Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon
The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. Consisting of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively; the tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, brother-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton; this fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death.
His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. At one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporary objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation, to become influential; the tomb effigy is positioned above the carved limestone altarpiece. Designated a Monument historique on June 18, 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Palais de Chaillot, Paris. René of Chalon, Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Gelre, died on 15 July 1544, aged 25, during the siege of St. Dizier where he fought for Emperor Charles V. René had been mortally wounded in battle the previous day, died with the Emperor in attendance at his bedside, he died without leaving any direct descendants.
Charles wrote soon after to René's wife, Anna of Lorraine, setting out in detail the circumstances of René's last hours and death. The monument fulfills his wish that he be represented above this tomb as an écorché, a body without skin, "as he would be three years after his death". Cadaver tombs had been built for other members of the family, including his father Henry III of Nassau-Breda, his uncle Philibert of Chalon, his grandmother, the uncle of his wife. René requested that his tomb present him "not as a standard figure but a life-size skeleton with strips of dried skin flapping over a hollow carcass, whose right hand clutches at the empty rib cage while the left hand holds high his heart in a grand gesture". René's intention has never been definitively attributed, there is no mention of it in either Charles' letter or René's will. Given this lack of record and that, at only 25 years, René was unlikely to have thought about his own burial and memorial, it seems most that the idea behind the design came from Anna.
She is known to have commissioned the piece from Ligier Richier, little known outside his local area of Saint-Mihiel in north-eastern France. Although the precise dating is uncertain, it is known to have begun after 1544 and was completed before 1557; the tomb has become his influential work. In accordance with contemporary funeral rites, René's heart and bones were separated, his heart and bowels were kept at Bar-le-Duc and placed in the Collegiate Church of St. Maxe, demolished during the French Revolution and abandoned in 1782, while the rest were transferred to Breda to be interred with his father and his daughter, who died in early infancy, his widow commissioned Richier to construct a transi to hold some of the remains of her husband. The monument, along with other remains and relics of members of his family, were reinterred at the church of Saint-Étienne in June 1790. Anna commissioned the tomb as a memento mori, but the level of detail she may have specified is uncertain, it is Richier's best known work, remarkable for its original presentation of a "living corpse", a motif unparalleled in earlier funerary art.
He produced one more work in his Death, now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon. Both works are comparable in form and intent to the 1520s La Mort Saint-Innocent from the Holy Innocents' Cemetery in Paris, now in the Musee du Louvre. In that work, a realistically depicted and emaciated corpse raises his right hand upwards while holding a shield in his left hand; the limestone statue is composed from three blocks of stone making up his head and torso, his left arm, his legs and pelvis. Both the statue and its frame are supported by an iron stud located at the figure's pelvis; the life-sized figure represents a putrefied and emaciated, skinless corpse, is positioned above an altarpiece. Its left arm reaches out; the hand of the outstretched arm may have once have held his preserved heart, extends in a gesture that may be either pleading or in tribute to a higher being. It is 177 cm in height, made from black marble and limestone; the skeleton is sculpted with unflinching realism. It is placed on a stylobate.
A coat of arms is placed undern
Duchy of Bar
The County of Bar was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc. It was held by the House of Montbéliard from the 11th century. Part of the county, the so-called Barrois mouvant, became a fief of the Kingdom of France in 1301 and was elevated to the Duchy of Bar in 1354; the Barrois non-mouvant remained a part of the Empire. From 1480, it was united to the imperial Duchy of Lorraine. Both imperial Bar and Lorraine were ceded to France in 1735, which ceded Bar to the deposed king of Poland, Stanislaus Leszczynski. According to the Treaty of Vienna, the duchy would pass to the French crown upon Stanislaus' death, which occurred in 1766; the county of Bar originated in the frontier fortress of Bar that Duke Frederick I of Upper Lorraine built on the bank of the river Ornain around 960. The fortress was directed at the counts of Champagne, who had made incursions into Frederick's allodial lands. Frederick confiscated some lands from the nearby Abbey of Saint-Mihiel and settled his knights on it.
The original Barrois was thus a mixture of the duke's allodial lands and confiscated church lands enfeoffed to knights. On the death of Duke Frederick III in 1033, these lands passed to his sister, the first person to associate the comital title with Bar, styling herself "Countess of Bar". Sophia's descendants, of the House of Montbéliard, expanded Bar "by usurpation, conquest and marriage" into a de facto autonomous state perched between France and Germany, its population was francophone and culturally French, the counts were involved in French politics. Count Reginald II married a sister of the queen of France, Adele, his son, Henry I, died on the Third Crusade in 1190. From 1214 to 1291 Bar was ruled by Henry II and Theobald II, who secured the western frontier with Champagne by granting fiefs to French nobles and buying their homage. In 1297 King Philip IV of France invaded the Barrois because Count Henry III had given aid to his father-in-law, Edward I of England, when the latter intervened against France in the Franco-Flemish War.
In the Treaty of Bruges of 1301 Henry was forced to recognise all of his county west of the river Meuse as a fief of France. This was the origin of the Barrois mouvant: a territory, turned into a fief was said to have "moved" and entered the mouvance of its suzerain, it was subject to the Parliament of Paris. The Treaty of Bruges did not represent any expansion of French territory; the territory to the west of the Meuse was French since the Treaty of Verdun of 843, but in 1301 it became a direct fief of the crown, including its allodial parts. In 1354 the Count of Bar was thereafter recognised as a Peer of France. Père Anselme believed that Count Robert had been created a duke by King John II of France in preparation for the count's marriage to John's daughter, Mary; the rulers of Bar were not created dukes by imperial appointment. The only title Count Robert received by imperial grant in 1354 was that of Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson; this margraviate was bestowed by the Dukes of Bar on their heirs apparent.
In that same year the emperor raised the County of Luxembourg into a duchy and Bar fell between two duchies and Upper Lorraine. The ducal title was accepted by the emperors and the imperial tax register of 1532 records the "Duchy on the Meuse" as a voting member of the Reichstag. In 1430 the last duke of the male line of the ruling house, died. Bar passed to his great-nephew, René I, married to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. In 1431 the couple inherited Lorraine. On René's death in 1480, Bar passed to his daughter Yolanda and her son, René II, Duke of Lorraine. In 1482 he conquered the prévôté of Virton, a part of the Duchy of Luxembourg, annexed it to Bar. In 1484 Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, regent for King Charles VIII of France, formally installed him in the Duchy of Bar. In his final testament published in 1506, René decreed that the two duchies of Bar and Lorraine should never be separated; the two duchies remained joined in personal union permanently. On 2 October 1735 the preliminary Treaty of Vienna between France and the Empire ending the War of the Polish Succession granted Bar and Lorraine to the deposed king of Poland, Stanislaus Leszczynski.
It was agreed that he should receive Bar but for Lorraine he had to wait until the death of Grand Duke Gian Gastone of Tuscany, so that the deposed duke of Lorraine could inherit Tuscany. In January 1736, Stanislaus formally renounced his claim to the Polish throne. In August and the Empire finalized their agreement concerning the exchange of territories; the emperor renounced his suzerainty over Lorraine. On 30 September 1736, Stanislaus signed a convention, known as the Declaration of Meudon, whereby the French king would appoint the governor of Lorraine. On 8 February 1737, Stanislaus took possession on 21 March of Lorraine. On 18 November 1738, the final Treaty of Vienna was signed. Stanislaus turned over the incomes from Bar and Lorraine to the French crown in exchange for a generous pension, which he used to fund construction projects in the duchies. On his death on 23 February 1766 the duchies passed to the royal domain of France as per the treaty. All the dates are regnal dates. All rulers before Sophia ruled Bar, but did not use the title "Count of Bar".
House of ArdennesFrederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine Theodoric I, Duke of Upper Lorraine Frederick II, Duke of Upper Lorraine Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Ligier Richier was a French sculptor active in Saint-Mihiel in north-eastern France. Richier worked in the churches of his native Saint-Mihiel and from 1530 he enjoyed the protection of Duke Antoine of Lorraine, for whom he did important work. Whilst Richier did sometimes work in wood, he preferred the pale, soft limestone with its fine grain, few veins, extracted at Saint Mihiel and Sorcy and when working in this medium he experimented with refined polishing techniques, with which he was able to give the stone a marble-like appearance. One of his finest works is the "Groupe de la Passion", consisting of 13 life-size figures made in the local stone of the Meuse region, it can be found in the Church of St. Étienne. It is known as the "Pâmoison de la Vierge". Other works attributed to him are in the Church of St. Pierre, Bar-le-Duc, in the Louvre, his work "Le Transi de René de Chalon" is in the church of Saint-Étienne i, Bar-le-Duc. Made in Sorcy stone and standing at 1m74cm, it depicts the corpse of Rene de Chalon, Prince of Orange in the form of a flayed corpse clutching its own heart.
Whilst little is known of Ligier Richier's personal life, it is recorded that in 1560, with the others living in Saint-Mihiel, he petitioned the Duke of Lorraine in order to practice in the reformed Protestant religion. He was unsuccessful, for in 1564 he joined his daughter Bernadine in Geneva, Switzerland, she had married Pierre Godart, another Protestant who left Lorraine because of his religious beliefs. Richier remained in Geneva until his death in 1567. More than any other French artist of his period, Ligier Richier produced some notable works linked to the "Passion"; some researchers believe he was born in Dragonville near Commercy, but there is evidence that he was born in Saint-Mihiel The people of Saint-Mihiel and its immediate neighbourhood are known as "Sammiellois". It is not clear. Richier executed calvaries for the parish church in Briey and for Saint-Étienne's church in Bar-le-Duc, the famous "mise au tombeau" for the Saint-Mihiel church of Saint-Étienne, a pietà for a church in Étain, a depiction of the Virgin Mary fainting for Saint-Michel's church in Saint-Mihiel and was responsible for other works in neighbouring villages and towns in Lorraine.
He executed some funerary statues including the statue on the tomb of René de Chalon, the Prince of Orange, killed in 1544 at the Battle of Saint-Dizier, located in the church of Saint-Étienne in Bar-le-Duc, this a macabre exercise in "écorché". He produced a sculpture for the tomb of Philippa de Gueldres, the widow of Duke René II of Lorraine in Pont-à-Mousson where she died in 1547. From 1530 onwards Richier worked under the protection of Duke Antoine of Lorraine, for whom he did important work. Although he worked in wood, he preferred the soft limestone available from quarries around Saint-Mihiel and Sorcy and by developing new polishing techniques he was able to give the limestone a marble-like appearance. Sculptures by Ligier Richier Media related to Ligier Richier at Wikimedia Commons List of Ligier Richier works at the Louvre List of Ligier Richier works Ligier Richier in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Jean, Cardinal of Lorraine
Jean de Lorraine was the third son of the ruling Duke of Lorraine, a French cardinal, archbishop of Reims and Narbonne, bishop of Metz, Administrator of the dioceses of Toul, Verdun, Thérouanne, Luçon, Valence and Agen. He was a personal friend and advisor of King Francis I of France. Jean de Lorraine was the richest prelate in the reign of Francis I, as well as the most flagrant pluralist, he is one of several cardinals known as the Cardinal de Lorraine. Born in Bar-le-Duc, Jean was the sixth child of twelve, of René II, Duke of Lorraine and his wife Philippa of Guelders, sister of Charles, Duke of Guelders, he was Duke of Lorraine and Claude, Duke of Guise. His younger brother, François, Comte de Lambesc, died in the Battle of Pavia in 1525. In 1520 his mother retired to the Convent of S. Claire du Pont-à-Mousson, where she became a professed nun. In 1500 baby Jean succeeded Cardinal Raymond Peraudi as Coadjutor of his uncle Henri de Vaudemont-Lorraine, Bishop of Metz; the Chapter of the Cathedral gave its consent, on 3 November 1500, Pope Alexander VI gave his consent in 1501.
The Cardinal was compensated for his trouble with the monastery of S. Mansu in Toul; the purpose of such a strange arrangement was the desire of Duke René to keep the bishopric of Metz in family hands. Bishop Henri formally resigned the See of Metz on 16 July 1505 in favor of his nephew Jean, due to Jean's extreme youth, Henri continued as Administrator until his own death on 20 October 1505. From that point the Cathedral Chapter, whose Dean was the Bishop of Toul, assumed responsibility for the administration of the diocese, until Jean de Lorraine became twenty in 1518, with Jean receiving one-third of the episcopal revenues. Spiritual functions were in the hands of the Bishop of Nicopolis, Conrad de Heyden, O. Cist. Suffragan of Metz. Despite his youth, on 19 October 1517, following the death of Bishop Hugh de Hazards, Jean de Lorraine was elected Bishop of Toul by the Chapter of the Cathedral, he resigned the bishopric in 1524. It is conjectured that Jean was introduced to the French Court and met King Francis for the first time at the wedding of his brother Antoine to Renée de Bourbon on 26 June 1515.
On 28 May 1518 Jean de Lorraine, Bishop of Metz, aged twenty, was created a Cardinal-Deacon by Pope Leo X in his seventh Consistory for the creation of cardinals. Jean was the only cardinal created on that occasion. Leo, made a cardinal himself at the age of thirteen, could hardly refuse the King of France on the grounds of youth. On 7 January 1519 he was assigned the Deaconry of S. Onofrio in Trastevere, his red hat was sent to him in France, he visited Rome in April 1521. He had returned home when Leo X died on 1 December 1521, thus he did not attend the Conclave of 27 December 1521 − 9 January 1522, which elected Cardinal Adrian Florenszoon Dedel, who took the throne name Pope Adrian VI. In 1520 Jean de Lorraine was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, along with Cardinals Adrien Gouffier de Boissy, François Louis de Bourbon, Amanieu d'Albret, and indeed his non-political position continued to be the case throughout the 1520s. Cardinal Jean de Lorraine was appointed Bishop of Terouanne on 29 October 1521, taking possession of his church on 7 January 1522.
He held the See until 1535. From 1522 his career path is that of an individual who enjoys without interruption the favor of the King, all the way to the King's death in 1547, he enjoyed the status of favorite, along with the realities of counsellor. On 7 January 1524 Cardinal Jean was named Archbishop of Narbonne, in succession to Giulio de' Medici, elected Pope Clement VII, he held the church until his death. In August 1527 the Cardinal de Lorraine was appointed by King Francis to meet and greet Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, who had come to France to negotiate with King Francis, to escort him to the French Court, he was not yet a royal advisor or a member of the Royal Council, but was being tested and groomed. He was, after all. Negotiations were conducted with Wolsey by royal commissioners, leading to the Treaty of Amiens, ratified by the King on 18 August; the treaty addressed the joint English and French reaction to the Sack of Rome in May 1527 and the imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in the Castel S. Angelo.
But the Cardinal de Lorraine had no part in that business. The principal negotiator was Antoine du Prat, he was, one of the four French cardinals who were present at Compiègne on 16 September and wrote, under Wolsey's leadership as Papal Legate, to the Pope, informing him that they were praying for his release from captivity and planned, if the Emperor should not accommodate them, to refuse any papal orders issued under duress. He witnessed the investing of the Chancellor, Antoine du Prat, with the symbols of the cardinalate, granted him by the Pope at the request of King Francis, his growing importance is reflected in a list of precedence of 1528, in which he and the King of Navarre follow after the King. In 1528 he was named Abbot Commendatory of the Abbey of Cluny by King Francis I, a benefice he held until his death in 1550; the monks of Cluny had tried to reassert their old rights of election, had chosen Jacques le Roy, Abbot of Saint-Florent, to be the new abbot of Cluny, but the King and the Pope intervened, in accordance with the Concordat of Bologna of 1516, Le Roy was made Archbishop of Bourges instead.
On 1 August 1530, Pope Clement VII granted the Cardinal of Lorraine an indult a
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M