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Baralong incidents

The Baralong incidents were naval engagements of the First World War in August and September 1915, involving the Royal Navy decoy vessel HMS Baralong and two German U-boats. Baralong sank U-27, preparing to sink a nearby merchant ship, the Nicosian. About a dozen of the crewmen managed to escape from the sinking submarine, Lieutenant Godfrey Herbert, commanding officer of Baralong, ordered the surviving sailors to be summarily executed after they boarded the Nicosian. All the survivors of U-27's sinking, including several who had reached the Nicosian, were shot by Baralong's crew. Baralong sank U-41 in an incident, described as a war crime. After the sinking of RMS Lusitania by a German submarine in May 1915, Lieutenant-Commander Godfrey Herbert, commanding officer of Baralong, was visited by two officers of the Admiralty's Secret Service branch at the naval base at Queenstown, Ireland, he was told. Unofficially, we are telling you... take no prisoners from U-boats."Interviews with his subordinate officers have established Herbert's undisciplined manner of commanding his ship.

Herbert allowed his men to engage in drunken binges during shore leave. During one such incident, at Dartmouth, several members of Baralong's crew were arrested after destroying a local saloon. Herbert paid their bail left port with the indicted crewmen aboard. Beginning in April 1915, Herbert ordered his subordinates to cease calling him "Sir", to address him only by the pseudonym "Captain William McBride". Throughout the summer of 1915, Baralong continued routine patrol duties in the Irish Sea without encountering the enemy. On 19 August 1915, U-24 sank the White Star Liner SS Arabic with the loss of 44 lives – this included three Americans and led to a diplomatic incident between Germany and the United States. HMS Baralong had been about 20 mi from the scene, had received a distress call from the ship. Baralong's crew was infuriated by their inability to locate survivors. Meanwhile, about 70 nautical miles south of Queenstown, U-27, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Bernd Wegener, stopped the British steamer Nicosian in accordance with the rules laid down by the London Declaration.

A boarding party of six men from U-27 discovered that Nicosian was carrying munitions and 250 American mules earmarked for the British Army in France. The Germans allowed the freighter's crew and passengers to board lifeboats, prepared to sink the freighter with the U-boat's deck gun. U-27 was lying off Nicosian's port quarter and firing into it when Baralong appeared on the scene, flying the ensign of the United States as a false flag; when she was half a mile away, Baralong ran up a signal flag indicating that she was going to rescue Nicosian's crew. Wegener acknowledged the signal ordered his men to cease firing, took U-27 along the port side of Nicosian to intercept Baralong; as the submarine disappeared behind the steamship, Herbert steered Baralong on a parallel course along Nicosian's starboard side. Before U-27 came round Nicosian's bow, Baralong hauled down the American flag, hoisted the Royal Navy's White Ensign, unmasked her guns; as U-27 came into view from behind Nicosian, Baralong opened fire with her three 12-pounder guns at a range of 600 yd, firing 34 rounds for only a single shot from the submarine.

U-27 began to sink. According to Tony Bridgland, but his men's blood was up. They were avenging the Lusitania. For them this was no time to cease firing as the survivors of the crew appeared on the outer casing, struggling out of their clothes to swim away from her. There was a mighty hiss of compressed air from her tanks and the U-27 vanished from sight in a vortex of giant rumbling bubbles, leaving a pall of smoke over the spot where she had been, it had taken only a few minutes to fire the thirty-four shells into her. Meanwhile, Nicosian's crew were cheering wildly from the lifeboats. Captain Manning was heard to yell, "If any of those bastard Huns come up, hit'em with an oar!"Twelve men survived the sinking of the submarine: the crews of her two deck guns and those, on the conning tower. They swam to Nicosian and attempted to join the six-man boarding party by climbing up her hanging lifeboat falls and pilot ladder. Herbert, worried that they might try to scuttle the steamer, ordered his men to open fire with small arms, killing all in the water.

Wegener is described by some accounts as being shot while trying to swim to the Baralong. Herbert sent Baralong's 12 Royal Marines, under the command of a Corporal Collins, to find the surviving German sailors aboard Nicosian; as they departed, Herbert told Collins, "Take no prisoners." The Germans were shot on sight. According to Sub-Lieutenant Gordon Charles Steele: "Wegener ran to a cabin on the upper deck – I found out it was Manning's bathroom; the marines broke down the door with the butts of their rifles, but Wegener squeezes through a scuttle and dropped into the sea. He still put up his arms in surrender. Corporal Collins, took aim and shot him through the head." Corporal Collins recalled that, after Wegener's death, Herbert threw a revolver in the German captain's face and screamed, "What about the Lusitania, you bastard!" An alternative account says that the Germans who boarded Nicosian were killed by the freighter's engine room staff. In Herbert's report to the Admiralty, he stated he feared the survivors from the U-boat's crew would board the freighter and scuttle her, so he ordered the Royal Marines on his ship to shoot the survivors.

If they had scuttled the freighter, it

Dunedin Airport

Dunedin Airport Dunedin International Airport known as Momona Airport, is an international airport in the Otago region of the South Island of New Zealand, serving Dunedin city and the Otago and Southland regions. Dunedin Airport is one of two international airports in Otago, the other being Queenstown International Airport, it is located adjacent to the village of Momona on the Taieri Plains 22 kilometres south west of Dunedin CBD. It is the fifth busiest airport in New Zealand by passengers, it has a single paved runway rated for aircraft up with ILS in both directions. It has one terminal building with two with airbridges. Mainland Air, a flight school and charter service, operates from a hangar next to the terminal building; the Dunedin City Council and the Crown each own 50 percent of Dunedin International Airport Limited, a publicly unlisted company which operates the utility. The old Taieri airfield was not economic to expand to cater for the growth in air travel expected in the future. Construction of the present airport was completed in 1962, its primary use was to cater for passengers of short haul aircraft.

NZNAC started Fokker Friendship services upon opening with Vickers Viscount services starting in December 1962. A large new hangar was completed in 1963. Mount Cook Airlines operated to Dunedin from March 1966 to July 1991. NAC started Boeing 737 services to Dunedin in December 1968. Automatic sliding doors were provided in the terminal in 1969 with a Rothmans clock being installed in the terminal in 1971 and the toilets being expanded that same year. A new mezzanine floor and aircraft viewing deck were installed in 1974; the airport was closed due to flooding from June to July 1980. Ansett New Zealand began Boeing 737 in December 1988 with airline lounges and airbridges being added in 1988. Extension of the runway to 1,900 metres was completed in May 1993; the first international flight, a Qantas Boeing 737-300 touched down in Dunedin in July 1994. Kiwi Travel International Airlines started regular transtasman flights in August 1995 followed by Freedom Air in December of the same year. Mount Cook Airlines began ATR-72 servies to Dunedin in November 1995.

Kiwi Air collapsed in September 1996. Ansett New Zealand became Qantas New Zealand in September 2000 and collapsed in April 2001, leaving Origin Pacific to step in for a time. In about 2005, the check-in space was enlarged and a new international arrival area was added; the present terminal building was opened in October 2005. Freedom Air was absorbed into Air New Zealand at the end of March 2008. Virgin Australia began flying to Dunedin in July 2008, followed by Jetstar in July 2011; this airport is the third busiest and largest in the South Island of New Zealand, after Christchurch International Airport and Queenstown Airport. Air New Zealand used to fly to Brisbane and Sydney until 2010 when it divested responsibility to Virgin. In 2014 Virgin ceased the flights to Melbourne and Sydney, but maintains the Brisbane flight 4 weekly; the airport's name was changed from Dunedin International Airport to Dunedin Airport in 2015. In 1963, a total of 100,000 passengers passed through the airport, it received its first international flight in 1994, in 1995, there was a total of 520,000 passengers.

This figure declined to 481,000 in 2000 with a total of 19,000 aircraft movements. It was predicted that by 2015 aircraft movements would exceed 38,000 with a projected 1,000,000 passengers. For the 2009 financial year passengers numbered 770,206. In 2018, the airport announced. A Lounge is available for Club members and Air NZ Gold/Gold Elite and Star Alliance Gold Frequent Flyers. In 2009, Dunedin International Airport Limited announced it had the land and consent to extend the runway from 1,900 m to 2,400 m, at a cost of NZ$20 million; the extension would accommodate larger aircraft, on longer haul routes from as far afield as the United States and Southeast Asia. It stressed that this extension would take place when needed and not as a project just for the sake of a longer runway. Dunedin International Airport Limited owns Momona Village, a small housing community adjacent to the airport. Mainland Air is based at the airport, operates scenic and ambulance flights. Mainland Aviation College, a division of Mainland Air, operates a flight training school.

List of airports in New Zealand List of airlines of New Zealand Transport in New Zealand List of busiest airports in New Zealand Media related to Dunedin International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official airport website AIP New Zealand Dunedin charts

Gau Halle-Merseburg

The Gau Halle-Merseburg was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the Prussian Province of Saxony. Before that, from 1925 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area; the Nazi Gau system was established in a party conference on 22 May 1926, in order to improve administration of the party structure. From 1933 onwards, after the Nazi seizure of power, the Gaue replaced the German states as administrative subdivisions in Germany. At the head of each Gau stood a Gauleiter, a position which became more powerful after the outbreak of the Second World War, with little interference from above. Local Gauleiter held government positions as well as party ones and were in charge of, among other things and surveillance and, from September 1944 onward, the Volkssturm and the defense of the Gau; the position of Gauleiter in Halle-Merseburg was held by Walter Ernst from 1925 to 1926, followed by Paul Hinkler from 1926 to 1931 and Rudolf Jordan from 1931 to 1937.

Joachim Albrecht Eggeling was the final Gauleiter, holding the position from 1937 to 1945. The first two Gauleiter and Hinkler, both died in the final month of the war, the former killed in action, the latter through suicide. Jordan, the third Gauleiter, was sentenced to 25 years prison in the Soviet Union after the war but released in 1955 and died in 1988, he published his autobiography about his time as Gauleiter and in captivity which showed no indication that he was willing to take responsibility for the events in Nazi Germany. Eggeling, attempting to prevent the city of Halle from destruction, unsuccessfully petitioned the Nazi leadership in April 1945 to be permitted to not defend the city. After the refusal Eggeling shot himself on 15 April 1945 with the city taken by the US Army on 19 April. Illustrated list of Gauleiter