The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units. It is defined as equal to 100,000 Pa, the atmospheric pressure on earth at an altitude of about 111 meters and a temperature of 15 °C or less than the current average pressure at sea level; the bar and the millibar were introduced by the Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes, a founder of the modern practice of weather forecasting. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures lists the bar as one of the "non-SI units should have the freedom to use", but has declined to include it among the "Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI"; the bar has been recognised in countries of the European Union since 2004. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology deprecates its use except for "limited use in meteorology" and lists it as one of several units that "must not be introduced in fields where they are not presently used"; the International Astronomical Union lists it under "Non-SI units and symbols whose continued use is deprecated".
Units derived from the bar include the megabar, decibar and millibar. The notation bar, though deprecated by various bodies, represents gauge pressure, i.e. pressure in bars above ambient or atmospheric pressure. The bar is defined using the SI derived unit, pascal: 1 bar ≡ 100,000 Pa ≡ 100,000 N/m2. Thus, 1 bar is equal to: 1,000,000 Ba. Notes: 1 millibar = 1 one-thousandth bar, or 1×10−3 bar 1 millibar = 1 hectopascal; the word bar has its origin in the Greek word βάρος, meaning weight. The unit's official symbol is bar. Between 1793 and 1795, the word bar was used for a unit of weight in an early version of the metric system. Atmospheric air pressure is given in millibars, where standard atmospheric pressure is defined as 1013.25 mbar, 101.325 kPa, 1.01325 bar, about 14.7 pounds per square inch. Despite the millibar not being an SI unit and weather reporters worldwide have long measured air pressure in millibars as the values are convenient. After the advent of SI units, some meteorologists began using hectopascals which are numerically equivalent to millibars.
For example, the weather office of Environment Canada uses kilopascals and hectopascals on their weather maps. In contrast, Americans are familiar with the use of the millibar in US reports of hurricanes and other cyclonic storms. In fresh water, there is an approximate numerical equivalence between the change in pressure in decibars and the change in depth from the water surface in metres. An increase of 1 decibar occurs for every 1.019716 m increase in depth. In sea water with respect to the gravity variation, the latitude and the geopotential anomaly the pressure can be converted into metres' depth according to an empirical formula; as a result, decibars are used in oceanography. Many engineers worldwide use the bar as a unit of pressure because, in much of their work, using pascals would involve using large numbers. In measurement of vacuum and in vacuum engineering, residual pressures are given in millibar, although torr or millimeter of mercury were common. Engineers that specialize in technical safety for offshore petrochemical facilities would be expected to refer to explosion loads in units of bar or bars.
A bar is a convenient unit of measure for pressures generated by low frequency vapor cloud explosions that are considered as part of accidental loading risk studies. In the automotive field, turbocharger boost is described in bars outside the United States. Tire pressure is specified in bar. Unicode has characters for "mb" and "bar", but they exist only for compatibility with legacy Asian encodings and are not intended to be used in new documents; the kilobar, equivalent to 100 MPa, is used in geological systems in experimental petrology. "Bar" and "bara" are sometimes used to indicate absolute pressures and "bar" and "barg" for gauge pressures. This usage is deprecated and fuller descriptions such as "gauge pressure of 2 bar" or "2-bar gauge" are recommended. Atmospheric pressure Centimetre of water Conversion of units Meteorology Metric prefix Orders of magnitude Pressure measurement This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Bar", licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL.
Official SI website: Table 8. Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI US government atmospheric pressure map showing atmospheric pressure in mbar
The Diamond Quadrilateral is a project of the Indian railways to establish a high speed rail network in India. The Diamond Quadrilateral will connect the four mega cities in India, Mumbai and Chennai, similar to the Golden Quadrilateral expressway system. High-speed train on Mumbai-Ahmedabad section will be the first high-speed train corridor to be implemented in the country. On 9 June 2014, the President of India Pranab Mukherjee mentioned that the Government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi will launch a Diamond Quadrilateral project of high speed trains. Prior to the 2014 general election, the two major national parties pledged to introduce high-speed rail; the INC pledged to connect all of India's million-plus cities by high-speed rail, whereas BJP, which won the election, promised to build the "Diamond Quadrilateral" project, which would connect the cities of Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai via high-speed rail. This project was approved as a priority for the new government in the incoming president's speech.
Construction of one kilometer of high speed railway track will cost ₹100 crore - ₹140 crore, 10-14 times higher than the cost of construction of standard railway. India's Union Council of Ministers passed the proposal of Japan to build India's first high-speed railway on 10 December 2015; the planned rail will run 500 km between Mumbai and the western city of Ahmedabad at a top speed of 320 km/h. Under this proposal, the construction began in 2017 and is expected to be completed in the year 2022; the estimated cost of this project is ₹980 billion and is financed by a low-interest loan from Japan. Operation is targeted to begin in 2023, but India has announced intentions to attempt to bring the line into operation one year earlier, it will transport the passengers from Ahmedabad to Mumbai in just 3 hours and its ticket fare will be cheaper than air planes i.e. ₹2500-₹3000. Contracts have been awarded to carry out the feasibility study of high speed rail corridors; the corridors being considered for feasibility study are as follows, Package 1: Delhi Mumbai - Feasibility Study Contract awarded to a Consortium of M/s The Third Railway Survey and Design Institute Group Corporation and Lahmeyer International Pvt.
Ltd, a Package 2: Mumbai Chennai - Feasibility Study Contract awarded to a Consortium of M/s SYSTRA - RITES- Ernest &Young LLP Package 3: Delhi Kolkata - Feasibility Study Contract awarded to a Consortium of M/s INECO - M/s TYPSA- M/s Intercontinental Consultants and Technocrats Private Limited. Expected cost of 1583 km Delhi - Kolkata corridor is around ₨ 84000 crores and is capable of reducing the travel time to just over 5 hrs from existing 17 hrs taken by Rajdhani; the Ministry of Railways stated that the final feasibility reports for three high speed rail lines — from Mumbai to Chennai and Nagpur - would be completed by January 2017. Preliminary geo-technical studies, other related studies, are expected to begin by 2018. Golden Quadrilateral Rail transport in India Setu Bharatam High Speed Rail Corporation of India Limited Powering a high-speed dream - Sanjib Kumar Das, Gulf News New Indian government moots high-speed rail network, Chris Sleight, KHL
The New Mexico State University Golf Course is an 18-hole golf course within the campus of New Mexico State University, in the city of Las Cruces, New Mexico. The golf course is opened to the public, it features 4 sets of tees for different skill measures 7078 yards from the longest tees. The golf course has a slope rating of a 72.7 USGA rating. It is the home of New Mexico State Aggies' men's and women's golf team. Students of New Mexico State University's PGA GM™ program have the opportunity to use the facility for practice and play; the PGA Golf Management Program is offered only to few universities, is the only program to be offered in New Mexico. It is the third in the nation to be endorsed by the PGA in 1987; the program is accredited by the Professional Golfers' Association of America, administered by the College of Business, that offers the Bachelor of Business Administration, major in Marketing-PGA Golf Management. The facility serves as the cross country course for the New Mexico State Aggies men's and women's cross country teams.
The 2017 WAC cross country championship was held on the course. Official website