Baranavichy

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Baranavichy

Баранавічы
Baranavičy Montage (2017).jpg
Flag of Baranavichy
Flag
Official seal of Baranavichy
Seal
Baranavichy is located in Belarus
Baranavichy
Baranavichy
Location in Belarus
Coordinates: 53°08′N 26°01′E / 53.133°N 26.017°E / 53.133; 26.017
Country Belarus
VoblastBrest Region
RaionBaranavichy District
Mentioned1706
Founded1871
Area
 • Total53.64 km2 (20.71 sq mi)
Elevation
193 m (633 ft)
Population
 (2012)
 • Total170,286
 • Density3,200/km2 (8,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
225320
Area code(s)+375 (0)163
Vehicle registration1
Websitewww.baranovichi.by Edit this at Wikidata
Former Baranavichy Law Institute is now a constituent part of Baranavichy State University
Baranavichy. Fountain at Central Square
Ballistic missile on display in Baranavichy

Baranavichy (/bəˈrɑːnəvɪ/ (About this soundlisten); Belarusian: Бара́навічы [baˈranavʲitʂɨ], Łacinka: Baranavičy ; Russian: Бара́новичи, Polish: Baranowicze, Lithuanian: Baranovičiai, Yiddish: באראנאוויטש‎, Baranovitsh) is a city in the Brest Region of western Belarus, with a population (as of 1995) of 173,000. It is a significant railway junction and home to Baranavichy State University, it was also the seat of the Baranavichy Voblast from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1944 to 1954.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

In the second half of the 17th century, Baranavichy housed the Jesuit mission housed. In the second half of the 18th century, Baranavichy was the property of Mosalskih and Neveselovskih. In the 19th century, it belonged to the Countess E.A. Rozwadowski, it was part of the Novogrodek (now Navahrudak) okrug, which was part of Slonim Governorate, the Lithuania Governorate, the Grodno Governorate and then the Minsk.

Growth[edit]

The town's history began on 17 (29) November 1871, the beginning of construction of a movement to the new section of the Smolensk-Brest; the name of the station arose during construction was that the nearby village, Baranavichy, whose first mention in the testament of A.E Sinyavskaya in 1627. Then, in 1871, not far from the station, the locomotive depot was built.

In 1874 was the appearance of the railway junction. In the wooden station buildings lived the railway workers of Baranavichy; the new railway linked Moscow with the western outskirts of the country.

The impetus for more intensive settlement of the areas adjacent to the station from the south was the May 27, 1884 decision by the governor of Minsk to build a town, Rozvadovo, on the lands of the landlord, Rozwadowski; the town was built according to the governor's plan approved. In the village were 120 houses and 500 people.

The plans approved by Emperor Alexander III assumed that there would be also one railway linking Vilnius, Luninets, Pinsk and Rovno. Therefore, 2.5 km from the station, the Moscow-Brest railway crossed the track Vilnius-Rovno from Polesie railways. At the junction was another station, Baranavichy (according to Polesie Railways), which became the second centre of the city.

As before, workers and traders settled near the station; the new settlement was called New Baranavichy, unlike Rozvadovo, which became informally called Old Baranavichy. It was developed on the land owned by peasants of the villages near the new station (Svetilovichi, Gierow and Uznogi). More convenient than the landlords' land, its lease terms and proximity to administrative agencies contributed to the rapid growth of this settlement.

20th century[edit]

At the beginning of World War I, Baranavichy was the headquarters of the Russian General Staff, but after the Great Retreat of Russians from Congress Poland, it became a frontline city, it was taken by the German Empire during the Baranovichi Offensive of 25 July 1916 and was under German occupation for two years. Finally, the Germans surrendered the town to Belarusian People's Republic.

During the Polish-Soviet war, it was occupied by Poland on 18 March 1919; the Russians retook it on 17 July 1920, but the Polish took it again on 30 September 1920. On 1 August 1919, it received city rights and became a powiat centre in Nowogródek Voivodship. In 1921, Baranowicze had over 11,000 inhabitants (67% Jews, the rest being mostly Belarusians, Poles and Russians). Soon, the city started to grow and became an important centre of trade and commerce for the area; the city's Orthodox cathedral was built in the Neoclassical style in 1924 to 1931 and was decorated with mosaics that had survived the demolition of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Warsaw.

The city was also an important military garrison, with a KOP Cavalry Brigade, the 20th Infantry Division and the Nowogródzka Cavalry Brigade stationed there; because of the fast growth of local industry, a local branch of the Polish Radio was opened in 1938. In 1939 Baranavichy had almost 30,000 inhabitants and was the biggest and the most important city in the Nowogródek Voivodship.

After the invasion of Poland, the Soviet Union took the city on 17 September 1939; the local Jewish population of 9,000 was joined by approximately 3,000 Jewish refugees from the Polish areas occupied by Germany. After the start of Operation Barbarossa, the city was seized by the Wehrmacht on June 25, 1941, it was part of Generalbezirk Weißruthenien in Reichskommissariat Ostland during the German occupation. In August 1941, a ghetto was created in the city, with more than 12,000 Jews kept in terrible conditions in six buildings at the outskirts. From March 4 to December 14, 1942, the entire Jewish population of the ghetto was sent to various German concentration camps and killed in gas chambers. Only about 250 survived the war.[1]

The city was seized by the Red Army on July 6, 1944 (Russian and Ukrainian Wikipedia articles say on July 8, 1944). Much Poles been expelled to Siberia and Kazakhstan. Most other Poles were expelled to Poland. After World War II, the city became part of the Soviet Union and the Byelorussian SSR and started to be referred to under its Russian name, Baranovichi. Meanwhile, intensive industrialisation took place. In 1991, the citybecame part of independent Belarus.

Transport[edit]

The city is on the main east-west highway in Belarus, the M1, which forms a part of European route E30.

The first rail line through the city opened in around 1870. Additional railways built hellped the city become an important rail junction.

The large airbase, north of the city, is used by the Belarusian Air Force.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Baranavichy
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
15.1
(59.2)
20.1
(68.2)
29.0
(84.2)
31.5
(88.7)
32.9
(91.2)
34.7
(94.5)
35.7
(96.3)
31.5
(88.7)
26.1
(79.0)
17.8
(64.0)
11.1
(52.0)
35.7
(96.3)
Average high °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
4.5
(40.1)
12.8
(55.0)
19.1
(66.4)
21.6
(70.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.3
(73.9)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
3.7
(38.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
11.2
(52.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.6
(33.1)
7.6
(45.7)
13.5
(56.3)
16.2
(61.2)
18.3
(64.9)
17.5
(63.5)
12.3
(54.1)
7.1
(44.8)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.9
(26.8)
7.0
(44.6)
Average low °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
2.9
(37.2)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
13.1
(55.6)
12.3
(54.1)
8.0
(46.4)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.1
(22.8)
3.1
(37.6)
Record low °C (°F) −34.5
(−30.1)
−35.4
(−31.7)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−9.6
(14.7)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.9
(33.6)
3.9
(39.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
−3.4
(25.9)
−11.2
(11.8)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−35.4
(−31.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 39
(1.5)
32
(1.3)
40
(1.6)
33
(1.3)
59
(2.3)
83
(3.3)
94
(3.7)
59
(2.3)
57
(2.2)
43
(1.7)
42
(1.7)
46
(1.8)
627
(24.7)
Average rainy days 9 7 8 11 15 15 15 12 13 14 13 10 142
Average snowy days 16 16 11 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 2 8 15 71
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 79 69 68 73 74 73 79 83 88 89 79
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[2]

People[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Baranavichy is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baranavichy. Holocaust
  2. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Baranavichy" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  3. ^ P.C., Net. "Gdynia - International Gdynia - International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 2016-10-19.

External links[edit]

Sports-related links:

History-related links:

Coordinates: 53°08′N 26°01′E / 53.133°N 26.017°E / 53.133; 26.017