Barbara Mikulski

Barbara Ann Mikulski is an American politician and social worker who served as a United States Senator from Maryland from 1987 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, she served in the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski is the longest-serving woman in the history of the United States Congress and the longest-serving U. S. Senator in Maryland history. Raised in the Highlandtown neighborhood of East Baltimore, Mikulski attended Mount Saint Agnes College and the University of Maryland School of Social Work. A social worker and community organizer, she was elected to the Baltimore City Council in 1971 after delivering a publicized address on the "ethnic movement" in America, she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1976, in 1986, she became the first woman elected to the United States Senate from Maryland. From the death of Senator Daniel Inouye in December 2012 until 2015, Mikulski chaired the Senate Appropriations Committee, she was first Marylander to hold the position.

At her retirement, she was the ranking minority member of the Committee. She served on the Health, Education and Pensions Committee and the Select Committee on Intelligence. After five terms in the Senate, on March 2, 2015, Mikulski announced that she would retire at the end of the 114th Congress in 2017. In January 2017, Mikulski joined Johns Hopkins University as a professor of public policy and advisor to university President Ronald J. Daniels. Mikulski was born and raised in the Highlandtown neighborhood of East Baltimore, the eldest of the three daughters of Christine Eleanor and William Mikulski, her parents were both of Polish descent. During her high school years at the Institute of Notre Dame, she worked in her parents' grocery store, delivering groceries to elderly neighbors who were unable to leave their homes. After graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology from Mount Saint Agnes College in 1958, she obtained her master's degree in social work from the University of Maryland School of Social Work in 1965.

She worked as a social worker for Catholic charities and Baltimore's Department of Social Services, helping at-risk children and educating seniors about the Medicare program. Mikulski became an activist social worker when she heard about plans to build Interstate 95 through Baltimore's Fells Point and Canton neighborhoods, she helped organize communities on both sides of the city and fought to stop the construction of the road. Mikulski first received national attention in 1970 because of her remarks at a conference at The Catholic University of America regarding "Ethnic Americans" convened by Msgr. Geno Baroni, her message became one of the major documents of the "ethnic movement". Mikulski's remarks included the following: America is not a melting pot, it is a sizzling cauldron for the ethnic American who feels that he has been politically courted and extorted by both government and private enterprise. The ethnic American is sick of being stereotyped as a racist and dullard by phony white liberals, pseudo black militants and patronizing bureaucrats.

He gets nothing or little in the way of return. Tricked by the political rhetoric of the illusionary funding for black-oriented social programs, he turns his anger to race—when he himself is the victim of class prejudice. Has worked hard all his life to become a'good American; the ethnic American is underserved at every level of government. He does not have expensive lobbyists getting him tax breaks on his income. Being a home owner, he shoulders the rising property taxes—the major revenue source for the municipalities in which he lives, yet he enjoys little from these unfair and burdensome levies.... He ethnic American feels unappreciated for the contribution he makes to society, he resents the way. In many instances he is treated like the pencil he pushes, he is tired of being treated like an object of production. The public and private institutions have made him frustrated by their lack of response to his needs. At present he feels powerless in efforts to change them; because of old prejudices and new fears, anger is generated against other minority groups rather than those who have power.

What is needed is an alliance of white and black, white collar, blue collar and no collar based on mutual need and respect, an alliance to develop the strategy for new kinds of community organization and political participation. Mikulski's activism led to a seat on the Baltimore City Council in 1971. In 1973 incoming Chairman of the Democratic National Committee Robert S. Strauss appointed Baltimore City Councilman Mikulski to chair the Democratic Party Commission on New Delegate Selection and Party Structure, she was instrumental in solidifying democratizing reforms to the national delegate selection process. She ran for the U. S. Senate in 1974, winning the Democratic nomination to face Republican incumbent Charles Mathias. Although well-known to residents in her city, Mikulski had limited name recognition in the rest of the state; as an advocate for campaign finance reform, Mathias refused to accept any contribution over $100 to "avoid the curse of big money that has led to so much trouble in the last year".

However, he still managed to raise over nearly five times Mikulski's total. Ideologically and Mathias agreed on many issues, such a

Chronic Lyme disease

Chronic Lyme disease is the name used by some people with "a broad array of illnesses or symptom complexes for which there is no reproducible or convincing scientific evidence of any relationship to Borrelia burgdorferi infection" to describe their condition and their beliefs about its cause. Both the label and the belief that these people's symptoms are caused by this particular infection are rejected by medical professionals, the promotion of chronic lyme disease is an example of health fraud. Chronic Lyme disease in this context should not be confused with genuine Lyme disease, a known medical disorder caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, or with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, a set of lingering symptoms which may persist after successful treatment of infection with Lyme bacteria. Despite numerous studies, there is no evidence that symptoms associated with CLD are caused by any persistent infection; the symptoms of chronic Lyme are generic and non-specific symptoms, such as fatigue and muscle pain, in many cases are due to fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Fibromyalgia can be triggered by an infection, antibiotics are not a safe or effective treatment for post-infectious fibromyalgia. A number of alternative health products are promoted for chronic Lyme disease, of which the most controversial and harmful is long-term antibiotic therapy intravenous antibiotics. Recognised authorities advise against long-term antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease where some symptoms persist post-treatment. Following disciplinary proceedings by state medical licensing boards in the United States, a subculture of "Lyme literate" physicians has lobbied for specific legal protections, exempting them from the standard of care and Infectious Diseases Society of America treatment guidelines; this political interference in medical care has been criticised as an example of "legislative alchemy", the process whereby pseudomedicine is legislated into practice. Chronic Lyme disease is distinct from untreated late-stage Lyme disease, which can cause arthritis, peripheral neuropathy and/or encephalomyelitis.

Chronic Lyme disease is distinct from the post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, when symptoms linger after standard antibiotic treatments. PTLDS is estimated to occur in less than 5% of people who had Lyme disease and were treated. In contrast to these recognized medical conditions, the promotion of chronic lyme disease is a quintessential example of health fraud. In many cases there is no objective evidence that people who believe they have chronic Lyme have been infected with Lyme disease: standard diagnostic tests for infection are negative. While it is undisputed that people can have severe symptoms of an illness, the cause and appropriate treatment promoted by "chronic Lyme" advocates are controversial; the symptoms are similar to those of fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. Fibromyalgia can be triggered by an infection, persist when the infection is removed from the body. A few doctors attribute these symptoms to persistent infection with Borrelia, or co-infections with other tick-borne pathogens, such as Ehrlichia and Babesia.

Some conclude that the initial infection may cause an autoimmune reaction that continues to cause serious symptoms after the bacteria have been eliminated by antibiotics. A review looked at several animal studies that found persistence of live but disabled spirochetes following treatment of B. burgdorferi infection with antibiotics. The authors noted that none of the lingering spirochetes were associated with inflamed tissues and criticized the studies for not considering adequately the different pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics used to treat the animals in the trials versus what would be expected to be used to treat humans; the authors concluded, "There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that such spirochetes, should they exist in humans, are the cause of post-Lyme disease syndrome."Major US medical authorities, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Academy of Neurology, the National Institutes of Health, have stated there is no convincing evidence that Borrelia is involved in the various symptoms classed as CLD, advise against long-term antibiotic treatment as it is ineffective and harmful.

Prolonged antibiotic therapy presents significant risks and can have dangerous deadly, side effects. Randomized placebo-controlled studies have shown that antibiotics offer no sustained benefit in people with chronic Lyme, with evidence of both placebo effects and significant adverse effects from such treatment. Many people who believe that they have chronic Lyme have fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia can be difficult to treat, antibiotics do not work at all for fibromyalgia. A pressure group called the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society says that the persistence of B. burgdorferi may be responsible for manifestations of chronic Lyme disease symptoms. Chronic Lyme can be explained as a missed diagnosis of fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. However, among people who self-identify as having chronic Lyme, the idea of chronic Lyme functions as a type of social identity. In this sense, the goal of the label is not to identify particular objective facts that differentiate one medical condition from another.

While there is general agreement on the optimal treatment for Lyme disease, the existence of chronic Lyme is rejected because there is no evidence of its existence. Among those who believe in it, there is no

Mohamed Tahar

Muhammaed Yasir Ahmed Taher was a citizen of Yemen, held in extrajudicial detention in the United States's Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba. His Guantanamo Internment Serial Number was 679. American intelligence analysts estimate he was born in Ib, Yemen, he was the younger brother of Ali Abdullah Ahmed, one of the three Guantanamo detainees who died in custody on June 10, 2006. He was repatriated on December 19, 2009. NBC News reported, on March 3, 2017, that he was killed by a missile launched from a surveillance drone on March 2, 2017. Taher was apprehended by a mixed force of Pakistani and American counter-terrorism officials in March 2002, he was captured in an off-campus residence provided for students of Salafi University in Faisalabad, Pakistan together with a dozen other foreign students. He claims he was just a student at Salafi University, had no ties to terrorism, he faces the allegations that his photo was identified as someone, seen by an al Qaida member in Afghanistan, that he had received a recruitment letter from the Taliban.

Historian Andy Worthington, author of The Guantanamo Files, identified Tahar as an individual who informed the officers on his Combatant Status Review Tribunal that he had been informed, early in his detention, that he had been apprehended in error, would soon be released. The Bush Presidency asserted that captives apprehended in the "war on terror" were not covered by the Geneva Conventions, could be held indefinitely, without charge, without an open and transparent review of the justifications for their detention. In 2004 the United States Supreme Court ruled, in Rasul v. Bush, that Guantanamo captives were entitled to being informed of the allegations justifying their detention, were entitled to try to refute them. Following the Supreme Court's ruling the Department of Defense set up the Office for the Administrative Review of Detained Enemy Combatants. Scholars at the Brookings Institution, lead by Benjamin Wittes, listed the captives still held in Guantanamo in December 2008, according to whether their detention was justified by certain common allegations: Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges... are associated with both Al Qaeda and the Taliban."

Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges that the following detainees stayed in Al Qaeda, Taliban or other guest- or safehouses." Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges that the following detainees were captured under circumstances that suggest belligerency." Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the captives, an "al Qaeda operative". Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the "34 admit to some lesser measure of affiliation—like staying in Taliban or Al Qaeda guesthouses or spending time at one of their training camps." Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the captives who had "stayed at Taliban or Al Qaeda guesthouses." Mohmmad Ahmad Ali Tahar was listed as one of the captives who had admitted "some form of associational conduct."Tahar chose to participate in his Combatant Status Review Tribunal. In response to a court order the Department of Defense was forced to comply with a Freedom of Information Act request and publish a sixteen page summarized transcript from Tahar's Tribunal.

Tahar chose to participate in his Administrative Review Board hearing. In response to a court order the Department of Defense responded to a Freedom of Information Act request and published a twelve page summarized transcript from his first annual Review Board in the spring of 2006. On January 9, 2009, the Department of Defense released two redacted memos, from his 2007 Administrative Review Board, to Gordon England, the Designated Civilian Official. A petition of habeas corpus was filed on his behalf Over two hundred captives had habeas corpus petitions filed on their behalf before the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 and the Military Commissions Act of 2006 closed off the captives' access to the US civilian justice system. On June 12, 2008, in its ruling on the Boumediene v. Bush habeas corpus petition, the United States Supreme Court over-rode the Congress and Presidency, restored the captives' access to habeas corpus. On July 18, 2008, Pardiss Kebriaei filed a "Petitioner's status report" on Mohammed Ahmed Taher's behalf in Civil Action No.

06-cv-1684. Mohammad Ahmad Taher had a DTA appeal filed on his behalf; the United States Congress passed the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 and the Military Commissions Act of 2006. Both these Acts included provisions to close of Guantanamo captives' ability to file habeas corpus petitions; the Detainee Treatment Act included a provision to proscribe Guantanamo captives who had not initiated a habeas corpus petition from initiating new habeas corpus petitions. The Act included provision for an alternate, more limited form of appeal for captives. Captives were allowed to submit limited appeals to panels of three judges in a Washington DC appeals court; the appeals were limited—they could not be based on general principles of human rights. They could only be based on arguments that their Combatant Status Review Tribunal had not followed the rules laid out for the operation of Combatant Status Review Tribunals. Nine months Congress passed the Military Commissions Act; this Act contained provision to close off all the remaining outstanding habeas corpus petitions.

After the closure of the habeas corpus petitions some Guantanamo captives had appeals in the Washington DC court submitted on their behalf, as described in the Detainee Treatment Act. The DTA appeals progressed slowly; the Department of Justice argued that the captive's lawyers, the judges on the panel, needed consider no more e