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Barbarella (film)

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Barbarella
Multicolored, comic-like film poster of Barbarella and other characters
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Roger Vadim
Produced by Dino De Laurentiis
Screenplay by
Based on Barbarella
by Jean-Claude Forest
Starring
Music by
Cinematography Claude Renoir
Edited by Victoria Mercanton[2]
Production
company
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date
  • 11 October 1968 (1968-10-11) (New York)
  • 18 October 1968 (1968-10-18) (Italy)
  • 25 October 1968 (1968-10-25) (France)
Running time
98 minutes
Country
  • France
  • Italy
Budget $4–9 million[3][4]
Box office $5.5 million (North American rentals)[5]

Barbarella is a 1968 science fiction film directed by Roger Vadim, based on the comic series of the same name by Jean-Claude Forest. The film stars Jane Fonda as Barbarella, a space-traveler and representative of the United Earth government sent to find scientist Durand Durand, who has created a weapon that could destroy humanity.

As a director who expressed an interest in comics and science fiction, Vadim was hired to direct Barbarella after producer Dino De Laurentiis purchased the film rights to the comic series. Vadim attempted to cast several actors in the title role (including Virna Lisi, Brigitte Bardot, and Sophia Loren) before choosing his then-wife, Fonda. A friend of Vadim's, Terry Southern, wrote the initial screenplay, which changed considerably during filming and led to seven other writers credited in the final release, including Vadim and Forest. The film began shooting immediately following the completion of another De Laurentiis comic adaptation, Danger: Diabolik, with both films sharing several cast and crew members.

The film was particularly popular in the United Kingdom, where it was the year's second-highest-grossing film. Contemporary film critics praised Barbarella's visuals and cinematography, but found its storyline weak after the first few scenes. Although several attempts at sequels, remakes, and other adaptations have been planned, none have entered production.

Plot[edit]

In an unspecified future, space adventurer Barbarella (Jane Fonda) is assigned by the President of Earth (Claude Dauphin) to retrieve Dr. Durand Durand (Milo O'Shea) from the Tau Ceti planetary system. Durand is the inventor of the laser powered super weapon called the positronic ray, which Earth leaders fear will fall into the wrong hands. Barbarella crash-lands on Tau Ceti's 16th planet, and is knocked unconscious by two children. They bring her into the wreckage of a spaceship, where she is bound and attacked by several dolls with razor-sharp teeth. Barbarella is rescued by Mark Hand (Ugo Tognazzi), the Catchman who patrols the ice looking for errant children. Hand tells her that Durand is in the city of Sogo, and she expresses her appreciation by having sexual intercourse with him, a practice now done on Earth by taking pills. Hand suggests having sex without pills, which Barbarella is initially skeptical of, but she discovers that she enjoys it.

Barbarella leaves the planet and crashes into a labyrinth inhabited by outcasts from Sogo. She is found by Pygar (John Phillip Law), a blind angel who has lost the will to fly. Pygar introduces her to Professor Ping (Marcel Marceau), who offers to repair Barbarella's ship. Pygar flies her to Sogo after she restores his will to fly with sexual intercourse. When they arrive, Pygar and Barbarella are captured by Sogo's Black Queen (Anita Pallenberg, voiced by Joan Greenwood[6]) and her concierge. The concierge describes the Matmos: living energy in liquid form, powered by evil thoughts and used as an energy source in Sogo. Pygar endures a mock crucifixion and Barbarella is placed in a cage, where hundreds of birds prepare to attack her. She is rescued by Dildano (David Hemmings), leader of the local underground, who joins in her pursuit of Durand. Dildano offers her an invisible key to a chamber of dreams where the Queen sleeps, and sends her back to Sogo.

Barbarella is promptly recaptured by the concierge; he places her in an excessive-pleasure machine, which induces fatal sexual pleasure. She outlasts the machine, which shuts down. The concierge, shocked at its destruction, is revealed as Durand (who has aged 30 years due to the Matmos). He wants to become Sogo's new leader and overthrow the Black Queen, which requires his positronic ray and access to the chamber of dreams. Durand takes Barbarella to the chamber, locking her inside with the invisible key. She meets the Queen, who says that if two people are in the chamber the Matmos will devour them. Durand seizes control of Sogo, as Dildano and his rebels begin their attack on the city. The Black Queen retaliates, releasing the Matmos to destroy Sogo. Protected by what the Black Queen calls Barbarella's innocence, they escape the Matmos and find Pygar; the angel clutches them in his arms and flies off. When Barbarella asks Pygar why he saved a tyrant, he replies: "An angel has no memory."

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Dino De Laurentiis bought Barbarella's film rights. He secured a distribution deal in the United States between France's Marianne Productions and Paramount Pictures. He planned to film Danger: Diabolik, a less-expensive feature, to help cover production costs.[7] In 1966 Roger Vadim expressed an admiration for comics (particularly Peanuts), saying that he liked "the wild humor and impossible exaggeration of comic strips" and wanted to "do something in that style myself in my next film, Barbarella."[8] Vadim saw the film as a chance to "depict a new futuristic morality ... Barbarella has [no] guilt about her body. I want to make something beautiful out of eroticism."[9] His wife, actress Jane Fonda, noted that Vadim was a fan of science fiction; according to the director, "In science fiction, technology is everything ... The characters are so boring—they have no psychology. I want to do this film as though I had arrived on a strange planet with my camera directly on my shoulder—as though I was a reporter doing a newsreel."[3]

After Terry Southern finished writing Peter Sellers' dialogue for Casino Royale, he flew to Paris to meet Vadim and Fonda. Southern, who had known Vadim in Paris during the early 1950s, saw writing a science-fiction comedy based on a comic book as a new challenge.[10] He enjoyed writing the script, particularly the opening striptease and the scenes with tiny robotic toys pursuing Barbarella to bite her. Southern enjoyed working with Vadim and Fonda, but he felt that De Laurentiis wanted to make a cheap film rather than a good film.[11] Southern said later, "Vadim wasn't particularly interested in the script, but he was a lot of fun, with a discerning eye for the erotic, grotesque, and the absurd. And Jane Fonda was super in all regards."[12] Southern was surprised to see his screenplay credited to Vadim and several Italian screenwriters in addition to himself.[11] Credited screenwriters included Claude Brulé, Vittorio Bonicelli, Clement Biddle Wood, Brian Degas, Tudor Gates, and Barbarella creator Jean-Claude Forest.[13] Charles B. Griffith later said that he had done uncredited work on the script; the production team "hired fourteen other writers" after Southern "before they got to me. I didn't get credit because I was the last one." According to Griffith, he "rewrote about a quarter of the film that was shot, then re-shot, and I added the concept that there had been thousands of years since violence existed, so that Barbarella was very clumsy all through the picture. She shoots herself in the foot and everything. It was pretty ludicrous. The stuff with Claude Dauphin and the suicide room were also part of my contribution to the film."[14]

Pre-production[edit]

A man (Roger Vadim) standing with a dog on his shoulder with a woman (Jane Fonda) next to him.
Roger Vadim and Jane Fonda in 1967

Several actresses were approached before Jane Fonda was cast as Barbarella. De Laurentiis' first choice was Virna Lisi; his second was Brigitte Bardot, who was not interested in a sexualized role. His third choice was Sophia Loren, who was pregnant and felt that she would not fit the role.[7] Fonda was uncertain about the film, but Vadim convinced her by saying that science fiction was a rapidly-evolving genre. Before filming Barbarella, she was the subject of two sex scandals: the first when her nude body was displayed across an eight-story billboard promoting the premiere of Circle of Love in 1965, and the second when several candid nude photos from Vadim's closed set for The Game Is Over were sold to Playboy the following year. According to biographer Thomas Kiernan, the billboard incident made her a sex symbol in the United States.[15] Vadim said he did not want the actress to play Barbarella "tongue in cheek", and he saw the character as "just a lovely, average girl with a terrific space record and a lovely body. I am not going to intellectualise her. Although there is going to be a bit of satire about our morals and our ethics, the picture is going to be more of a spectacle than a cerebral exercise for a few way out intellectuals."[16] Fonda felt her first priority for Barbarella was to "keep her innocent"; the character "is not a vamp and her sexuality is not measured by the rules of our society. She is not being promiscuous, but she follows the natural reaction of another type of upbringing. She is not a so-called 'sexually liberated woman' either. That would mean rebellion against something. She is different. She was born free."[16]

French mime Marcel Marceau had his first speaking role in the film as Professor Ping.[17] Comparing his character to Bip the Clown and Harpo Marx, he said that he did not "forget the lines, but I have trouble organising them. It's a different way of making what's inside come out. It goes from the brain to the vocal chords, and not directly to the body."[18]

Some publications, including The Guardian had stated that fashion designer Paco Rabanne created Fonda's costumes.[19] Recent fashion scholarship has demonstrated that Rabanne was only involved in the production of Fonda's final green outfit.[20] All costumes in the film, including Fonda's, were designed by French costume designer Jacques Fonteray and manufactured by Sartoria Farani.[21] Barbarella's outfits were Jacques Fonteray's interpretation of Forest's vision, combining orientalist and medieval aesthetics with samurai amours.[22] Forest also worked on the production's design. In a 1985 interview, he said that during production he did not care about his original comic strip and was more interested in the film industry: "The Italian artists were incredible; they could build anything in an extremely short time. I saw all the daily rushes, an incredible amount of film. The choices that were made for the final cut from those images were not the ones I would have liked, but I was not the director. It wasn't my affair."[23]

Filming[edit]

John Phillip Law, who appeared in both Barbarella and Danger: Diabolik, said that Barbarella began shooting after Danger: Diabolik wrapped production on 18 June 1967. Sets such as Valmont's night club in Danger: Diabolik were used in both films.[24] Barbarella was shot at Cinecittà in Rome.[25] To film its striptease introduction, Fonda said that the set was turned upward to face the ceiling of the soundstage. A pane of thick glass was laid across the opening of the set, with the camera hung from the rafters above it. Fonda then climbed onto the glass to perform the scene.[23] Other scenes involved hanging Fonda upside down in an enormous vat of oil and dry ice, and her stomach being skinned when being shot through a plastic tube. For the scenes involving the Excessive Pleasure Machine, Fonda and Milo O'Shea were not told of explosions would happen on set, as the prop was rigged with flares and smoke bombs. Fonda explained that "Vadim wanted us to look natural, so he didn't tell us what a big explosion there would be. When the machine blew up, flames and smoke were everywhere, and sparks were running up and down the wires. I was frightened to death, and poor Milo was convinced something had really gone wrong and I was being electrocuted."[26]

For the scene involving Barbarella being attacked by humming birds, wrens and lovebirds were used as it was illegal to ship hummingbirds overseas. The birds were not behaving as Vadim had expected, which led to him employing a large fan to blow them at Fonda, who had birdseed in her costume. Film critic Roger Ebert, after visiting the set, wrote that the fan led to birds "losing control over natural body functions, so it was all a little messy". Ebert concluded that "After two weeks of this, [Fonda] got a fever and was hospitalized. I can't reveal here how they finally did the scene".[26]

The actress later described her discomfort on the film's set. In her autobiography, Fonda said that Vadim began drinking during lunch; his words slurred, and "his decisions about how to shoot scenes often seemed ill-considered". Fonda was bulimic and, at the time, was "a young woman who hated her body...playing a scantily clad, sometimes-naked sexual heroine".[23] Photographer David Hurn echoed Fonda, noting that she was insecure about her appearance during the production's photo shoots.[27] The actress took sick days so the film's insurance policy would cover the cost of a shutdown while the script was edited.[23] Vadim would later state in his memoir that Fonda "didn't enjoy shooting Barbarella", specifically that she "disliked the central character for her lack of principle, her shameless exploitation of her sexuality and her irrelevance to contemporary social and political realities."[28]

Post-production[edit]

Michel Magne was commissioned to score Barbarella, whose effort was discarded.[29] The film's soundtrack, completed by composer-producers Bob Crewe and Charles Fox,[30] has been described as lounge or exotica.[31] Crewe was known for composing 1960s songs such as the Four Seasons' "Big Girls Don't Cry". Some of the music is credited to the Bob Crewe Generation, a group of session musicians who contributed to the soundtrack. Crewe invited the New York-based group the Glitterhouse, whom he knew through his production work, to provide vocals for the songs. He reflected on the soundtrack in his autobiography, saying that it "clearly needed to have a fun and futuristic approach to it, with sixties-music sensibility".[30]

Release[edit]

Barbarella opened in New York on 11 October 1968[32] and earned $2.5 million in North American theaters that year.[33] It was the second-most-popular film in general release in the United Kingdom in 1968, after The Jungle Book.[7][34] The film was shown in Paris that month, and was released in Italy on 18 October.[32][35] It was released on 25 October throughout France, where it was distributed by Paramount.[36] The film was re-released theatrically in 1977, without its nude scenes, as Barbarella: Queen of the Galaxy.[37] Barbarella received a "condemned" rating from the National Catholic Office for Motion Pictures, which called the film a "sick, heavy-handed fantasy with nudity and graphic representations of sadism" and criticized the Production Code Administration for approving it.[28]

In 1994, the film's laserdisc presented it in widescreen for the first time on home video.[38] It was released on DVD on 22 June 1999,[39][40] and on Blu-ray in July 2012, with the 1968 theatrical trailer the disc's only bonus feature.[41] According to Charles Taylor of The New York Times, home-video releases of the film before the Blu-ray version were "murky".[42] Chris Nashawaty (Entertainment Weekly) and Sean Axmaker (Video Librarian) called Barbarella's Blu-ray transfer "breathtaking" and "superb-looking", respectively.[41][43]

Reviews[edit]

Contemporary[edit]

Some contemporary publications reported that the film's first scenes were enjoyable, but its quality declined thereafter.[44][45] According to Wendy Michener's review in The Globe and Mail, after the striptease scene "we are plunged back into the mundane, not to say inane world, of the spy thriller with a dreary overlay of futuristic science-fiction" and it "just lies there, with all its psychedelic plastic settings".[46] Barbarella's script and humor were criticized; A reviewer in Variety noted a "flat script" with only "a few silly-funny lines of dialog" for a "cast that is not particularly adept at comedy".[47] Dan Bates wrote in Film Quarterly that "sharp satiric moments ... are welcome and refreshing but are rather infrequent",[48] and Renata Adler of The New York Times noted that "there is the assumption that just mentioning a thing (sex, politics, religion) makes it funny".[45]

Critics praised the film's design and cinematography. Variety's mainly negative review noted "a certain amount of production dash and polish" and, according to Derek Malcolm of The Guardian, "Claude Renoir's limpid colour photography and August Lohman's eye-catching special effects are what save the movie time and again".[49] A Monthly Film Bulletin reviewer wrote that Barbarella's decor is "remarkably faithful to Jean-Claude Forest's originals", noting a "major contribution of Claude Renoir as director of photography" and "Jacques Fonterary's and Paco Rabanne's fantastic costumes".[13] James Price (Sight & Sound) agreed, citing "the inventiveness of the decors and the richness of Claude Renoir's photography".[50]

Malcolm and Lohman criticized Barbarella's nature, themes and tone, with Malcolm calling it a "nasty kind of film", "modish to the core" and "essentially just a shrewd piece of exploitation".[49] Lohman suggested the film's humor was "not jokes, but hard-breathing, sadistic thrashings, mainly at the expense of Barbarella, and of women."[45] Bates called it "pure sub-adolescent junk" and "bereft of redeeming social or artistic importance".[48]

Michener praised Barbarella as part of "the first female sci-fi". Its shaggy gold rugs, impressionist paintings and spaceship were "unquestionably female in design compared with any of today's projectiles"; Barbarella is "no man-challenging superwoman, but a sweet soft creature who's always willing to please a man who's king to her".[46] According to Price, "There is a real fascination in its basic idea, which is a happy belief in the survival of sexuality... The idea fascinates, but the execution somehow disappoints (how often one has to say that about Vadim)."[50] Bates' review concluded, "In the year that Stanley Kubrick and Franklin Schaffner finally elevated the science-fiction movie beyond the abyss of the kiddie show, Roger Vadim has knocked it right back down."[48]

Retrospective[edit]

Numerous retrospective reviews have discussed Barbarella's plot and design.[42][43][51] According to The A.V. Club's Keith Phipps, "Mario Garbuglia keeps throwing inventive visuals and remarkable sets at the heroine" but "the journey itself is an unrelenting trudge".[51] Sean Axmaker of Video Librarian called Barbarella "set design and wild color triumphing over story and character".[43] Taylor noted a lack of "plot impetus", suggesting that Vadim may have been "preoccupied with the special effects, though they are [and were] rather cheesy".[42] Kim Newman (Empire) gave Barbarella three stars out of five, calling the film "literally episodic" and writing that the episodes spend "more time on the art direction, the costuming and the psychedelic music track than the plot".[52]

About its sexual elements, Brian J. Dillard wrote that the film's gender roles were not "particularly progressive, especially given the running gag about Barbarella getting her first few tastes of physical copulation after a lifetime of 'advanced' virtual sex" in his review on AllMovie.[53] Phipps found the film "a missed opportunity", noting that the source material was part of "an emerging wave of European comics for adults" which "Vadim film[ed] indifferently."[51] David Kehr of the Chicago Reader found the film "ugly" on several levels, particularly its "human values".[54] Newman summarized the film as "cheerful, kitsch and camp", with "a succession of truly amazing fashion creations with all the confidence of a generation that thought sex was, above all, fun". Newman compared the film to 2001: A Space Odyssey and Star Wars, writing that Barbarella makes them seem "stuffy" by comparison.[52] Charles Webb's review for MTV noted that Barbarella suffers when described as a "camp classic", since there was "so much to like about Fonda's work here and the movie as a whole"; "Fonda brings naivete and sweetness to a part that requires a certain level of comfort going bare onscreen, while the hostile planet Lythion is a parade of inventive and odd ways to imperil our heroine."[39]

Aftermath and influence[edit]

A woman cosplaying as Barbarella. Author Jerry Lembcke noted that Barbarella's popularity went beyond the film-buff community.[55]

According to the Los Angeles Times, Barbarella may seem "quaint" to modern audiences but its "imagery has echoed for years in pop culture."[56] Lisa Eisner of The New York Times called Barbarella "the most iconic sex goddess of the '60s."[57] The film's costumes influenced Jean-Paul Gaultier's designs in The Fifth Element,[58] and Gaultier noted Paco Rabanne's metallic dress that was worn by Fonda.[59]

Barbarella was later called a cult film.[60][61] Author Jerry Lembcke noted the film's popularity; it was available in small video stores, and was familiar beyond the film-buff community. According to Lembcke, any "doubt about its cult status was dispelled when Entertainment Weekly ranked it number 40 on its list of top 50 cult movies" in 2003. He cited the film's popularity on the internet, with fansites ranging from a Barbarella festival in Sweden to memorabilia sales and reviews. Lembcke writes that the websites focus on the character of Barbarella.[55]

Barbarella has influenced popular music, with Duran Duran taking its name from the film's antagonist.[62] The group later released a concert film, Arena (An Absurd Notion), with Milo O'Shea reprising his role from Barbarella.[63][64]

Proposed sequel, remake and TV series[edit]

A sequel to Barbarella was planned in November 1968. Producer Robert Evans said that its working title would be Barbarella Goes Down, with the character having undersea adventures.[65] Terry Southern said that he was contacted by de Laurentiis in 1990 to write a sequel "on the cheap ... but with plenty of action and plenty of sex," and possibly starring Fonda's daughter.[12]

A new version of Barbarella was proposed in the 2000s, and director Robert Rodriguez was interested in developing a version after the release of Sin City. Universal Pictures planned to produce the film, with Rose McGowan playing Barbarella.[66] Dino and Martha De Laurentiis signed on with writers Neal Purvis and Robert Wade, who had worked on Casino Royale.[67] When the film's budget exceeded $80 million, Universal withdrew.[66] According to Rodriguez, he did not want his film to look like Vadim's.[68] He searched for alternate financing when Universal did not meet his budget, and found a studio in Germany which would provide a $70 million budget.[66] Rodriguez eventually left the project, since using that studio would require a long separation from his family.[66] Joe Gazzam was then approached to write a screenplay, with Robert Luketic directing and Dino and Martha De Laurentiis still credited as producers.[69]

Gaumont International Television announced a pilot for a TV series based on the film by Amazon Studios in 2012.[70] The pilot would be written by Purvis and Wade and directed by Nicolas Winding Refn,[71][72] and the series would be set in Asia.[72] Refn spoke about the show in 2016 where he discussed about having a greater interest on developing The Neon Demon than Barbarella, concluding that "certain things are better left untouched. You don't need to remake everything."[73]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Barbarella (1968)". BFI. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  2. ^ "Cinée-ressources" (in French). Cineressources.net. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Hendrick, Kimmis (14 October 1967). "Vadim's 'Barbarella,' a challenging film: A free hand Employs improvisation". The Christian Science Monitor. p. 6. 
  4. ^ "Barbarella". The Numbers. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  5. ^ "All-time Film Rental Champs". Variety. 7 January 1976. p. 6. 
  6. ^ Hughes 2014, p. 102.
  7. ^ a b c Curti 2016, p. 85.
  8. ^ Curtiss, Thomas Quinn (16 January 1966). "And Vadim 'Created' Jane Fonda". The New York Times. p. X15. 
  9. ^ Jonas, Gerald (22 January 1967). "Here's What Happened to Baby Jane". The New York Times. p. 91. 
  10. ^ Gerber & Lisanti 2014, p. 53.
  11. ^ a b Gerber & Lisanti 2014, p. 70.
  12. ^ a b McGilligan 1997, p. 385.
  13. ^ a b "Barbarella". Monthly Film Bulletin. Vol. 38 no. 408. British Film Institute. 1968. pp. 167–168. 
  14. ^ McGilligan 1997, p. 168.
  15. ^ Parks 1999, p. 259.
  16. ^ a b Aba, Marika (10 September 1967). "What Kind of Supergirl Will Jane Fonda Be as Barbarella?". Los Angeles Times. p. C12. 
  17. ^ "Marcel Marceau to Speak". The New York Times. 22 September 1967. p. 54. 
  18. ^ Redmont, Dennis F. (25 October 1967). "First Speaking Role for Marcel Marceau". Los Angeles Times. p. D20. 
  19. ^ Bayley, Stephen (19 January 2008). "Style of the times". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  20. ^ Castaldo Lundén, Elizabeth (1 December 2016). "Barbarella's wardrobe: Exploring Jacques Fonteray's intergalactic runway". Film, Fashion & Consumption. 5 (2): 185–211. doi:10.1386/ffc.5.2.185_1. Archived from the original on 28 May 2018. 
  21. ^ Castaldo Lundén, Elizabeth (1 December 2016). "Barbarella's wardrobe: Exploring Jacques Fonteray's intergalactic runway". Film, Fashion & Consumption. 5 (2): 185–211. doi:10.1386/ffc.5.2.185_1. Archived from the original on 28 May 2018. 
  22. ^ Castaldo Lundén, Elizabeth (1 December 2016). "Barbarella's wardrobe: Exploring Jacques Fonteray's intergalactic runway". Film, Fashion & Consumption. 5 (2): 185–211. doi:10.1386/ffc.5.2.185_1. Archived from the original on 28 May 2018. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Barbarella (1968)". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  24. ^ Curti 2016, p. 88.
  25. ^ Bosworth 2011, p. 252.
  26. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (15 October 1967). "Interview With Jane Fonda". Rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2018. 
  27. ^ Godvin, Tara (10 October 2012). "'Barbarella' at 45: David Hurn's Iconic Images of Jane Fonda". Time. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  28. ^ a b Parks 1999, p. 262.
  29. ^ Spencer 2008, p. 108.
  30. ^ a b Bartkowiak & Kiuchi 2015, p. 59.
  31. ^ Bartkowiak & Kiuchi 2015, p. 58.
  32. ^ a b "Barbarella". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  33. ^ "Big Rental Films of 1968". Variety. 8 January 1969. p. 15. This figure is a rental accruing to distributors 
  34. ^ "John Wayne-Money-Spinner". The Guardian. 31 December 1968. p. 3. 
  35. ^ Dillard, Brian J. "Barbarella". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  36. ^ "Barbarella" (in French). unifrance.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  37. ^ Curti 2016, p. 90.
  38. ^ Simels, Steve (18 February 1994). "Barbarella: Queen of the Galaxy". Entertainment Weekly. p. 210. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  39. ^ a b Webb, Charles (7 February 2012). "Blu-ray Review: 'Barbarella' is Stellar on Blu". MTV. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  40. ^ "Barbarella (1968)". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  41. ^ a b Nashawaty, Chris (29 June 2012). "'Barbarella' and Beyond". Entertainment Weekly (1214). Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  42. ^ a b c Taylor, Charles (6 May 2012). "Barbarella". The New York Times. p. MT22. 
  43. ^ a b c Axmaker, Sean. "Barbarella". Video Librarian. Vol. 27 no. 5. p. 43. ISSN 0887-6851. 
  44. ^ R. L. C. (25 October 1968). "Comedy Films in Suburbs; 'Barbarella' in Town: Basbarella [sic] Shows Up As Overlong Serial". The Washington Post. p. C12. 
  45. ^ a b c Adler, Renata (12 October 1968). "Screen: Science + Sex = 'Barbarella':Jane Fonda Is Starred in Roger Vadim Film Violence and Gadgetry Set Tone of Movie". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  46. ^ a b Michener, Wendy (12 October 1968). "Barbarella, the post-atomic bomb". The Globe and Mail. p. 27. 
  47. ^ Willis 1985, pp. 240–241: "Review is of 98 minute version published on October 9, 1968"
  48. ^ a b c Bates, Dan (1969). "Short Notices". Film Quarterly. Vol. 22 no. 3. University of California Press. p. 58. 
  49. ^ a b Malcolm, Derek (16 October 1968). "Fast and spurious". The Guardian. p. 8. 
  50. ^ a b Price, James (1968). "Barbarella". Sight & Sound. Vol. 38 no. 1. British Film Institute. pp. 46–47. 
  51. ^ a b c Phipps, Keith (6 December 2016). "Barbarella". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  52. ^ a b Newman, Kim. "Barbarella Review". Empire. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  53. ^ Dillard, Brian J. "Barbarella". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  54. ^ Kehr, Dave. "Barbarella". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  55. ^ a b Lembcke 2010, p. 73.
  56. ^ Vankin, Deborah; Boucher, Geoff (27 January 2011). "Jane Fonda: I want to star in 'Barbarella' sequel". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  57. ^ Eisner, Lisa; Alonso, Roman (10 March 2002). "Style; Man of Steel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  58. ^ "J.-C. Forest, 68, Cartoonist Who Dreamt Up 'Barbarella'". The New York Times. 3 January 1999. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  59. ^ Gaultier, Jean Paul (3 March 2017). "Vive la difference! Jean Paul Gaultier Reflects on the Great French Fashion Rebels of the 20th Century". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  60. ^ Akbar, Arifa (2 December 2012). "Barbarella, the queen of cult sci-fi, is reborn for the 21st century". Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  61. ^ French, Sean (11 December 1988). "Mysteries of the cult". The Observer. London. p. A11. 
  62. ^ Taylor 2008, p. 39.
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