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Barbados

Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 180 km south-east of Martinique and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese Empire claimed the island between 1532 and 1536, but abandoned it in 1620. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados on 14 May 1625. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony.

As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Of the tourists, 40% come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.

In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to; the name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century.

The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Archeological evidence suggests humans may have first settled or visited the island circa 1600 BC. More permanent Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the two main groups were the Arawaks from South America, who became dominant around 800–1200 AD, the more war-like the Kalinago who arrived from South America in the 12th–13th centuries It is uncertain which European nation arrived first in Barbados, which most would have been at some point in the 15th century or 16th century.

One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many, if not most, believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the island was ignored by Europeans, though Spanish slave raiding is thought to have reduced the native population, with many fleeing to other islands. The first English ship, which had arrived on May 14, 1625, was captained by John Powell; the first settlement began on 17 February 1627, near what is now Holetown, by a group led by John Powell's younger brother, consisting of 80 settlers and 10 English indentured laborers. Some sources state; the settlement was established as a proprietary colony and fu

3rd Parliament of Great Britain

The 3rd Parliament of Great Britain was summoned by Queen Anne on 27 September 1710 and assembled on the 25 November 1710. Under the Triennial Act, the Parliament was due to expire, if not dissolved sooner, at the end of the term of three years from the first meeting. In the event it was dissolved on 8 August 1713; the new House of Commons comprised 346 Tories, 196 Whigs and 14 others, which represented a Tory landslide. This was due to anti-Government feelings caused by the trial of Henry Sacheverell for verbally attacking dissenters and a growing anti-war sentiment. William Bromley, Member of Parliament for Oxford University, was installed as Speaker of the House of Commons. Robert Harley as Chancellor of the Exchequer and head of the Queen's Ministry had problems in controlling the High Church Tories who were now dominant but a failed attempt by Antoine de Guiscard to assassinate him increased his popularity; however whilst he was recovering the Tories pushed through a bill to build 50 new churches in London.

On his return Harley demonstrated his political and financial ability when he obtained Parliamentary approval to establish the South Sea Company as a means of raising some £9 million to pay off Government debt. Shortly before the first session ended the Queen elevated Harley to the peerage as Earl of Oxford and promoted him to Lord Treasurer. At the start of the second session the terms of a peace deal with France were defeated by the Whigs. Harley created 12 new Peers in the House of Lords to forestall a similar problem there. In the new year Parliament was busy on dealing with proceedings against the Duke of Marlborough, which led to his dismissal from his position as Captain-General, against Robert Walpole on trumped up charges of embezzling public funds. Walpole was expelled from the Commons and committed to the Tower of London. Harley adroitly engineered condemnation of Britain's allies in the peace talks and by the end of the second session had got decisive backing for his policy of acting alone.

Completing the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht delayed the third session until April 1713. When it did reconvene there were open splits in the Tory party on a number of issues. Viscount Bolingbroke, a Secretary of State, took the opportunity to seek the leadership of the Party; the Parliament was dissolved on 8 August 1713. New Churches in London and Westminster Act 1710 Gaming Act 1710 Lease of Exeter Castle Act 1710 Municipal Offices Act 1710 Toleration Act 1711 Princess Sophia's Precedence Act 1711 Scottish Episcopalians Act 1711 Naturalization Act 1711 Church Patronage Act 1711 Churches in London and Westminster Act 1711 East India Company Act 1711 Pleading Act 1711 West Riding Inclosures. Act 1712 Moss Troopers Act 1712 Mortuaries Abolition Act 1713 Established Church Act 1713 Simony Act 1713 Presentation of Benefices Act 1713 Discovery of Longitude at Sea Act 1713 Repair of Breach in Thames Bank at Dagenham: Coal Duties Act 1713 1710 British general election List of MPs elected in the British general election, 1710 List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1707–19 Oxford-Bolingbroke ministry List of Parliaments of Great Britain "Third Parliament of Great Britain: First session - begins 25/11/1710".

British History Online. Retrieved 8 November 2017

Kandariya Mahadeva Temple

The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, meaning "the Great God of the Cave", is the largest and most ornate Hindu temple in the medieval temple group found at Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered one of the best examples of temples preserved from the medieval period in India. Kaṇḍāriyā Mahādeva Temple is located in the Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh in Central India, it is in the Khajuraho village, the temple complex is spread over an area of 6 square kilometres. It is in the western part of the village to the west of the Vishnu temple; the temple complex, in the Khajuraho village at an elevation of 282 metres, is well connected by road and air services. Khajuraho is 55 kilometres to the south of Mahoba, 47 kilometres away from the Chhatarpur city to its east, 43 kilometres away from Panna, 175 kilometres by road away from Jhansi on the north, 600 kilometres to the south - east of Delhi, it is 9 kilometres from the railway station. Khajuraho is served by Khajuraho Airport, with services to Delhi and Mumbai.

It is 6 kilometres from the temple. Khajuraho was once the capital of the Chandela dynasty; the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, one of the best examples of temples preserved from the medieval period in India, is the largest of the western group of temples in the Khajuraho complex, built by the Chandela rulers. Shiva is the chief deity in the temple deified in the sanctum sanctorum; the Kandariya Mahadeva temple was built during the reign of Vidyadhara. At various periods of the reign of this dynasty many famous temples dedicated to Vishnu, Surya, Shakti of the Hindu religion and for the Thirthankaras of Jain religion were built. Vidhyadhara known as Bida in the recordings of the Muslim historian Ibn-al-Athir was a powerful ruler who fought Mahmud of Ghazni in the first offensive launched by the latter in 1019; this battle was not conclusive and Mahmud had to return to Ghazni. Mahmud again waged war against Vidhyadhara in 1022, he attacked the fort of Kalinjar. The siege of the fort was unsuccessful, it was lifted and Mahmud and Vidhyadhara called a truce and parted by exchanging gifts.

Vidhyadhara celebrated his success over Mahmud and other rulers by building the Kaṇḍāriyā Mahādeva Temple, dedicated to his family deity Shiva. Epigraphic inscriptions on a pilaster of the mandapa in the temple mentions the name of the builder of the temple as Virimda, interpreted as the pseudonym of Vidhyadhara, its construction is dated to the period from 1025 and 1050 AD. All the extant temples including the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple were inscribed in 1986 under the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites under Criterion III for its artistic creation and under Criterion V for the culture of the Chandelas, popular till the country was invaded by Muslims in 1202; the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, 31 metres in height, is in the western complex, the largest among the three groups of the Khajuraho complex of temples. This western group of temples, consisting of the Kandariya and Vishvanatha temples, is compared to a "cosmic design of a hexagon" representing the three forms of Shiva; the temple architecture is an assemblage of porches and towers which terminates in a shikhara or spire, a feature, common from the 10th century onwards in the temples of Central India.

The temple is founded on a massive plinth of 4 metres height. The temple structure above the plinth is pleasingly detailed; the superstructure is built in a steep mountain shape or form, symbolic of Mount Meru, said to be the mythical source of creation of the world. The superstructure has richly decorated roofs which rise in a grand form terminating in the shikara, which has 84 miniature spires; the temple is in layout of 6 square kilometres, of which 22 are extant including the Kaṇḍāriyā Mahādeva Temple. This temple is characteristically built over a plan of 31 metres in length and 20 metres in width with the main tower soaring to a height of 31 metres, is called the "largest and grandest temple of Khajuraho". A series of steep steps with high rise lead from the ground level to the entrance to the temple; the layout of the temple is a five-part design, a commonality with the Lakshmana and Vishvanatha temples in the Khajuraho complex. Right at the entrance there is torana, a intricately carved garland, sculpted from a single stone.

The carvings on the entrance gate shows the "tactile quality of the stone and the character of the symmetrical design", on view in the entire temple which has high relief carvings of the figurines. Finely chiseled, the decorative quality of the ornamentation with the sharp inscribed lines has "strong angular forms and brilliant dark-light patterns"; the carvings are of circles, undulations giving off spirals or sprays, geometric patterns, masks of lions and other uniform designs which has created a pleasant picture, unique to this temple, among all others in the complex. In the interior space from the entrance there are three mandapas or halls, which successively rise in height and width, inclusive of a small chamber dedicated to Shiva, a chamber where the Shiva linga, the phallic emblem of Shiva is deified; the sanctum sanctorum is surrounded by interlinked passages which have side and front balconies. Due to inadequate natural light in the balconies the sanctum has little light thus creating a "cave like atmosphere", in total contrast to the external parts of the temple.

In the interior halls of the temple and on it