SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pressure

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure; some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area. Pressure may be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer. Pressure is the amount of force applied at right angles to the surface of an object per unit area; the symbol for it is p or P. The IUPAC recommendation for pressure is a lower-case p. However, upper-case P is used; the usage of P vs p depends upon the field in which one is working, on the nearby presence of other symbols for quantities such as power and momentum, on writing style. Mathematically: p = F A, where: p is the pressure, F is the magnitude of the normal force, A is the area of the surface on contact.

Pressure is a scalar quantity. It relates the vector area element with the normal force acting on it; the pressure is the scalar proportionality constant that relates the two normal vectors: d F n = − p d A = − p n d A. The minus sign comes from the fact that the force is considered towards the surface element, while the normal vector points outward; the equation has meaning in that, for any surface S in contact with the fluid, the total force exerted by the fluid on that surface is the surface integral over S of the right-hand side of the above equation. It is incorrect to say "the pressure is directed in such or such direction"; the pressure, as a scalar, has no direction. The force given by the previous relationship to the quantity has a direction, but the pressure does not. If we change the orientation of the surface element, the direction of the normal force changes accordingly, but the pressure remains the same. Pressure is distributed to solid boundaries or across arbitrary sections of fluid normal to these boundaries or sections at every point.

It is a fundamental parameter in thermodynamics, it is conjugate to volume. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, equal to one newton per square metre; this name for the unit was added in 1971. Other units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch and bar, are in common use; the CGS unit of pressure is 0.1 Pa.. Pressure is sometimes expressed in grams-force or kilograms-force per square centimetre and the like without properly identifying the force units, but using the names kilogram, kilogram-force, or gram-force as units of force is expressly forbidden in SI. The technical atmosphere is 1 kgf/cm2. Since a system under pressure has the potential to perform work on its surroundings, pressure is a measure of potential energy stored per unit volume, it is therefore related to energy density and may be expressed in units such as joules per cubic metre. Mathematically: p =; some meteorologists prefer the hectopascal for atmospheric air pressure, equivalent to the older unit millibar. Similar pressures are given in kilopascals in most other fields, where the hecto- prefix is used.

The inch of mercury is still used in the United States. Oceanographers measure underwater pressure in decibars because pressure in the ocean increases by one decibar per metre depth; the standard atmosphere is an established constant. It is equal to typical air pressure at Earth mean sea level and is defined as 101325 Pa; because pressure is measured by its ability to displace a column of liquid in a manometer, pressures are expressed as a depth of a particular fluid. The most common choices are water; the pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h and density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation p = ρgh, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Fluid density and local gravity can vary from one reading to another depending on local factors, so the height of a

Make It Happen (film)

Make It Happen is a 2008 dance film directed by Darren Grant and starring Mary Elizabeth Winstead. The screenplay was co-written by Duane Adler, a screenwriter for other dance films Step Up and Save the Last Dance; the movie opens in Glenwood, where Lauryn Kirk narrates the first few parts. There are no dance schools in Glenwood and Lauryn says goodbye to her brother, Joel before departing for Chicago to audition for a famous dance school, the fictional Chicago School of Music and Dance. Although Joel, who works as a mechanic in the family garage, is wary of Lauryn's decision to enroll, he gives her his blessing; when Lauryn enters the stage, her dance was halted by the judge, who hostilely rejects her, saying that they need to see something more "sensual and feminine". Dejected, Lauryn soon finds her car towed off. Upon seeing her misfortunes, Dana, a friendly waitress from the diner invites Lauryn to her apartment and out of the pouring rain. Dana subsequently offers Lauryn a place to stay, considering Lauryn could not go back home and face her brother.

The next day, Dana brings Lauryn to a club called Ruby's, where she meets with Russ, the slick-talking disc jockey, Brenda, the club owner. Brenda hires Lauryn as a bookkeeper, in light of her skills with numbers. Lauryn watches as a dancer, Carmen performs impressively on the stage. Before locking up late one night, Lauryn goes on the stage and silently and elegantly dances, while unbeknownest to her, Russ watches from a distance; the next night, Brenda finds herself short of dancers. Russ asks Lauryn to dance, after having seen her graceful performance the previous night. Lauryn reluctantly agrees, goes on stage. At first, new to the sexy routine, Lauryn looks foolish, but when Russ starts playing hip-hop music, Lauryn does a sexy hip-hop routine, finds herself to be Ruby's new star; as Lauryn and Russ' relationship progresses, Lauryn continues performing stunningly on stage, much to Carmen's chagrin. One night however, Joel catches Lauryn at the club during a dance. Soon after though, Joel catches a peek of Lauryn joyfully dancing in the garage one day, asks Lauryn to give the audition another shot.

Uplifted, Lauryn returns to Chicago for a second audition. She nails it, embraces Russ, who has come to encourage her. Lauryn goes back to Ruby's to apologize to Brenda, but finds a surprise congratulatory party awaiting for her; the movie concludes. "What attracted me to "Make It Happen" was the fact that I could just incorporate a lot of styles that I had done over the years. You have the dance element, each little dance routine was going to be like its own little music video," Grant explains; when it came to helping the director to tell the story, Grant went to work with longtime collaborator, 1999 Kodak Cinematography Award winner David Claessen. "I've worked with David since I was a PA and an electrician, I always liked the way he lights. We've done music videos that have been amazing and every frame is like a portrait or a picture." With the main principles of the production set, the filmmakers went on to find their Lauryn Kirk. On July 11, 2007, Rotten Tomatoes reveal the casting of Mary Elizabeth Winstead in the lead role.

Winstead, who started dancing at the age of four, was thrilled and a little shocked to be offered the role of Lauryn. "I got offered the role kind of out of the blue. And I was excited because it's a dance film and dance has been a passion of mine for a long time growing up, so it was just a great opportunity." Soon after, Winstead began practicing the dance moves with choreographer Tracy Phillips. In June, Riley Smith announces his association with the film in his official website. On August 16, Ashley Roberts was announced as joining the film by Entertainment Sunflashes; the film was shot on location in Winnipeg, Canada, from August 8 until September 17, 2007. In mid July, promotions for the film began in UK. On July 11, the theatrical international trailer was released through Optimum Releasing, followed by promotional and production stills. Soon after, promotional clips began sneaking their way into the Internet, TV spots started airing in UK TV channels; the theatrical trailer was released thereafter.

The first UK review surfaced on August 3. Make It Happen was released in the UK on August 8, 2008; the film was further released in Iceland on the 28th of August, in Singapore and Australia on September 4. The film debuted in the Philippines on 1 October, premiered in Hong Kong theaters on November 13; the film was released in Netherlands on February 5, 2009 and Belgium on the 18th. Make It Happen made its final theatrical run in France, on 10 June 2009 a year after the film's shooting production began. Make It Happen was released first in the UK on the 8th of August. During its initial release, the film grossed $945,349 over the weekend and ended up fifth on the box office chart, it spent a total of one week on the top 10 chart, before dropping down to the 12th position in its second week, earning $216,923 as the weekend gross. The film grossed $2,616,579 a total of over its run in the UK, it was further released on the 4th of September in both Australia and Singapore, where it went on to collect a total of $1,526,207 and $91,686 respectively.

It made $108,174 in the Philippines after its debut on 1 October

1996 European Parliament election in Austria

The European Parliament election of 1996 in Austria was the election of the delegation from Austria to the European Parliament in 1996. Source:In 1996, Austria was a country with a population of 7.9 million. The federal government was a "grand coalition" of the Social Democratic Party and the Christian Democratic Party and was led by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky. Source:At the last national election in 1995, the parties obtained the following results: SPÖ: 38.1%, ÖVP: 28.3%, FPÖ: 21.9%, Liberals: 5.5% and Greens: 4.8%. Source:PES Group: Albrecht Karl KONECNY, Elisabeth HLAVAC, Erhard MEIER, Erich FARTHOFER, Herbert BÖSCH, Hilde HAWLICEK*, Ilona GRAENITZ, Irene CREPAZ. EPP Group: Agnes SCHIERHUBER, Friedrich KÖNIG, Michael SPINDELEGGER, Milan LINZER, Paul RÜBIG, Reinhard RACK*. NI: Erich SCHREINER, Franz LINSER*, Klaus LUKAS, Wolfgang JUNG, Wolfgang NUßBAUMER. ELDR Group: Martina GREDLER* Green Group: Johannes VOGGENHUBER*. An asterisk indicates Members standing for re-election. Source:The electoral system used for the European elections was based on proportional representation, comparable to the system traditionally used in Austria for legislative elections.

The parties put forward lists of candidates. The seats are shared out on the basis of the percentage of the votes obtained by each list; because of the limited number of seats, the lists were identical for the whole of Austria. The threshold required to win a seat was 4%. Candidates who win 7% of the total'preference votes' obtained by their party would win one of the seats accorded to the party, irrespective of their position on the list; the lists of candidates had to be signed by three members of the national parliament, or by one Member of the European Parliament, or by 2600 voters. The minimum voting age was 18. European citizens residing in Austria were entitled to vote provided that they did not vote in their country of origin in the June 1994 European elections. 7205 European citizens fulfilled that condition. Source:The following political parties entered lists for the European elections on 13 October 1996: SPÖ: chief candidate Mr Hannes SWOBODA. ÖVP: chief candidate Mrs Ursula STENZEL.

FPÖ: chief candidate Mr Franz LINSER*. Liberales Forum: chief candidate Mr Friedhelm FRISCHENSCHLAGER. Die Grünen: chief candidate Mr Johannes VOGGENHUBER*. Forum Handicap: Mr Klaus VOGET. KPÖ: Mr Walter BAIER. N-Die Neutralen