The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera is a "play with music" by Bertolt Brecht, adapted from a translation by Elisabeth Hauptmann of John Gay's 18th-century English ballad opera, The Beggar's Opera, four ballads by François Villon, with music by Kurt Weill. Although there is debate as to how much, if any, Hauptmann might have contributed to the text, Brecht is listed as sole author; the work offers a socialist critique of the capitalist world. It opened on 31 August 1928 at Berlin's Theater am Schiffbauerdamm. Songs from The Threepenny Opera have been covered and become standards, most notably "Die Moritat von Mackie Messer" and "Seeräuberjenny". In the winter of 1927/28, Elizabeth Hauptmann, Brecht's lover at the time, received a copy of Gay's play from friends in England and, fascinated by the female characters and its critique of the condition of the London poor, began translating it into German. Brecht at first took little interest in her project, but in April 1928 he attempted to interest the impresario Ernst Josef Aufricht in a play he was writing called Fleischhacker, which he had, in fact promised to another producer.
Aufricht was seeking a production to launch his new theatre company at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in Berlin, but was not impressed by the sound of Fleischhacker. Brecht proposed a translation of The Beggar's Opera instead, claiming that he himself had been translating it, he delivered Hauptmann's translation to Aufricht, who signed a contract for it. Brecht's major addition to Hauptmann's text was the addition of four songs by the French poet François Villon. Rather than translate the French himself, he used the translations by K. L. Ammer, the same source he had been using since his earliest plays; the score by Weill uses only one of the melodies which Johann Pepusch wrote for the original Beggar's Opera. The title Die Dreigroschenoper was determined only a week before the opening. Writing in 1929, Weill made the political and artistic intents of the work clear:With the Dreigroschenoper we reach a public which either did not know us at all or thought us incapable of captivating listeners Opera was founded as an aristocratic form of art If the framework of opera is unable to withstand the impact of the age this framework must be destroyed....
In the Dreigroschenoper, reconstruction was possible insofar as here we had a chance of starting from scratch. Weill claimed at the time that "music cannot further the action of the play or create its background", but achieves its proper value when it interrupts the action at the right moments." Weill's score shows German dance-music of the time. The orchestration involves a small ensemble with a good deal of doubling-up on instruments; the Threepenny Opera was first performed at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in 1928 on a set designed by Caspar Neher. Despite an poor reception, it became a great success, playing 400 times in the next two years; the performance was a springboard for one of the best known interpreters of Brecht and Weill's work, Lotte Lenya, married to Weill. The production became a great favourite of Berlin's "smart set" – Count Harry Kessler recorded in his diary meeting at the performance an ambassador and a director of the Dresdner Bank, concluded "One has to have been there."Critics did not fail to notice that Brecht had included the four Villon songs translated by Ammer.
Brecht responded by saying that he had "a fundamental laxity in questions of literary property."By 1933, when Weill and Brecht were forced to leave Germany by the Nazi seizure of power, the play had been translated into 18 languages and performed more than 10,000 times on European stages. In the United Kingdom, the first staged performance was given on 9 February 1956, under Berthold Goldschmidt, although there had been a concert performance in 1933, a semi-staged performance on 28 July 1938. In between, on 8 February 1935 Edward Clark conducted the first British broadcast of the work, it received scathing reviews from other critics. But the most savage criticism came from Weill himself, who described it as "... the worst performance imaginable … the whole thing was misunderstood". But his criticisms seem to have been for the concept of the piece as a Germanised version of The Beggar's Opera, rather than for Clark's conducting of it, of which Weill made no mention. America was introduced to the work by the film version of G. W. Pabst, which opened in New York in 1931.
The first American production, adapted into English by Gifford Cochran and Jerrold Krimsky and staged by Francesco von Mendelssohn, featured Robert Chisholm as Macheath. It opened on Broadway at the Empire Theatre, on April 13, 1933, closed after 12 performances. Mixed reviews praised the music but slammed the production, with the critic Gilbert Gabriel calling it "a dreary enigma". A French version produced by Gaston Baty and written by Ninon Steinhof and André Mauprey was presented in October 1930 at the Théâtre Montparnasse in Paris, it was rendered. In 1930 the work was premiered in Moscow at the Kamerny Theatre, directed by Alexander Tairov, it was the only one of Brecht's works to be performed in Russia during his lifetime. Izvestia disapproved: "It is high time that our
60th Berlin International Film Festival
The 60th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from 11–21 February 2010, with Werner Herzog as President of the Jury. The opening film of the festival was Chinese director Wang Quan'an's romantic drama Apart Together, in competition, while the closing film is Japanese director Yoji Yamada's About Her Brother, screened out of competition; the Golden Bear went to Turkish film Bal directed by Semih Kaplanoğlu. A new record attendance was established according to the organizers. A restored version of Fritz Lang's Metropolis was shown at the festival; the following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Werner Herzog - President of the Jury Francesca Comencini Nuruddin Farah Cornelia Froboess José María Morales Yu Nan Renée Zellweger The following films were selected in competition for the Golden Bear and Silver Bear awards: The following films made their international debut by screening out of competition at the festival: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury:Golden Bear for Best Film - Bal by Semih Kaplanoğlu Silver Bears: Jury Grand Prix: Eu cand vreau sa fluier, fluier by Florin Șerban Best Director: Roman Polanski for The Ghost Writer Best Actress: Shinobu Terajima for Caterpillar Best Actor: Grigoriy Dobrygin and Sergei Puskepalis for How I Ended This Summer Best Script: Jin Na and Wang Quan'an for Apart Together Outstanding Artistic Contribution: Pavel Kostomarov for Kak ya provel etim letom Alfred Bauer Prize: Eu cand vreau sa fluier, fluier by Florin ȘerbanHonorary Golden Bear Wolfgang Kohlhaase Hanna SchygullaCrystal Bear in the Generation Kplus Echoes of the Rainbow Crystal Bear in the Generation14plus Neukölln UnlimitedThe Berlinale Camera Yoji Yamada Ulrich Gregor and Erika Gregor Fine Art Foundry Noack Media related to 60th Berlin International Film Festival at Wikimedia Commons Yearbook 2010 at berlinale.de 60th Berlin International Film Festival 2010 Berlin International Film Festival:2010 at Internet Movie Database
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Johanna "Hannah" Cohn Arendt was an American philosopher and political theorist. Her many books and articles on topics ranging from totalitarianism to epistemology have had a lasting influence on political theory. Arendt is considered one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. Arendt was born in Hanover, Germany but raised in Königsberg in a secular merchant Jewish culture by parents who were politically progressive, being supporters of the Social Democrats, her father died when she was seven, so she was raised by her mother and grandfather. After completing her secondary education, she studied at the University of Marburg under Martin Heidegger, with whom she had a brief affair, he had a lasting influence on her thinking, she obtained her doctorate in philosophy in 1929 at the University of Heidelberg with Karl Jaspers. Hannah Arendt married Günther Stern in 1929, but soon began to encounter increasing antisemitism in 1930s Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, while researching antisemitic propaganda for the Zionist Federation of Germany in Berlin that year, Arendt was denounced and imprisoned by the Gestapo.
On release, she fled Germany, living in Switzerland before settling in Paris. There she worked for Youth Aliyah. Divorcing Stern in 1937, she married Heinrich Blücher in 1940, but when Germany invaded France in 1940 she was detained by the French as an alien, despite having been stripped of her German citizenship in 1937, she made her way to the United States in 1941 via Portugal. She settled in New York, she became a writer and editor and worked for the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, becoming an American citizen in 1950. With the publication of The Origins of Totalitarianism in 1951, her reputation as a thinker and writer was established and a series of seminal works followed; these included The Human Condition in 1958, Eichmann in Jerusalem and On Revolution in 1963. She taught while declining tenure-track appointments, she died of a heart attack in 1975, at the age of 69, leaving her last work, The Life of the Mind, unfinished. Her works cover a broad range of topics, but she is best known for those dealing with the nature of power and evil, as well as politics, direct democracy and totalitarianism.
In the popular mind she is best remembered for the controversy surrounding the trial of Adolf Eichmann, her attempt to explain how ordinary people become actors in totalitarian systems, considered an apologia, for the phrase "the banality of evil". She is commemorated by institutions and journals devoted to her thinking, the Hannah Arendt Prize for political thinking, on stamps, street names and schools, amongst other things. Hannah Arendt was born Johanna Cohn Arendt in 1906 into a comfortable educated secular family of German Jews in Linden, Prussia, in Wilhelmine Germany, her family were merchants of Russian extraction from the East Prussian capital. Arendt's grandparents were members of the Reform Jewish community there. Hannah's paternal grandfather, Max Arendt, was a prominent businessman, local politician, one of the leaders of the Königsberg Jewish community and a member of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens. Like other members of the Centralverein he saw himself as a German and disapproved of the activities of Zionists, such as the young Kurt Blumenfeld, a frequent visitor to their home and would become one of Hannah's mentors.
Of Max Arendt's children, Paul Arendt was an engineer and Henriette Arendt was a policewoman who became a social worker. Hannah was the only child of Paul and Martha Arendt, who were married on April 11, 1902, she was named after her paternal grandmother. The Cohns had come to Königsberg from nearby Russian territory in 1852, as refugees from anti-Semitism, made their living as tea importers; the Arendts had reached Germany from Russia a century earlier. Hannah's extended family contained many more women, who shared the loss of children. Hannah's parents were better educated and politically more to the left than her grandparents, both being members of the Social Democrats, rather than the German Democratic Party that most of their contemporaries supported. Paul Arendt was educated at the Albertina. Though he worked as an engineer, he prided himself on his love of Classics, he collected a large library. Martha Cohn, a musician, had studied for three years in Paris. In the first four years of their marriage, the Arendts lived in Berlin, where they were supporters of the socialist journal Sozialistische Monatshefte.
At the time of Hannah's birth, Paul Arendt was employed by an electrical engineering firm in Linden, they lived in a frame house on the market square. The Arendt family moved back to Königsberg because of Paul's deteriorating health. Hannah's father suffered from a prolonged illness with syphilis and had to be institutionalized in the Königsberg psychiatric hospital in 1911. For years Hannah had to have annual WR tests for congenital syphilis, he died on October 1913, when Hannah was seven, leaving her mother to raise her. They lived at Hannah's grandfather's house at Tiergartenstrasse 6, a leafy residential street adjacent to the Königsberg Tiergarten, in the
A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare in 1595/96. It portrays the events surrounding the marriage of the Duke of Athens, to Hippolyta; these include the adventures of four young Athenian lovers and a group of six amateur actors who are controlled and manipulated by the fairies who inhabit the forest in which most of the play is set. The play is one of Shakespeare's most popular works for the stage and is performed across the world; the play consists of four interconnecting plots, connected by a celebration of the wedding of Duke Theseus of Athens and the Amazon queen, which are set in the woodland and in the realm of Fairyland, under the light of the moon. The play opens with Hermia, in love with Lysander, resistant to her father Egeus's demand that she wed Demetrius, whom he has arranged for her to marry. Helena, Hermia's best friend, pines unrequitedly for Demetrius, who broke up with her to be with Hermia. Enraged, Egeus invokes an ancient Athenian law before Duke Theseus, whereby a daughter needs to marry a suitor chosen by her father, or else face death.
Theseus offers her another choice: lifelong chastity as a nun worshipping the goddess Artemis. Peter Quince and his fellow players Nick Bottom, Francis Flute, Robin Starveling, Tom Snout and Snug plan to put on a play for the wedding of the Duke and the Queen, "the most lamentable comedy and most cruel death of Pyramus and Thisbe". Quince bestows them on the players. Nick Bottom, playing the main role of Pyramus, is over-enthusiastic and wants to dominate others by suggesting himself for the characters of Thisbe, the Lion, Pyramus at the same time, he would rather be a tyrant and recites some lines of Ercles. Bottom is told by Quince that he would do the Lion so as to frighten the duchess and ladies enough for the Duke and Lords to have the players hanged. Snug remarks that he needs the Lion's part because he is "slow of study". Quince ends the meeting with "at the Duke's oak we meet". In a parallel plot line, king of the fairies, Titania, his queen, have come to the forest outside Athens. Titania tells Oberon that she plans to stay there until she has attended Theseus and Hippolyta's wedding.
Oberon and Titania are estranged because Titania refuses to give her Indian changeling to Oberon for use as his "knight" or "henchman", since the child's mother was one of Titania's worshippers. Oberon seeks to punish Titania's disobedience, he calls upon Robin "Puck" Goodfellow, his "shrewd and knavish sprite", to help him concoct a magical juice derived from a flower called "love-in-idleness", which turns from white to purple when struck by Cupid's arrow. When the concoction is applied to the eyelids of a sleeping person, that person, upon waking, falls in love with the first living thing they perceive, he instructs Puck to retrieve the flower with the hope that he might make Titania fall in love with an animal of the forest and thereby shame her into giving up the little Indian boy. He says, "And ere I take this charm from off her sight,/As I can take it with another herb,/I'll make her render up her page to me." Hermia and Lysander have escaped to a forest in hopes of running away from Theseus.
Helena, desperate to reclaim Demetrius's love, tells Demetrius about the plan and he follows them in hopes of finding Hermia. Helena continually makes advances towards Demetrius, promising to love him more than Hermia. However, he rebuffs her with cruel insults against her. Observing this, Oberon orders Puck to spread some of the magical juice from the flower on the eyelids of the young Athenian man. Instead, Puck mistakes Lysander for Demetrius, not having seen either before, administers the juice to the sleeping Lysander. Helena, coming across him, wakes him while attempting to determine whether he is asleep. Upon this happening, Lysander falls in love with Helena. Helena, runs away with Lysander following her; when Hermia wakes up, she sees that Lysander goes out in the woods to find him. Oberon sees Demetrius still following Hermia, who thinks Demetrius killed Lysander, is enraged; when Demetrius goes to sleep, Oberon sends Puck to get Helena. Upon waking up, he sees Helena. Now, both men are in love with Helena.
However, she is convinced that her two suitors are mocking her. Hermia finds Lysander and asks why he left her, but Lysander claims and denies he never loved Hermia, but Helena. Hermia accuses Helena of stealing Lysander away from her while Helena believes Hermia joined the two men in mocking her. Hermia tries to attack Helena. Lysander, tired of Hermia's presence, tells her to leave. Lysander and Demetrius decide to seek a place to duel to prove; the two girls go their own separate ways, Helena hoping to reach Athens and Hermia chasing after the men to make sure Lysander doesn't get hurt or killed. Oberon orders Puck to keep Lysander and Demetrius from catching up with one another and to remove the charm from Lysander so Lysander can return to love Hermia, while Demetrius continues to love Helena. Meanwhile and his band of six labourers have arranged to perform their play about Pyramus and Thisbe for Theseus' wedding and venture into the forest, near Titania's bower, for their rehearsal. Bottom is spotted by Puck.
When Bottom returns for his next lines, the other workmen run screaming in terror: They claim that they are haunted, much to Bot
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Karl Georg Büchner was a German dramatist and writer of poetry and prose, considered part of the Young Germany movement. He was a revolutionary and the brother of physician and philosopher Ludwig Büchner, his literary achievements, though few in number, are held in great esteem in Germany and it is believed that, had it not been for his early death, he might have joined such central German literary figures as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller at the summit of their profession. Born in Goddelau in the Grand Duchy of Hesse as the son of a physician, Büchner attended the Darmstadt gymnasium, a humanistic secondary school. In 1828, he became interested in politics and joined a circle of William Shakespeare aficionados, which on became the Gießen and Darmstadt section of the Society for Human Rights. In 1831, at age 18, he began to study medicine in Strasbourg. In Strasbourg, he immersed himself in political thought, he was influenced by the utopian communist theories of François-Noël Babeuf and Claude Henri de Saint-Simon.
In 1833 he continued his studies at the University of Giessen. While Büchner continued his studies in Gießen, he established a secret society dedicated to the revolutionary cause. In July 1834, with the help of evangelical theologian Friedrich Ludwig Weidig, he published the leaflet Der Hessische Landbote, a revolutionary pamphlet critical of social injustice in the Grand Duchy of Hesse; the authorities issued a warrant for their arrest. Weidig was arrested and died in prison in Darmstadt. Two years his medical dissertation, "Mémoire sur le Système Nerveux du Barbeaux" was published in Paris and Strasbourg. In October 1836, after receiving his M. D. and being appointed by the University of Zürich as a lecturer in anatomy, Büchner relocated to Zürich where he spent his final months writing and teaching until his death from typhus at the age of twenty-three. His first play, Dantons Tod, about the French revolution, was published followed by Lenz. Lenz is a novella based on the life of the Sturm und Drang poet Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz.
In 1836 his second play and Lena, satirized the nobility. His unfinished and most famous play, was notable because its main characters were all from the working class, it was published posthumously. By the 1870s, Büchner was nearly forgotten in Germany. Arnold Zweig described Lenz, Büchner's only work of prose fiction, as "the beginning of modern European prose"; the play Woyzeck became the basis for many adaptations including Alban Berg's landmark atonal opera Wozzeck which premiered in 1925, Werner Herzog's 1979 film Woyzeck. A literary prize in Germany, the Georg Büchner Prize, is awarded annually, it was created in 1923. The Hessian Courier, 1834 – in cooperation with Friedrich Ludwig Weidig Danton's Death, 1835 Lenz, 1835 Leonce and Lena, 1836 Woyzeck, 1837 Pietro Aretino, his drama about Pietro Aretino, has been lost. Translations: Lucrezia Borgia, 1835 Maria Tudor, 1835 Georg Büchner, Werke und Briefe. Münchner Ausgabe. ISBN 3-423-12374-5. Red Yucca – German Poetry in Translation Georg Büchner, Complete Plays and Prose, trans.
Carl Richard Mueller Georg Büchner, The Complete Plays: Danton's Death. John Reddick ISBN 0-14-044586-2. Georg Büchner, Danton's Death and Lena and Woyzeck, trans. Victor Price. ISBN 0-19-283650-1. Garland and Mary; the Oxford Companion to German Literature. 2nd ed. by Mary Garland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. "Büchner, Georg", p. 121. Heiner Boehncke, Peter Brunner, Hans Sarkowicz. Die Büchners oder der Wunsch, die Welt zu verändern. Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2008. Works by Georg Büchner at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Georg Büchner at Internet Archive Works by Georg Büchner at LibriVox Series on life of Georg Büchner, by Sybille Fuchs, reviewing Georg Büchner: Revolutionary with pen and scalpel, an exhibition from 13 October 2013 to 16 February 2014 at the Darmstadium Conference Centre, Darmstadt: Part 1 – Part 2 – Part 3 – Part 4 – Part 5 Büchner's birthplace