in the hilly regions in the west and southwest of Mewar, Bappa was the first ruler to expand the state close to its boundaries. Bappa, who had his capital at Nagda, extended his possessions to the east by ousting Man Singh of the Mori clan from Chittor in 734 AD, he took on the title of'Rawal.' For half a century prior to 1818, the armies of Holkar and Amir Khan had plundered Mewar, pauperising its ruler and people. As early as 1805, Maharana Bhim Singh of Mewar approached the British for assistance but the Treaty of 1803 with Scindia prevented the British from entertaining the request.
But by 1817, the British too were anxious to have alliances with Rajput rulers and the Treaty of Friendship and Unity was concluded between Mewar and East India Company on January 13, 1818. Under the treaty, the British Government agreed to protect the territory of Mewar, in return for which Mewar acknowledged British supremacy and agreed to abstain from political associations with other states and to pay one-fourth of its revenues as tribute for 5 years, three-eight in perpetuity; the British authorities granted the ruler of Udaipur a 19 gun salute. The last ruler of Udaipur Kingdom signed the accession to Independent India on 7 April 1949. Rana Laksha of the Sisodia Rajput clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain; the Sardars decided. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by Ari Singh and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hammir Singh I, taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khalji, in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who pursued a guerrilla campaign until he too died in the 132
Idar is a town in Sabarkantha district, India. It is known for the manufacture of handmade wooden toys, its temples and various beautiful architectural monuments on hill, its historical background. Idar is at the southern end of the Aravalli Range. Named, Ilvadurg which means the fortress of Ilvan, the name corrupted into Idar, it was mentioned in Padma Purana as well as in the Mahabharata as Ila. The town is mentioned in Mahabharata and Bhavishottar Puran as'Ilvadurg'; the exact date of its origin is not known. According to tradition, Idar has been celebrated from the earliest times. In the past cycle, yuga, it was known, in the present cycle, before the days of Vikram, the legendary king Veni Vachh Raj ruled at Idar, the possessor of a golden figure which helped him to build the hillfort and its reservoirs, his queen was a Nagputri, the daughter of a snake-king of the under world, the legend says and her consort betook themselves when the queen found that men were mortal. The first clear tradition shows Idar in the possession of Bhils.
After the fall of Vallabhi in 770, Kamalavati or Pushpavati, one of the wives of Maitraka king Shiladitya was at Ambaji to fulfil a vow. She heard news and took refuge in a cave in the mountains and there gave birth to a son called Gruhaditya or'Goha' or cave-born. Making over the child to a Brahmin woman, the queen followed her husband through the fire; the young prince, of a daring character and adventurous spirit, soon passed out of his guardian's hands, joining the Idar Bhils was by them chosen king. Whether in sport or earnest, the election was real, for several generations his successors ruled in Idar. At last Nagaditya or Aparajita the eighth prince was killed by his subjects, he left a son named Bappa Rawal who never succeeded to his father's chiefship, but became the founder of Mewar dynasty. The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang mentions a place which he calls O-clia-li, the Chinese way of writing Vadali, a village nearby. British General Cunningham identified this place with Idar, he further noted that in the eleventh century Vadali or Vadari was the capital of a family of chiefs claiming descent from Raja Bhara Gupta, whom the General believed to be the same as the above-mentioned Bappa.
According to tradition, Idar was refounded by Parihar Rajputs, subject to Chittor, ruled there for several generations. Towards the close of the twelfth century, the Idar chief took part with Prithviraj Chauhan, king of Delhi, against the Ghurid Sultanate and was killed in the Battles of Tarain. Idar fell into the hands of a Koli king named Hathi Sord who founded the Sord Dynasty and was succeeded by his son Samalio; the latter was killed by a Rathod prince named Sonangji, who took occupied Idar, became the founder of the dynasty of the Raos who ruled there for several generations. After numerous changes of fortune and many struggles with the Muslims, the Raos had at last to leave Idar, were, in 1728, succeeded by the Rathod dynasty from Marwar. Raja Anand Singh, with the help of his brother Rai Singh and a few horseman from Palanpur and the Kolis of Gadhwara, he established himself in Idar without difficulty in 1728 or 1729, he died in 1753. HH Maharaja Rajendra Singh became the ruler of princely state of Idar.
In 1924 it was made part of the Western India States Agency. It was transferred to the Rajputana states in the early 1940s. In 1949 it was dissolved and split between Sabarkantha and Mehsana districts which were at that point in Bombay State. Both these districts became part of Gujarat when it was formed in 1960. Lieutenant-General Maharaja Sri Sir Pratap Singh Sahib Bahadur of Idar GCB GCSI GCVO known as Sir Pratap, was a career British Indian Army officer, Maharaja of the princely state of Idar. Sir Pratap commanded his regiments heroically during the First World War in Flanders, he travelled to Europe and was close to Queen Victoria and her family. Pannalal Patel, a Gujarati author, he was the recipient of Jnanpith Award in 1985 and Ranjitram Suvarna Chandrak in 1950. Pannalal used to write novels in a dialect, spoken in Sabarkantha district, he was educated at Sir Pratap High School of Idar. Umashankar Joshi was an eminent poet and writer, he received the Jnanpith Award in 1967 and Ranjitram Suvarna Chandrak in 1939 for his contribution to Indian Gujarati literature.
He was an alumnus of The Sir Pratap High School of Idar. Arvind Trivedi, an Indian actor. He, alongside his brother Upendra Trivedi, has been prolific in Gujarati cinema, he is famous for portraying Ravan in Ramanand Sagar's television series Ramayan. Both the brothers belong to village Kukadiya near Idar town. Idar is located at 23.83°N 73.0°E / 23.83. It has an average elevation of 195 metres. Idar is home to the scenic and beautiful mountains with round shaped grey or red granite rocks. Idar has soaring temperatures, it effortlessly reaches to 49-50°C in summers and remains hot till late evening because of its hard and bald stones. It is a region which has become a hub for cotton processing, it has a strong network of dairy co-operatives which helps it stay firm on an economic footing in years where the rains are not good. As of 2001 India census, Idar had a population of 29,567. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Idar has an average literacy rate of 68%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, f
Prithvi Narayan Shah
Maharajadhiraja Prithivi Narayan Shah was the last ruler of the Gorkha Kingdom in the Indian subcontinent, present-day Nepal, first monarch of Kingdom of Nepal on the Indian subcontinent. He claimed to be a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India. Majority of the people credit Prithvi Narayan Shah for starting the campaign for the unification of Nepal, while some feel contempt against him for colonization. Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah self-proclaimed the newly unified Kingdom of Nepal as Asal Hindustan due to much of North India being ruled by the Islamic Mughal rulers; the self-proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmashastra over his reign and refer to his country as being inhabitable for Hindus. He referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan and derided the region as being infiltrated by Muslim foreigners; the Gorkha dynasty was established by Dravya Shah. After them, Dambar Shah, Krishna Shah, Rudra Shah and Prithvipati Shah ruled over the state of Gorkha in succession.
King Prithvipati Shah had gained a good reputation as an able King as he maintained good relations with the neighboring state kings with the King of Lalitpur. He had maintained a friendly relationship with Nripendra Malla, the King of the state named "Kantipur". Prithvipati had many sons among which the eldest son Birbhadra Shah had established himself as the heir-apparent and the prince, but on, the relationship started to worsen between Prithvipati Shah and Birbhadra Shah. The latter died on his way back to the capital of Gorkha after staying a while in the state "Bhaktapur". Prithvipati Shah's grandson and the father of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nara Bhupal Shah was born of Mallikavati. Nara Bhupal Shah married the princess of Khaachi state, Chandra Pravawati at around B. S. 1772. About a year he ascended to the throne of Gorkha after which he married Kausalyavati Devi, the daughter of Gundharva Sen, the King of Palpa. No children were born of Nara Bhupal Shah from either queen which prompted him to marry two royal princesses and Subhadramati.
Yet on, from Queen Kausalyavati Devi a child was born on the date B. S. 1779. The child was named Prithivi Narayan Shah, his complete care was taken by the eldest of Chandra Pravawati. Prince Prithivi Narayan Shah showed his greatness from a early age, his education began at the age of five through the appropriate ceremony. At that time, the responsibility to educate him was given to Mokchyeshwor Aryal and Bhanu Aryal, They were the Upadhyayas who worked in the palace as Astrologers, where they were known as Jyotish or Jaisi. Though his primary education was provided by the Gurus, the duty of developing his character was taken by the Queen Chandra Pravawati, it is said that seeing the Prince of neighboring states Tanahun and Kaski being indulged in excess pleasure, Chandra Pravawati kept Prithivi Narayan Shah away from pleasurable and wrong pursuits. That is; the result of which, from young age virtuous qualities such as courage and positive character developed in him. From a young age, he took interest in the affairs of his father's state and soon began to take on these responsibilities.
Prithivi Narayan Shah had an early dream of conquering Nuwakot as his father had lost it to the Mallas of Kathmandu in an earlier war. After the death of his father in 1743, Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended to the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20; as king, he enjoyed talking to his subjects about their general concerns. This practice helped him to build a rapport with his people and helped him to understand the requirements of the citizens of Gorkha. King Shah sealed his borders and maintained a peaceful environment except for distant relations with the British, who were refusing to trade with Nepal at the time. Before Prithivi Narayan Shah's unification movement, there were a total of 54 states in Nepal. In the South-Eastern Terai, there were three Sen states: Makawanpur and Chaudandi. In the West, from Gorkha to Gandaki Province, there were 24 states. In the province of Karnali, there were 22 states with Kalyan, Samaal and Chand dynasties. Along with Gorkha and Mustang, Bhaktapur and Lalipur made up the remaining five states.
When Prithivi Narayan Shah had ascended to the throne of Gorkha in the year 1743 A. D, it was yet a small state, he started to contemplate on the methods to turn Gorkha into a huge and strong state. He went to Varanasi to gain first-hand knowledge about the neighboring states and about India to the south. During those days, Varanasi was one of the large trade centers of India where people from different places gathered, he met with different types of people and gained valuable understandings regarding the Political and Social condition of the Indian Sub-Continent. In Varanasi, his father-in-law Abhiman Singh, a Rajput Chief, procured for him some firearms and a quantity of ammunition, his first attempt at invasion of Nuwakot in 1743 CE failed and his reign began with an immediate military defeat. Conquering Nuwakot was essential for the unification, as it lay between Kathmandu and the Gorkha District, making it a vital trading route to Tibet. On his return to Gorkha from Varanasi, Prithivi Narayan Shah first took steps to defeat Nuwakot in the diplomatic field.
He entered into friendly alliance with the chiefs of Lamjung and Palpa. This done, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent an army against Nuwakot from three directions; the Chief of Nuwakot knowing that Gorkha is going to attack them in near fut
Shaivism is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being. The followers of Shaivism are called "Shaivites" or "Saivites", it is one of the largest sects that believe Shiva — worshipped as a creator and destroyer of worlds — is the supreme god over all. The Shaiva have many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism, it considers the Agama texts as important sources of theology. The origin of Shaivism may be traced to the conception of Rudra in the Rig Veda. Shaivism has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic deity Rudra; the ancient text Shvetashvatara Upanishad dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra and Maheshwaram, but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism is disputed. In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism.
Both devotional and monistic Shaivism became popular in the 1st millennium CE becoming the dominant religious tradition of many Hindu kingdoms. It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions. In the contemporary era, Shaivism is one of the major aspects of Hinduism. Shaivism theology ranges from Shiva being the creator, destroyer to being the same as the Atman within oneself and every living being, it is related to Shaktism, some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples. It is the Hindu tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga, like other Hindu traditions encourages an individual to discover and be one with Shiva within. Shaivism is one of the largest traditions within Hinduism. Shiva means kind, gracious, or auspicious; as a proper name, it means "The Auspicious One". The word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra.
The term Shiva connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity, the "creator and dissolver"; the Sanskrit word śaiva or Shaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", while the related beliefs, history and sub-traditions constitute Shaivism. The reverence for Shiva is one of the pan-Hindu traditions, found across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal. While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, it has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book. Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology, predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva. Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional differences in philosophy.
Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism and mixed schools. The origins of Shaivism a matter of debate among scholars; some trace the origins to the Indus Valley civilization, which reached its peak around 2500–2000 BCE. Archeological discoveries show seals. Of these is the Pashupati seal, which early scholars interpreted as someone seated in a meditating yoga pose surrounded by animals, with horns; this "Pashupati" seal has been interpreted by these scholars as a prototype of Shiva. Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that it is not clear from the seal if the figure has three faces, or is seated in a yoga posture, or that the shape is intended to represent a human figure. Other scholars state that the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered, the interpretation of the Pashupati seal is uncertain. According to Srinivasan, the proposal that it is proto-Shiva may be a case of projecting "later practices into archeological findings".
Asko Parpola states that other archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to 3000–2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as "seated bull" and not a yogi, the bull interpretation is more accurate. The Rigveda has the earliest clear mention of Rudra in its hymns such as 2.33, 1.43 and 1.114. The text includes a Satarudriya, an influential hymn with embedded hundred epithets for Rudra, cited in many medieval era Shaiva texts as well as recited in major Shiva temples of Hindus in contemporary times. Yet, the Vedic literature only present scriptural theology, but does not attest to the existence of Shaivism; the Shvetashvatara Upanishad composed before the Bhagavad Gita about 4th century BCE contains the theistic foundations of Shaivism wrapped in a monistic structure. It contains the key terms and ideas of Shaivism, such as Shiva, Maheswara, Bhakti, Atman and self-knowledge. According to Gavin Flood, "the formation of Śaiva traditions as we understand them begins to occur during the period from 200 BC to 100 AD."
According to Chakravarti, Shiva rose to prominence as he was identified to be the