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A barbarian is a human, perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is applied as a generalization based on a popular stereotype. Alternatively, they may instead be romanticised as noble savages. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel and insensitive person; the term originates from the Greek: βάρβαρος. In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs. In Ancient Rome, the Romans used the term towards tribal non-Romans such as the Germanics, Gauls, Thracians, Berbers and Sarmatians. In the early modern period and sometimes the Byzantine Greeks used it for the Turks in a pejorative manner; the Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος, "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης, "citizen". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, pa-pa-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script; the Greeks used the term barbarian for all non-Greek-speaking peoples, including the Egyptians, Persians and Phoenicians, emphasizing their otherness.

According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds " However, in various occasions, the term was used by Greeks the Athenians, to deride other Greek tribes and states but fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner; the term carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning. The verb βαρβαρίζω in ancient Greek meant to behave or talk like a barbarian, or to hold with the barbarians. Plato rejected the Greek–barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian in his seventh letter. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once, in the form βαρβαρόφωνος, used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure in archaic literature before the 5th century BC, it has been suggested that the "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but those who spoke Greek badly.

A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period'barbarian' is used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war; the Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age, including the Germanic peoples, Gauls and Carthaginians. The Greek term barbaros was the etymological source for many words meaning "barbarian", including English barbarian, first recorded in 16th century Middle English. A word barbara- is found in the Sanskrit of ancient India, with the primary meaning of "stammering" implying someone with an unfamiliar language; the Greek word barbaros is related to Sanskrit barbaras. This Indo-European root is found in Latin balbus for "stammering" and Czech blblati "to stammer".

In Aramaic, Old Persian and Arabic context, the root refers to "babble confusedly". It appears as barbary or in Old French barbarie, itself derived from the Arabic Barbar, an ancient Arabic term for the North African inhabitants west of Egypt; the Arabic word might be from Greek barbaria. The Oxford English Dictionary gives five definitions of the noun barbarian, including an obsolete Barbary usage. 1. Etymologically, A foreigner, one whose language and customs differ from the speaker's. 2. Hist. a. One not a Greek. B. One living outside the pale of the Roman Empire and its civilization, applied to the northern nations that overthrew them. C. One outside the pale of Christian civilization. D. With the Italians of the Renaissance: One of a nation outside of Italy. 3. A rude, uncivilized person. B. Sometimes distinguished from savage. C. Applied by the Chinese contemptuously to foreigners. 4. An uncultured person, or one who has no sympathy with literary culture. †5. A native of Barbary. Obs. †b. Barbary pirates & A Barbary horse.

Obs. The OED barbarous entry summarizes the semantic history. "The sense-development in ancient times was'foreign, non-Hellenic,' later'outlandish, brutal'. Greek attitudes towards "barbarians" developed in parallel with the growth of chattel slavery - in Athens. Although the enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debts continued in most Greek states, Athens banned this practice under Solon in the early 6th century BC. Under the Athenian democracy established ca. 508 BC, slave

Nissan QR engine

The QR family of inline-four piston engines by Nissan were introduced in 2000 and range from 2.0 to 2.5 L in displacement. These motors are aluminum, dual overhead camshaft, four-valve designs with variable valve timing and optional direct injection; the engine shares much of its architecture with the YD diesel engine. The 2.0 L QR20DE produces 150 PS at 6000 rpm and 200 N⋅m at 4000 rpm. The bore and stroke is 89 mm × 80.3 mm and a compression ratio of 9.9:1. The QR20DE was replaced with the MR20DE. Vehicle applications: 2001-2007 Nissan X-Trail T30 140 hp 2001-2007 Nissan Primera P12 2002–present Nissan Serena C24, 145 hp 2003-2008 Nissan Teana Sentra in U. S J31, 145 hp 2001-2005 Nissan Wingroad Y11 2002-2005 Nissan Avenir W11 2001-2004 Nissan Prairie M12 The QR20DD is similar to the QR20DE but features NEO direct injection to improve fuel economy and to reduce emissions, it produces 150 PS at 6000 rpm and 200 N⋅m at 4400 rpm. Vehicle applications: 2000-2004 Nissan Bluebird Sylphy The QR25DE is a 2.5 L variant built with cast steel connecting rods, a steel timing chain, counter-rotating balance shafts, an aluminum intake manifold.

The engine bore and stroke is 89 mm × 100 mm and a compression ratio ranging from 9.5:1 to 10.5:1 depending on the vehicle. Output is rated 175 hp at 6000 rpm with 244 N⋅m of torque at 4000 rpm in the Altima 2.5 and Sentra SE-R models. Altimas that are PZEV compliant create 175 lb ⋅ ft of torque. In the 2005 + Nissan Frontier the QR25DE generates 152 171 lb ⋅ ft of torque; the revised QR25DE found in the 2007+ Sentra, Rogue, etc. has a number of improvements over the older QR25DE. These include: A simpler, larger diameter single path resin intake manifold replaced the old dual path design. Revised piston crown shape to support a higher compression ratio of 9.6:1. The balancer system has been moved back from the crank pulley to a more centric location in the block. Revised cam shaft profile. Reinforced connecting rods only available in the Sentra SE-R Spec V 2007-2012. Reduced friction through Nissan's extensive use of coatings on pistons, journal bearings, etc. Additional engine mount on the top of pulley side.

Higher rev improved power output. The QR25DD is similar to the QR25DE but increases the compression ratio to 10.5:1 and includes direct injection. This engine is the first QR to use DLC coating on the valve lifter buckets for reduced friction, it produces 245 N ⋅ m at 4000 rpm. Vehicle applications: 2002-2006 Nissan Primera P12 The QR25DER is similar to the QR25DE but has a supercharger for increased power and is coupled with a 15 kW electric motor, Dual Clutch System, lithium-ion battery for increased fuel efficiency; the engine has a compression ratio of 9.1:1 and produces a combined 250 hp at 5600 rpm and 243 lb⋅ft at 3600 rpm. Vehicle applications: 2014 - 2015 Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid 2016 only Nissan Murano Hybrid 2014 - 2017 Infiniti QX60 Hybrid List of Nissan engines "2007 Nissan Altima overview" "2007 Nissan Altima specifications" "2006 Nissan Altima specifications" "2006 Nissan Frontier specifications "2006 Nissan Sentra specifications" "NTB03070 Nissan technical service bulletin regarding engine precatalyst failure" "NTB06045 Nissan technical service bulletin regarding low oil levels" "NTB05058 Nissan technical service bulletin regarding power valve screws" "Road Test: 2002 Nissan Sentra SE-R" by Josh Jacquot, "SportCompactCar", December 2001, retrieved June 26, 2006 "Technobabble: December 2001 by Dave Coleman, "SportCompactCar", December 2001, retrieved June 26, 2006 " - A Nissan Sentra Forum" " - Another Nissan Forum for both B15 and B16 Sentras."

" - A Forum for all Sentras"


Theatresports is a form of improvisational theatre, which uses the format of a competition for dramatic effect. Opposing teams can perform scenes based on audience suggestions, with ratings by the audience or by a panel of judges. Developed by director Keith Johnstone in Calgary, Alberta, in 1977, the concept of Theatresports originated in Johnstone's observations of techniques used in professional wrestling to generate heat, or audience reaction. ComedySportz, started in 1984 in Milwaukee, WI, tends to emphasise the sports competition format more than Theatre sports, for example by having a referee who awards points and administers fouls; the Australian shows Thank God You're Here and TheatreGames LIVE follow a similar format to these shows. New York City's Face Off Unlimited has adapted the concept to numerous productions. Two similar formats, Ligue nationale d'improvisation and Canadian Improv Games both officially debuted in 1977 in Quebec and Ontario, respectively; the Canadian Improv Games had been doing competitive improv at various events as early as 1974.

Use of the term "Theatresports" is managed by the International Theatresports Institute, which licenses the Theatresports and Gorilla Theatre formats. Johnstone, Keith. Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-87830-117-8. Johnstone, Keith. Impro For Storytellers. Faber UK. ISBN 0-571-19099-5. Keith Johnstone on the origins of Theatresports and how a typical show runs. "Theatre, English-Language". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada, 2006. Clark, Andrew. "Comedians Without a Net". Maclean's, 1999-09-08, Vol. 112, Issue 32. Sillars, Les. "The Global Moose". Alberta Report, 1995-08-28, Vol. 22 Issue 37, pp36–37. "Unscripted", Chris Wiebe, Alberta Views magazine, September 2005. Foreman and Martini, Clem. Something Like a Drug: An Unauthorized Oral History of Theatresports. Players Press. ISBN 0-88734-918-8. International Theatre sports Institute Keith Johnstone's official website

2011 International Court of Justice judges election

The 2011 International Court of Justice election began on 10 November 2011 at United Nations Headquarters in New York City. In the set of triennial elections, the General Assembly and the Security Council concurrently elect five judges to the Court for nine-year terms, in this case beginning on 6 February 2012. From the eight candidates, the five winners were Giorgio Gaja, Hisashi Owada, Peter Tomka, Xue Hanqin and Julia Sebutinde; the International Court of Justice, based in The Hague, is one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Known as the World Court, it adjudicates legal disputes between states, provides advisory opinions on legal questions submitted by other UN organs or agencies; the court consists with five judges elected every three years. Judges are required to be impartial. Elections of members of the Court are governed by articles 2 through 15 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice; the five judges whose terms expired in February 2012, with their nationality, were: Abdul G. Koroma Hisashi Owada Bruno Simma Peter Tomka Xue Hanqin Of these five, all except Bruno Simma were candidates for re-election.

Another sitting judge, Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh left the ICJ, having been appointed prime minister of Jordan in October 2011. The election to fill that seat was not scheduled until 2012; the General Assembly and the Security Council proceed, independently of one another, to elect five members of the Court. To be elected, a candidate must obtain an absolute majority of votes both in the General Assembly and in the Security Council; the words “absolute majority” are interpreted as meaning a majority of all electors, whether or not they vote or are allowed to vote. Thus 97 votes constitute an absolute majority in the General Assembly and 8 votes constitute an absolute majority in the Security Council. Only those candidates whose names appear on the ballot papers are eligible for election; each elector in the General Assembly and in the Security Council may vote for not more than five candidates on the first ballot and, on subsequent ballots for five less the number of candidates who have obtained an absolute majority.

When five candidates have obtained the required majority in one of the organs, the president of that organ notifies the president of the other organ of the names of the five candidates. The president of the latter does not communicate such names to the members of that organ until that organ itself has given five candidates the required majority of votes. After both the General Assembly and the Security Council have produced a list of five names that received an absolute majority of the votes, the two lists are compared. Any candidate appearing on both lists is elected, but if fewer than five candidates have been thus elected, the two organs proceed, again independently of one another, at a second meeting and, if necessary, a third meeting to elect candidates by further ballots for seats remaining vacant, the results again being compared after the required number of candidates have obtained an absolute majority in each organ. If after the third meeting, one or more seats still remain unfilled, the General Assembly and the Security Council may form a joint conference consisting of six members, three appointed by each organ.

This joint conference may, by an absolute majority, agree upon one name for each seat still vacant and submit the name for the respective acceptance of the General Assembly and the Security Council. If the joint conference is unanimously agreed, it may submit the name of a person not included in the list of nominations, provided that candidate fulfills the required conditions of eligibility to be a judge on the ICJ. If the General Assembly and the Security Council are unable to fill one or more vacant seats the judges of the ICJ who have been elected shall proceed to fill the vacant seats by selection from among those candidates who have obtained votes either in the General Assembly or in the Security Council. In the event of a tie vote among the judges, the eldest judge shall have a casting vote; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: United Nations document A/66/182–S/2011/452 Article 2 of the Statute of the ICJ provides that judges shall be elected “from among persons of high moral character, who possess the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the highest judicial offices, or are jurisconsults of recognized competence in international law”.

Nominations of candidates for election to the ICJ are made by individuals who sit on the Permanent Court of Arbitration. For this purpose, members of the PCA act in "national groups"; every such "national group" may nominate up to four candidates, not more than two of whom shall be of their own nationality. Before making these nominations, each "national group" is recommended to consult its highest court of justice, its legal faculties and schools of law, its national academies and national sections of international academies devoted to the study of law. By a co

Myrah Keating Smith

Myrah Keating Smith was a pioneering nurse and midwife on the island of Saint John, U. S. Virgin Islands. For two decades, she was the only provider of health care on St. John. In 1983, the Myrah Keating Smith Community Health Center was named in her honor and in 2005, she was inducted into the Virgin Islands Women's Hall of Fame. Myrah Athenia Keating was born as a twin with her sister Andromeada, on June 1, 1908, on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies to Eugenia Theodora and Zephaniah Keating, she and her sister were raised in Lovanto Cay, on Saint John by her mother and step-father, Edward Moorehead, Sr. They first attended a school organized in the parlor of the home of Mrs. Anderson and taught by Sylvanie Sewer. There were only eighteen students who enrolled and when the teacher found it difficult to commute from Cruz Bay, the school was closed and the twins were taught at home by their stepfather. At the age of fourteen, Keating traveled to New York City by boat, via train for three more days to continue her education at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

She studied handicrafts and tailoring at Tuskegee and continued her schooling at the institute's hospital, known as the John Albion Andrew Memorial Hospital, where she studied nursing. She was the only student from the Virgin Islands in her surgical nursing class, graduated with a degree in nursing and midwifery. Returning to the Virgin Islands in 1931, Keating began work in St. Thomas, under the tutelage of Knud Hansen. After a two-year orientation program, she returned to St. John. There were no other medical practitioners on the island for the first two decades of her service; because there were there were no paved roads, public transportation, or electricity, she traveled by boat, horse or foot to serve as a public nurse, school nurse and midwife, delivering over 500 babies throughout her career. She raised three daughters, Andromeada and Myrah with her husband Allan Franklin Smith. In 1983, the Myrah Keating Smith Community Health Center of St. John was named in her honor, it celebrated thirty years of service in 2013.

In addition, the first ambulance boat in St. John was named after her, as was a 4-year scholarship in nursing, funded by the government. Smith died on May 1994 in St. John. Posthumously, she was inducted into the Virgin Islands Women's Hall of Fame in 2005

Easy to Love (Kalil Wilson album)

Easy to Love is Kalil Wilson's self-produced debut album, released in 2009. It has been critically praised, received support from jazz radio stations like KKJZ 88.1 Los Angeles and KCSM 91.1 San Francisco. Writes Raul Da Gama Rosa, contributing editor: The days of the great male crooners are over…Until, it appears, Kalil Wilson came along. Here is a singer, a profoundly smokey tenor, so singular and expressive that his voice appears biologically connected to ‘living breath.’ His phrasing and expression are sublime and otherworldly. Wilson is heard on Easy to a debut of bottomless depth and grandeur, but it's self-effacing and lacking in the grandstanding that some vocalists might resort to today, in order to be heard and appreciated. His personal interpretation and polished delivery make this an exquisite and priceless debut record