Barbara Jill Walters is an American broadcast journalist and television personality. Respected for her interviewing ability and popularity with viewers, Walters appeared as the host of numerous television programs, including Today, The View, 20/20, the ABC Evening News. Since retiring as a full-time host and contributor, she continued to report for ABC News through 2015. Walters began her career on The Today Show in the early 1960s as a writer and segment producer of women's interest stories, her popularity with viewers resulted in Walters receiving more airtime, in 1974 she became co-host of the program, the first woman to hold such a title on an American news program. In 1976, she continued to be a pioneer for women in broadcasting by becoming the first female co-anchor of a network evening news program, alongside Harry Reasoner on the ABC Evening News. From 1979 to 2004, Walters worked as a producer and co-host on the ABC newsmagazine 20/20, she became known for an annual special aired on ABC, Barbara Walters' 10 Most Fascinating People.
Walters created, co-hosted the ABC daytime talk show The View, on which she appeared from 1997 until her retirement in 2014. Thereafter, she continued to host a number of special reports for 20/20 as well as documentary series for Investigation Discovery, her final on-air appearance for ABC News was in 2015. In 1996, Walters was ranked #34 on the TV Guide "50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time" list, in 2000 she received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Barbara Walters was born in 1929 in Boston to Louis "Lou" Walters, her parents were both Jewish, descendants of refugees from the former Russian Empire. Walters's paternal grandfather, Abraham Isaac Warmwater, was born in Łódź, emigrated to the United Kingdom, changing his name to Abraham Walters. Walters's father, was born in London c. 1896 and moved to New York with his father and two brothers, arriving August 28, 1909. His mother and four sisters arrived in 1910. In 1949, her father opened the New York version of the Latin Quarter.
He worked as a Broadway producer where he produced the Ziegfeld Follies of 1943. He was the Entertainment Director for the Tropicana Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, where he imported the "Folies Bergère" stage show from Paris to the resort's main showroom. Walters's brother, died in 1944 of pneumonia. Walters's elder sister, was born mentally disabled and died of ovarian cancer in 1985. According to Walters, her father made and lost several fortunes throughout his life in show business, he was a booking agent, unlike her uncles who were in the shoe and dress business, his job was not safe. During the good times, Walters recalls her father taking her to the rehearsals of the night club shows he directed and produced; the actresses and dancers would twirl her around until she was dizzy. She said her father would take her out for hot dogs, their favorite. According to Walters, being surrounded by celebrities when she was young kept her from being "in awe" of them; when she was a young woman, Walters's father lost his night clubs and the family's penthouse on Central Park West.
As Walters recalled, "He had a breakdown. He went down to live in our house in Florida, the government took the house, they took the car, they took the furniture." Of her mother, she said, "My mother should have married the way her friends did, to a man, a doctor or, in the dress business."Walters attended Lawrence School, a public school in Brookline, Massachusetts, to the middle of fifth grade, when her father moved the family to Miami Beach in 1939, where she attended public school. After her father moved the family to New York City, she went to eighth grade at Ethical Culture Fieldston School, after which the family moved back to Miami Beach, she went back to New York City, where she attended Birch Wathen School from which she graduated in 1947. In 1951 she received a B. A. in English from Sarah Lawrence College and looked for work in New York City. After about a year at a small advertising agency, she began working at the NBC network affiliate in New York City, WNBT-TV, doing publicity and writing press releases.
She began producing a 15-minute children's program, Ask the Camera, directed by Roone Arledge in 1953. She began producing for TV host Igor Cassini/Cholly Knickerbocker. However, she left the network after her boss pressured her to marry him and engaged in a fist-fight with a man she preferred to date, she went to WPIX to produce the Eloise McElhone Show. She became a writer on The Morning Show at CBS in 1955. After a few years as a publicist with Tex McCrary Inc. and a job as a writer at Redbook magazine, Walters joined NBC's The Today Show as a writer and researcher in 1961. She moved up to become that show's regular "Today Girl," handling lighter assignments and the weather. In her autobiography, she describes this era before the Women's Movement as a time when it was believed that nobody would take a woman reporting "hard news." Previous "Today Girls" included Florence Henderson, Helen O'Connell, Estelle Parsons and Lee Meriwether. Within a year, she had become a reporter-at-large developing and editing her own reports and interviews.
Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution is a London-based mediation and alternative dispute resolution body. It was founded as a non-profit organisation in 1990, with the support of The Confederation of British Industry and a number of British businesses and law firms, to encourage the development and use of Alternative Dispute Resolution and mediation in commercial disputes. Professor Karl Mackie, a barrister and psychologist, became the organisation's Chief Executive and Eileen Carroll QC, a Trans-Atlantic partner with a law firm joined to become the Deputy Chief Executive in 1996. On 12 June 2010 it was announced in the Queen's Birthday Honours that Karl Mackie was appointed a CBE by the UK Government for ‘services to mediation', the first citing of this reason for the award. CEDR's focus was, by necessity, UK-focused, where in the early 1990s mediation was not well established in business disputes. Through its campaigning and training work CEDR helped influence the civil justice system.
In 1996 the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Lord Harry Woolf, published his'Access To Civil Justice Report' which encouraged the use of ADR, followed by the Civil Procedure Rules in 1999 which enabled judges to impose cost sanctions to either party when ADR was refused or ignored. These guidelines, along with case law and subsequent clarification of the Civil Procedure Rules saw the growth of the use of ADR and in particular mediation in the UK. Parallel to this was a growth in demand for CEDR's services in dispute training. From the mid-1990s onwards CEDR's focus became international, to begin with encouraging mediation in other European countries and working on international cases, to establishing the MEDAL international mediation service provider alliance and creating the first international mediation centre in China with China Council for the Promotion of International Trade. CEDR works in four main ways. CEDR states that all money raised from its activities get put into the promotion of mediation and ADR, through events and running many services at cost.
CEDR, a UK registered charity, asks global businesses to be members to support these activities. CEDR runs a number of elements under this umbrella, which include: The Exchange Participant Network Programme – quarterly events and newsletter for mediators around the world; the European Mediation Congress – a biennial conference event always held in London, last held in 2007. In 2009 this was instead a Conference on Settlement in International Arbitration; the Excellence in ADR Awards – another biennial event - a 20th Anniversary Awards will be held in 2010. The Mediator Audit – again biennial to coincided with the Congress and gauges the quantity and quality of mediations in the UK over the previous two years; the last audit was published May 2010. The International Mediation Institute - as a board member of IMI since 2014, CEDR participates in setting quality standards and promoting the adoption of quality mediation around the world. CEDR is the dispute resolution service arm of CEDR. Any business or law firm facing a dispute can call to speak to a case adviser who will provide advice and be able to recommend an accredited mediator to resolve their dispute.
A number of the world's top mediators are only available via this service but CEDR Solve says it has over 130 accredited mediators on its panel of experts and with 50 mediators directly. The service says it has advised on over 16,000 disputes to date and mediates 600 major cases a year. On November 9, 2011 it was announced that, the previous day, CEDR had acquired IDRS Ltd, the dispute resolution service of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators. In 2007 CEDR started the Commission on International Arbitration, chaired by Lord Woolf and Professor Kaufmann-Kohler, to investigate settlement in international arbitration and to make recommendations on how arbitral institutions and tribunals can give parties greater assistance; the Commission is composed of 75 figures from the field and is consulting 45 organisations from different jurisdictions. In 2009 the Commission published its Rules & Recommendations for Settlement in International Arbitration. Training mediators for over seventeen years, its Mediator Training Skills is thought to be the best in the world.
With a faculty of 30 experienced mediators, CEDR says over 5000 mediators from different countries have been trained to date. Once passed mediators can go on to become accredited. In the last ten years CEDR has branched out and offers other courses such as a Certificate in Advanced Negotiation, Advocacy Skills for lawyers and Conflict Management for managers. CEDR says it is called into organizations and disputes at an early stage to design a resolution system or training scheme. In 2006 CEDR announced it had been appointed by the World Bank's International Finance Corporation to introduce mediation to Pakistan. In its 2005 report CEDR said it has worked with IBM, the Court of Appeal and the National Association of Pension Funds. Whilst no organizations were mentioned in its 2006 annual report, in 2007 CEDR said it ran projects or consulted with the IFC and World Bank, the European Patent Office, the London Olympics 2012, the Federal Government of India, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energy, the Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development, the Chartered Institute of Public Relations, the Ministry of Justice, the National Health Service, the Foreign & Commonwealth Office and UNCITRAL.
Sabre is a variation of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance, featuring the turret from a Fox reconnaissance vehicle mounted on the hull of a Scorpion. This UK hybrid vehicle was introduced as a less expensive way of producing a similar vehicle to the FV107 Scimitar, but with a lower profile turret, it was brought into service in 1995. During initial combat exercises, several flaws were identified. In particular, the vehicle lacked defensive capabilities; as such, modifications were made to the turret of the Sabre to include redesigned smoke grenade launchers and the L94A1 7.62 mm chain gun replacing the standard 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, for anti-personnel use. An ammunition hopper sits on the side of the machine gun allowing the weapon to be more reloaded than a belt-fed machine gun; the marriage of the Fox turret and Scorpion chassis was not successful and Sabre was withdrawn from British Army service in 2004. Smoke grenade dischargers Ammunition: 30 mm: 160 rounds Armour-piercing Enhanced Penetration and High Explosive 7.62 mm: 3,000 rounds