Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called "plantains", distinguishing them from dessert bananas; the fruit is variable in size and firmness, but is elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. All modern edible seedless bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name for this hybrid, Musa sapientum, is no longer used. Musa species are native to tropical Indomalaya and Australia, are to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea, they are grown in 135 countries for their fruit, to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine, banana beer and as ornamental plants.
The world's largest producers of bananas in 2017 were India and China, which together accounted for 38% of total production. Worldwide, there is no sharp distinction between "bananas" and "plantains". In the Americas and Europe, "banana" refers to soft, dessert bananas those of the Cavendish group, which are the main exports from banana-growing countries. By contrast, Musa cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called "plantains". In other regions, such as Southeast Asia, many more kinds of banana are grown and eaten, so the binary distinction is not useful and is not made in local languages; the term "banana" is used as the common name for the plants that produce the fruit. This can extend to other members of the genus Musa, such as the scarlet banana, the pink banana, the Fe'i bananas, it can refer to members of the genus Ensete, such as the snow banana and the economically important false banana. Both genera are in Musaceae; the banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. All the above-ground parts of a banana plant grow from a structure called a "corm".
Plants are tall and sturdy, are mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is a "false stem" or pseudostem. Bananas grow in a wide variety of soils, as long as the soil is at least 60 cm deep, has good drainage and is not compacted; the leaves of banana plants are composed of a blade. The base of the petiole widens to form a sheath; the edges of the sheath meet. As new growth occurs in the centre of the pseudostem the edges are forced apart. Cultivated banana plants vary in height depending on growing conditions. Most are around 5 m tall, with a range from'Dwarf Cavendish' plants at around 3 m to'Gros Michel' at 7 m or more. Leaves may grow 2.7 metres long and 60 cm wide. They are torn by the wind, resulting in the familiar frond look; when a banana plant is mature, the corm stops producing new leaves and begins to form a flower spike or inflorescence. A stem develops which grows up inside the pseudostem, carrying the immature inflorescence until it emerges at the top; each pseudostem produces a single inflorescence known as the "banana heart".
After fruiting, the pseudostem dies, but offshoots will have developed from the base, so that the plant as a whole is perennial. In the plantation system of cultivation, only one of the offshoots will be allowed to develop in order to maintain spacing; the inflorescence contains many bracts between rows of flowers. The female flowers appear in rows further up the stem from the rows of male flowers; the ovary is inferior, meaning that the tiny petals and other flower parts appear at the tip of the ovary. The banana fruits develop from the banana heart, in a large hanging cluster, made up of tiers, with up to 20 fruit to a tier; the hanging cluster is known as a bunch, comprising 3–20 tiers, or commercially as a "banana stem", can weigh 30–50 kilograms. Individual banana fruits average 125 grams, of which 75% is water and 25% dry matter; the fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". There is a protective outer layer with numerous long, thin strings, which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion.
The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety can be split lengthwise into three sections that correspond to the inner portions of the three carpels by manually deforming the unopened fruit. In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. Bananas are slightly radioactive, more so than most other fruits, because of their potassium content and the small amounts of the isotope potassium-40 found in occurring potassium; the banana equivalent dose of radiation is sometimes used in nuclear communication to compare radiation levels and exposures. The word banana is thought to be of West African origin from the Wolof word banaana, passed
Cucumber is a cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created. In North America, the term "wild cucumber" refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not related; the cucumber is from South Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market; the cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant may root in a soilless medium and will sprawl along the ground if it does not have supports; the vine has large leaves. The fruit of typical cultivars of cucumber is cylindrical, but elongated with tapered ends, may be as large as 60 centimeters long and 10 centimeters in diameter. Botanically speaking, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of botanical berry with a hard outer rind and no internal divisions.
Much like tomato and squash, it is perceived and eaten as a vegetable. Cucumber fruits consist of 95% water. A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination. Pollination for these cultivars degrades the quality. In the United States, these are grown in greenhouses, where bees are excluded. In Europe, they are grown outdoors in some regions, bees are excluded from these areas. Most cucumber cultivars, are seeded and require pollination. Thousands of hives of honey bees are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom for this purpose. Cucumbers may be pollinated by bumblebees and several other bee species. Most cucumbers that require pollination are self-incompatible, so pollen from a different plant is required to form seeds and fruit; some self-compatible cultivars exist. Symptoms of inadequate pollination include misshapen fruit. Pollinated flowers may develop fruit that are green and develop near the stem end, but are pale yellow and withered at the blossom end.
Traditional cultivars produce male blossoms first female, in about equivalent numbers. Newer gynoecious hybrid cultivars produce all female blossoms, they may have a pollenizer cultivar interplanted, the number of beehives per unit area is increased, but temperature changes induce male flowers on these plants, which may be sufficient for pollination to occur. In a 100-gram serving, raw cucumber is 95% water, provides 67 kilojoules and supplies low content of essential nutrients, as it is notable only for vitamin K at 16% of the Daily Value. In 2009, an international team of researchers announced. In general cultivation, cucumbers are classified into three main cultivar groups: "slicing", "pickling", "burpless". Cucumbers grown to eat fresh are called slicing cucumbers; the main varieties of slicers mature on vines with large leaves. They are eaten in the unripe green form, since the ripe yellow form becomes bitter and sour. Slicers grown commercially for the North American market are longer, more uniform in color, have a much tougher skin.
Slicers in other countries are smaller and have a thinner, more delicate skin having fewer seeds and being sold in a plastic skin for protection. Sometimes these are known as English cucumbers; this variety may be called a "telegraph cucumber" in Australasia. Smaller slicing cucumbers can be pickled. Pickling with brine, sugar and spices creates various, flavored products from cucumbers and other foods. Although any cucumber can be pickled, commercial pickles are made from cucumbers specially bred for uniformity of length-to-diameter ratio and lack of voids in the flesh; those cucumbers intended for pickling, called picklers, grow to about 7 to 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Compared to slicers, picklers tend to be shorter, less shaped, have bumpy skin with tiny white or black-dotted spines. Color can vary from creamy yellow to dark green. Gherkins called cornichons, baby dills, or baby pickles, are small, unsliced cucumbers those 1 inch to 5 inches in length with bumpy skin, pickled in variable combinations of brine, vinegar and sugar.
In the United Kingdom, gherkins may be prepared predominantly in vinegar, imparting an acidic flavor "punch" as a side-dish for meals. Although gherkins may be grown in greenhouses, they are grown as a field crop, processed locally, packaged in jars in Canada, the United States, India. India, Turkey and Mexico compete as producers for the global gherkin market, with the European Union, United States and Israel as major importers; the word gherkin derived in the mid-17th century from early modern Dutch, gurken or augurken for "small pickled cucumber". The term, West Indian gherkin, has been applied to Cucumis anguria L. a related species of Cucumis sativus, the most common cucumber plant. Burpless cucumbers have a thinner skin than other varieties of cucumber, they are reputed to be easy to have a pleasant taste. They can grow as long as 2 feet, are nearly seedless, have a delicate skin. Most grown in greenhouses, these parthenocarpic cucumbers are found in grocery markets, shrink-wrapped in plastic.
They are sometimes markete
Coriander known as Chinese parsley, the stems and leaves of which are called cilantro in North America, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste, but a smaller group of about 4–14% of people tested think the leaves taste like bath soap, as linked to a gene which detects aldehyde chemicals present in both. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia, it is a soft plant growing to 50 cm tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems; the flowers are borne in small umbels, white or pale pink, with the petals pointing away from the center of the umbel longer than those pointing toward it. The fruit is dry schizocarp 3 -- 5 mm in diameter. First attested in English in the late 14th century, the word "coriander" derives from the Old French: coriandre, which comes from Latin: coriandrum, in turn from Ancient Greek: κορίαννον, derived from Ancient Greek: κόρις, kóris, was given on account of its foetid, bed bug-like smell.
The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na written in Linear B syllabic script which evolved to koriannon or koriandron, koriander. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander deriving from coriandrum, it is the common term in North American English for coriander leaves, due to their extensive use in Mexican cuisine. Although native to Iran, coriander grows wild over a wide area of Western Asia and Southern Europe, prompting the comment: "It is hard to define where this plant is wild and where it only established itself." Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemar Cave in Israel, which may be the oldest archaeological find of coriander. About half a litre of coriander mericarps was recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamen, because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC.
One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves. This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking, Coriander is used in cuisines throughout the world; the leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro. Coriander may be confused with culantro, an Apiaceae like coriander, but from a different genus. Culantro has a distinctly different spiny appearance, a more potent volatile leaf oil and a stronger aroma; the leaves have a different taste with citrus overtones. The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods. In Portugal, chopped coriander is used in the bread soup Açorda, in India, chopped coriander is a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal.
As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are used raw or added to the dish before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes; the leaves spoil when removed from the plant, lose their aroma when dried or frozen. The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds; the word "coriander" in food preparation may refer to these seeds, rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes pinene, it is described as warm, nutty and orange-flavoured. The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm, while var. C. s. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm. Large-fruited types are grown by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco and Australia, contain a low volatile oil content, they are used extensively for blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and have a volatile oil content around 0.4-1.8%, so are valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.
Coriander is found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Roasting or heating the seeds in a dry pan heightens the flavour and pungency. Ground coriander seed loses flavour in storage and is best ground fresh. Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries which employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin, acting as a thickener in a mixture called dhana jeera. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack, they are the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes rasam. Outsid
Eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae, Solanum melongena, grown for its purple edible fruit. The spongy, absorbent fruit of the plant is used in cooking in many different cuisines, is considered a vegetable though it is a berry by botanical definition; as a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the potato. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, like the potato, it is not advisable to eat it raw. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts, it was domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, one in East Asia. The eggplant is a delicate, tropical perennial plant cultivated as a tender or half-hardy annual in temperate climates; the stem is spiny. The flowers are white to purple with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens.
Some common cultivars have fruit, egg-shaped and purple with white flesh and a spongy, "meaty" texture. Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape; the cut surface of the flesh turns brown when the fruit is cut open. Eggplant grows 40 to 150 cm tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm long and 5 to 10 cm broad. Semiwild types can grow 15 cm broad. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm in diameter. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco; the plant species is believed to have originated in India. It has been cultivated in eastern Asia since prehistory; the first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544. The numerous Arabic and North African names for it, along with the lack of the ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages.
A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic Spain described. Records exist from medieval Catalan and Spanish; the aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple: This plant groweth in Egypt everywhere... bringing foorth fruite of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: notwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse. Because of the plant's relationship with various other nightshades, the fruit was at one time believed to be poisonous; the flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the presence of solanine. The eggplant has a special place in folklore. In 13th-century Italian traditional folklore, the eggplant can cause insanity. In 19th-century Egypt, insanity was said to be "more common and more violent" when the eggplant is in season in the summer.
The plant and fruit have a profusion of English names. The name eggplant is usual in North American Australian English. First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was applied to white cultivars, which look much like hen's eggs. Similar names are widespread in other languages, such as the Icelandic term eggaldin or the Welsh planhigyn ŵy; the white, egg-shaped varieties of the egg-plant's fruits are known as garden eggs, a term first attested in 1811. The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was used. Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān. Bāḏinjān is itself a loan-word in Arabic, whose earliest traceable origins lie in the Dravidian languages; the Hobson-Jobson dictionary comments that'probably there is no word of the kind which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst retaining the same meaning, as this'. In English usage, modern names deriving from Arabic bāḏinjān include: Aubergine, usual in British English, German and Dutch.
Brinjal or brinjaul, usual in South Asia and South African English. Solanum melongena, the Linnaean name. All the aubergine-type names have the same origin, in the Dravidian languages. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam Tamil vaṟutuṇai; the Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted'the class the wind-disorder': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for egg-plants because they were thought to cure flatulence; the modern Hindustani words descending directly from the Sanskrit name began. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was borrowed into Persian as bādingān. Persian bādingān was borrowed in turn into Arabic as bāḏinjān. From Arabic, the word was
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
The carrot is a root vegetable orange in colour, though purple, red and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia; the plant originated in Persia and was cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the stems and leaves are eaten as well; the domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot. The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot. Fast-growing cultivars mature within three months of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars need a month longer; the roots contain high quantities of alpha- and beta-carotene, are a good source of vitamin K and vitamin B6, but the belief that eating carrots improves night vision is a myth put forward by the British in World War II to mislead the enemy about their military capabilities.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports that world production of carrots and turnips for the calendar year 2013 was 37.2 million tonnes. Carrots are used in many cuisines in the preparation of salads, carrot salads are a tradition in many regional cuisines; the word is first recorded in English circa 1530 and was borrowed from Middle French carotte, itself from Late Latin carōta, from Greek καρωτόν or karōton from the Indo-European root *ker-, due to its horn-like shape. In Old English, carrots were not distinguished from parsnips: the two were collectively called moru or more. Various languages still use the same word for "carrot" as they do for "root". Both written history and molecular genetic studies indicate that the domestic carrot has a single origin in Central Asia, its wild ancestors originated in Persia, which remains the centre of diversity for the wild carrot Daucus carota. A occurring subspecies of the wild carrot was bred selectively over the centuries to reduce bitterness, increase sweetness and minimise the woody core.
When they were first cultivated, carrots were grown for their aromatic leaves and seeds rather than their roots. Carrot seeds have been found in Switzerland and Southern Germany dating back to 2000–3000 BC; some close relatives of the carrot are still grown for their leaves and seeds, such as parsley, coriander, anise and cumin. The first mention of the root in classical sources is from the 1st century AD; the plant is depicted and described in the Eastern Roman Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century AD Constantinopolitan copy of the Greek physician Dioscorides' 1st-century pharmacopoeia of herbs and medicines, De Materia Medica. Three different types of carrots are depicted, the text states that "the root can be cooked and eaten"; the plant was introduced into Spain by the Moors in the 8th century. In the 10th century, roots from West Asia and Europe were purple; the modern carrot originated in Afghanistan at about this time. The 11th-century Jewish scholar Simeon Seth describes both red and yellow carrots, as does the 12th-century Arab-Andalusian agriculturist, Ibn al-'Awwam.
Cultivated carrots appeared in China in the 14th century, in Japan in the 18th century. There are many claims that Dutch growers created orange carrots in the 17th century to honor the Dutch flag at the time. Other authorities argue. Modern carrots were described at about this time by the English antiquary John Aubrey: "Carrots were first sown at Beckington in Somersetshire; some old Man there did remember their first bringing hither." European settlers introduced the carrot to colonial America in the 17th century. Outwardly purple carrots, still orange on the inside, were sold in British stores beginning in 2002. Daucus carota is a biennial plant. In the first year, its rosette of leaves produces large amounts of sugars, which are stored in the taproot to provide energy for the plant to flower in the second year. Soon after germination, carrot seedlings show a distinct demarcation between taproot and stem: the stem is thicker and lacks lateral roots. At the upper end of the stem is the seed leaf.
The first true leaf appears about 10–15 days after germination. Subsequent leaves are alternate, spirally arranged, pinnately compound, with leaf bases sheathing the stem; as the plant grows, the bases of the seed leaves, near the taproot, are pushed apart. The stem, located just above the ground, is compressed and the internodes are not distinct; when the seed stalk elongates for flowering, the tip of the stem narrows and becomes pointed, the stem extends upward to become a branched inflorescence up to 60–200 cm tall. Most of the taproot consists of an inner core. High-quality carrots have a large proportion of cortex compared to core. Although a xylem-free carrot is not possible, some cultivars have small and pigmented cores. Taproots are long and conical, although cylindrical and nearly-spherical cultivars are available