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Barbara Stanwyck

Barbara Stanwyck was an American actress and dancer. A stage and television star, she was known during her 60-year career as a consummate and versatile professional for her strong, realistic screen presence. A favorite of directors including Cecil B. DeMille, Fritz Lang and Frank Capra, she made 85 films in 38 years before turning to television. Stanwyck got her start on the stage in the chorus as a Ziegfeld girl in 1923 at age 16 and within a few years was acting in plays, she was cast in her first lead role in Burlesque, becoming a Broadway star. Soon after that, Stanwyck obtained film roles and got her major break when Frank Capra chose her for his romantic drama Ladies of Leisure, which led to additional lead roles. In 1937 she had the title role in Stella Dallas and received her first Academy Award nomination for best actress. In 1941 she starred in two successful screwball comedies: Ball of Fire with Gary Cooper, The Lady Eve with Henry Fonda, she received her second Academy Award nomination for Ball of Fire, in recent decades The Lady Eve has come to be regarded as a romantic comedy classic with Stanwyck's performance called one of the best in American comedy.

By 1944, Stanwyck had become the highest-paid woman in the United States. She starred alongside Fred MacMurray in the seminal film noir Double Indemnity, playing the smoldering wife who persuades MacMurray's insurance salesman to kill her husband. Described as one of the ultimate portrayals of villainy, it is thought that Stanwyck should have won the Academy Award for Best Actress rather than being just nominated, she received another Oscar nomination for her lead performance as an invalid wife overhearing her own murder plot in the thriller film noir, Wrong Number. After she moved into television in the 1960s, she won three Emmy Awards – for The Barbara Stanwyck Show, the western series The Big Valley, miniseries The Thorn Birds, she received an Honorary Oscar in 1982, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1986 and was the recipient of several other honorary lifetime awards, she was ranked as the 11th greatest female star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute. An orphan at the age of four, raised in foster homes, she always worked.

Barbara Stanwyck was born Ruby Catherine Stevens on July 16, 1907, in Brooklyn, New York, of English and Scottish descent. She was the fifth – and youngest – child of Catherine Ann and Byron E. Stevens, working-class parents, her father was a native of Lanesville and her mother was an immigrant from Sydney, Nova Scotia. When Ruby was four, her mother died of complications from a miscarriage after a drunken stranger accidentally knocked her off a moving streetcar. Two weeks after the funeral, her father, Byron Stevens, joined a work crew digging the Panama Canal and was never seen again. Ruby and her older brother, Malcolm Byron Stevens, were raised by their eldest sister Laura Mildred, who died of a heart attack at age 45; when Mildred got a job as a showgirl and Byron were placed in a series of foster homes, from which young Ruby ran away. Ruby toured with Mildred during the summers of 1916 and 1917, practiced her sister's routines backstage. Watching the movies of Pearl White, whom Ruby idolized influenced her drive to be a performer.

At the age of 14, she dropped out of school, taking a package wrapping job at a Brooklyn department store. Ruby never attended high school, "although early biographical thumbnail sketches had her attending Brooklyn's famous Erasmus Hall High School."Soon afterward, she took a filing job at the Brooklyn telephone office for $14 a week, which allowed her to become financially independent. She disliked the job, she took a job cutting dress patterns for Vogue magazine, but customer's complained about her work and she was fired. Ruby's next job was as a typist for the Jerome H. Remick Music Company. In 1923, a few months before her 16th birthday, Ruby auditioned for a place in the chorus at the Strand Roof, a nightclub over the Strand Theatre in Times Square. A few months she obtained a job as a dancer in the 1922 and 1923 seasons of the Ziegfeld Follies, dancing at the New Amsterdam Theater. "I just wanted to survive and eat and have a nice coat", Stanwyck said. For the next several years, she worked as a chorus girl, performing from midnight to seven a.m. at nightclubs owned by Texas Guinan.

She occasionally served as a dance instructor at a speakeasy for gays and lesbians owned by Guinan. One of her good friends during those years was pianist Oscar Levant, who described her as being "wary of sophisticates and phonies."Billy LaHiff, who owned a popular pub frequented by showpeople, introduced Ruby in 1926 to impresario Willard Mack. Mack was casting his play The Noose, LaHiff suggested that the part of the chorus girl be played by a real one. Mack agreed, after a successful audition gave the part to Ruby, she co-starred with Wilfred Lucas. As staged, the play was not a success. In an effort to improve it, Mack decided to expand Ruby's part to include more pathos; the Noose re-opened on October 20, 1926, became one of the most successful plays of the season, running on Broadway for nine months and 197 performances. At the

Peter E. Toschek

Peter E. Toschek is a German experimental physicist who researches nuclear physics, quantum optics, laser physics, he is known as a pioneer of laser spectroscopy and for the first demonstration of single trapped atoms. He is a professor at Hamburg University. Toschek studied physics in Bonn. Supervised by Wolfgang Paul, he defended his Ph. D. thesis in 1961. The topic of his dissertation was the scattering of Gallium atoms in defined Zeeman states by Argon and Helium. In 1963 he became a research assistant at the Institute for Applied Physics at Heidelberg University. There he founded the first German research group for laser spectroscopy, soon joined by Theodor Hänsch. Toschek completed his habilitation in experimental physics in 1968. In 1972 he became a Professor at Heidelberg. In 1981 he accepted a chair in experimental physics at the University of Hamburg. There he and Günter Huber founded the Institute for Laser Physics in 1989. From 1980 to 1990 Toschek co-edited Optics Communications. Peter Toschek worked at Stanford University with Tony Siegman, at the Laboratoire Aimé Cotton in Orsay, as a Fellow of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics in Boulder, Colorado.

He retired in 1998 but continued to be a scientifically active part of the Institute for Laser Physics. Since the 1960s, Peter Toschek and his associates developed new methods of laser spectroscopy like Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy as well as the sensitive intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy, they observed non-linear interactions of light with atoms like self-induced transparency of an absorber, like the generation of singular optical oscillations. In 1978, Toschek‘s research group was the first to demonstrate the cooling of atoms by laser light, just before David Wineland and co-workers. After Peter Toschek and Hans Georg Dehmelt having proposed, in 1975, a scheme for the realization and observation of single atomic ions, Werner Neuhauser, Martin Hohenstatt and Peter Toschek in 1978 demonstrated, for the first time, the trapping and visual observation of a single atom, a Barium ion, cooled by laser light down to a few mK above absolute zero temperature, confined within a miniature quadrupole ion trap.

This achievement made feasible the manipulation, quantum measurement and spectroscopy of individual atomic ions. On such quantum objects Toschek and associates observed for the first time and reported in 1986 Niels Bohr's metaphorical "quantum jumps" with and independent of similar observations by Hans Georg Dehmelt and co-workers. Other achievements include the first demonstration of a two-photon laser, the quenching of quantum noise by correlated spontaneous emission, stochastic cooling of single ions, the observation of the oscillation dynamics of trapped ions, atomic interferometry on a single ion and unambiguous evidence of impeded evolution of an unstable quantum system by the system's observation, the Quantum Zeno effect. Toschek’s former students or associates include Bernd Appasamy, Valery Baev, Rainer Blatt, Klaus-Jochen Boller, Philippe Courteille, Jürgen Eschner, Theodor Hänsch, Werner Neuhauser, Ingo Siemers, Ingo Steiner, Zhang Dao-Zhong. In 1990 Peter Toschek received the Robert Wichard Pohl Prize of the German Physical Society.

He has been a member of the Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Hamburg since 1994. In 2002 Toschek became a Fellow of the Optical Society of America. In 2015 he received the Herbert Walther Award, jointly awarded by DPG and OSA. With Werner Neuhauser: Einzelne Ionen für die dopplerfreie Spektroskopie. In: Physikalische Blätter 36, Nr. 7, 1980, S. 198–202, doi:10.1002/phbl.19800360714. Das Einzelion — Quantenpräparat und Idealuhr. In: Physikalische Blätter 46, Nr. 7, 1990, S. 213–219, doi:10.1002/phbl.19900460706. Was enthüllt ein beobachtetes Atom seinem Beobachter? Berichte aus den Sitzungen der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e. V. Hamburg, Jahrgang 23, Heft 1. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-86329-2 Homepage

Tarasun

Tarasun is an alcoholic beverage drunk by the Buryat people of Siberia. Apart from being the national drink of Buryatia, it is used by the Buryats in their religious ceremonies; the Buryat and his tarasun have been compared to his whisky. Tarasun is a "highly alcoholic colourless liquid" prepared by distillation and fermentation of a mare's milk, it is described as a form of "milk whisky". Tarasun is considered to be the "Soma" of the Buryats. Offerings of tarasun are made in all Buryat festivals and ceremonies including marriages and childbirth. Libations of tarasun are offered during the traditional Mongol horse-sacrifice called Tailgan. Following the sacrifice, pieces of horse meat are thrown into the fire and the people assembled recite the following invocation to their deities while partaking tarasun We pray that we may receive from you a blessing. From among fat cattle we have chosen out meat for you. We have made strong tarasun for you. Let our ulus be one verst longer. Create cattle in our enclosures.

Let no wolves out unless wolves that are toothless. Hover above our foreheads. Hover behind our heads. Look on us without anger. Help those of us who forget what we know. Rouse those of us who are sleeping. In a harsh year be Compassion. In a difficult year be Kindness. Black spirits lead farther away from us. Burkans lead hither to us. Green grass give in the mouths. Let me walk over the first snow. If I am timid, be my courage. If I am ashamed, be a proper face to me. Above be as a coverlid, below be as a felt bed to me. Buryat shamans prefer tarasun to vodka for usage in religious ceremonies as they feel that tarasun is more pure as it is made with special distillation equipment which only the affluent own and hence, is not made in villages. According to the Buryat religion and the colour white were always associated with the pure. In recent times, this trend is getting reversed as tarasun is being replaced by vodka. A Buryat Conference which met at Irkutsk on 15 April 1917, in the aftermath of the February Revolution, prohibited the production of tarasun for normal consumption making it a punishable offense while allowing concessions for the religious usage of tarasun.

List of Russian dishes Kumis Curtin, Jeremiah. A journey in Southern Siberia. Boston: Little and Company. Bisher, Jamie. White Terror: Cossack warlords of the Trans-Siberian. Routledge. ISBN 0714656909. Soma