Barbary pirates

The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman and Berber pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based in the ports of Salé, Algiers and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its ethnically Berber inhabitants, their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing merchant ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages in Italy, France and Portugal, but in the British Isles, the Netherlands, Iceland; the main purpose of their attacks was slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Arab slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. Slaves in Barbary could be black, brown or white, Protestant, Jewish or Muslim. While such raids had occurred since soon after the Muslim conquest of Iberia in the 8th century, the terms "Barbary pirates" and "Barbary corsairs" are applied to the raiders active from the 16th century onwards, when the frequency and range of the slavers' attacks increased.

In that period Algiers and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, either as directly administered provinces or as autonomous dependencies known as the Barbary States. Similar raids were undertaken from other ports in Morocco. Barbary corsairs captured thousands of merchant ships and raided coastal towns; as a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. Between 100,000 and 250,000 Iberians were enslaved by these raids; the raids were such a problem coastal settlements were undertaken until the 19th century. Between 1580 and 1680 corsairs were said to have captured about 850,000 people as slaves and from 1530 to 1780 as many as 1,250,000 people were enslaved. However, these numbers have been questioned by the historian David Earle; some of these corsairs were European converts such as John Ward and Zymen Danseker. Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were notorious corsairs.

The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean. The effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century. Long after Europeans had abandoned oar-driven vessels in favor of sailing ships carrying tons of powerful cannon, many Barbary warships were galleys carrying a hundred or more fighting men armed with cutlasses and small arms; the Barbary navies were not battle fleets. When they sighted a European frigate, they fled; the scope of corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century, as the more powerful European navies started to compel the Barbary States to make peace and cease attacking their shipping. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs and the threat was subdued.

Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until terminated by the French conquest of Algeria in 1830. In 1198 the problem of Berber piracy and slave-taking was so great that the Trinitarians, a religious order, were founded to collect ransoms and to exchange themselves as ransom for those captured and pressed into slavery in North Africa. In the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390 known as the "Barbary Crusade". Morisco exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian nations. During the American Revolution the pirates attacked American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean. But, on December 20, 1777, Sultan Mohammed III of Morocco issued a declaration recognizing America as an independent country, that American merchant ships could enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast.

The relations were formalized with the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship signed in 1786, which stands as the U. S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty with a foreign power. As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians, more than 900 inhabitants were taken away as slaves. From 1659, these African cities, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, were in fact military republics that chose their own rulers and lived by war booty captured from the Spanish and Portuguese. There are several cases of Sephardic Jews, including Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache, who upon fleeing Iberia turned to attacking the Spanish Empire's shipping under the Ottoman flag, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisition's religious persecution. During the first period, the beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and conducting war operations for political ends, they were slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious. After 1587, the sole object of their successors became plunder, on sea.

The maritime operations were conducted by the captains, or reises, who formed a class or a corporation. Cruisers were commanded by the reises. Ten percent of

Ma Zhenjun

Ma Zhenjun is a lieutenant general of the People's Liberation Army Air Force of China. He has been Chief of Staff of the PLAAF since August 2013, served as Commander of the Beijing Military Region Air Force. Ma was born in 1962 in Henan Province, he served in the Guangzhou Military Region Air Force for many years. Ma earned fast promotion after proving himself a top-grade fighter pilot, an outstanding fighter division commander, a keen proponent of training. Instead of routine technical training, Ma emphasized tactical combat training; when he commanded the 2nd Fighter Division, it was rated as having displayed the most proficiency in training for three successive years. He won three PLA science and technology awards. In 2007, Ma was promoted from commander of the 2nd Fighter Division to deputy chief of staff of the Guangzhou MR Air Force, when he was 43. Two years he was promoted to deputy commander of the Jinan Military Region Air Force and again within one year he was transferred to the Beijing Military Region Air Force as deputy commander and chief of staff.

The frequent transfers reflect the air force leadership's confidence in Ma and their crafting a succession plan for him involving gaining intimate familiarity with various MRAFs and combat units. Ma attained the rank of major general in July 2008, he was the only major general at the full corps rank in the air force, born in the 1960s. In March 2011, Ma was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLAAF. In August 2012, he became Commander of the Beijing MR Air Force and Deputy Commander of the Beijing MR. In August 2013, Ma was promoted to Chief of the rank of lieutenant general; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government

Gillan's Inn

Gillan's Inn is an album by Ian Gillan in celebration of his 40 years as a singer. The first release was a DualDisc composed of a DVD side; the CD featured re-recorded tracks from all eras of Ian Gillan's singing career. In a recent interview Gillan observed that, despite the number of participants and guest appearances, this was the easiest project he put together. A "Deluxe Tour Edition" was released in 2007 containing bonus tracks and an expanded version of the DVD side of the original DualDisc release; the correct bonus tracks included on most version of the disc are live versions of "Have Love Will Travel" and "Wasted Sunsets", both recorded at the House of Blues in Anaheim on 14 September 2006. There was, however, an error in the manufacturing at one of the plants, where an early version of the master tape was sent by mistake containing a unreleased cover version of Marvin Gaye's "Can I Get a Witness?" at track 16 and not including the live bonus tracks. The record label, offered to send all owners of the incorrect CD a copy of the proper disc free of charge, let them keep the original, now a collector's item.

The CD booklet lists. The album cover depicts an iconic bar in Buffalo, New York called "The Pink Flamingo" known as "The Old Pink"; the album cover art was created by Don Keller. This edition re-instates the new version of Deep Purple's "Demon's Eye" to the CD, only included on the DVD side of the DualDisc release. "Unchain Your Brain" - 3:19 featuring Joe Satriani, Don Airey & Michael Lee "Bluesy Blue Sea" - 4:27 featuring Janick Gers "Day Late and a Dollar Short" - 5:12 featuring Uli Jon Roth, Dean Howard, Michael Lee & Ronnie James Dio "Hang Me Out to Dry" - 3:59 featuring Joe Satriani & Don Airey "Men of War" - 4:38 featuring Steve Morse & Johnny Rzeznik "When a Blind Man Cries" - 4:21 featuring Jeff Healey, Tommy Z, Jon Lord, Vasyl Popadiuk & Howard Wilson "Sugar Plum" - 4:54 featuring Dean Howard, Roger Glover, Don Airey & Ian Paice "Trashed" - 4:07 featuring Tony Iommi, Roger Glover & Ian Paice "No Worries" - 5:02 featuring Jerry Augustyniak "Smoke on the Water" - 5:48 featuring Steve Morse, Johnny Rzeznik, Sim Jones, Ian Paice, Roger Glover, Robby Takac "No Laughing in Heaven" - 4:33 featuring Don Airey, Roger Glover & Ian Paice "Speed King" - 3:48 featuring Joe Satriani, Don Airey, Rick McGirr & Michael Lee Jackson "Loving on Borrowed Time" - 5:37 featuring Steve Morris, Steve Morse, Uli Jon Roth, Howard Wilson, Jaro Jarosil, Nick Blagona & Mary Jane Russell "I'll Be Your Baby Tonight" - 3:03 featuring Joe Elliott, Ron Davis, Redd Volkaert, Charlie Quill, Mickey Lee Soule & Howard Wilson "Demon's Eye" - 4:40 featuring Jeff Healey, Jon Lord, Michael Lee Jackson, Rodney Appleby & Michael Lee "Can I Get a Witness?"

– unreleased cover version of the Marvin Gaye song "Have Love Will Travel" - 3:40 featuring Randy Cooke, Michael Lee, Dean Howard & Joe Mennonna "Wasted Sunsets" - 4:04 featuring Randy Cooke, Michael Lee, Dean Howard & Joe Mennonna Michael Lee Jackson played guitar on all tracks except 14. Rodney Appleby played bass on all tracks except 7, 8 and 11. Mike Exeter – Engineer, guitar engineering