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Barberini family

The Barberini are a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome. Their influence peaked with the election of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini to the papal throne in 1623, as Pope Urban VIII, their urban palace, the Palazzo Barberini, completed in 1633 by Bernini, today houses Italy's Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica. The Barberini family were a family of minor nobility from the Tuscan town of Barberino Val d'Elsa, who settled in Florence during the early part of the 11th century. Carlo Barberini and his brother Antonio Barberini were successful Florentine grain and textile merchants. In 1530 Antonio participated in the defense of the Florentine Republic but after the capture of the city by Imperial troops, the return to power of the Medici, Antonio grew weary of Medici rule and left Florence in 1537 to oversee Barberini business in Rome. In 1552, Carlo's son Francesco followed his uncle to business flourished. Francesco became a rich man and bought a number of high offices within government and the Catholic church.

In 1559, his uncle Antonio was murdered by forces loyal to the Medici. Francesco continued to build his fortune and amass titles until his death in 1600. Ordinarily his estate would have been "fined" by the Camera Apostolica for operating a business while holding church office but his relatives appealed to the head of the organization Francesco had, once directed; the continuation of Barberini business fell to his nephews including Maffeo Barberini. The Barberini acquired great wealth and influence when Cardinal Maffeo Barberini was elected to the papal throne in 1623, taking the name Pope Urban VIII, he elevated a brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and two nephews, Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini, to the cardinalate. He made another brother Duke of Monterotondo, gave a third nephew, Taddeo Barberini, the principality of Palestrina. Taddeo was made Gonfalonier of the Church, Prefect of Rome and Commander of Sant'Angelo; the ecclesiastical and cultural accomplishments of Urban's reign were overshadowed by the nepotism the pope practised.

Urban's contemporary, John Bargrave, wrote: Likewise, the War of Castro, toward the end of Urban's papacy, sullied Urban's reputation and the popularity of those family members who survived him. It is estimated that during the course of Urban's reign, the Barberini amassed 105 million scudi in personal wealth; when the pope removed the ancient bronze beams from the portico of the Pantheon to procure bronze for the baldachin of St. Peter's Basilica and for the papal cannon foundry, an anonymous critic punningly wrote: This translates to "What the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did"; the pope erected a tablet proudly proclaiming his re-use of these hidden beams for the glory and defense of the church. The Barberini participated extensively in the First War of Castro; the conflict began when Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, visited Rome and insulted the pope's nephews by suggesting the brothers were too young to manage the Pope's affairs. The war produced no clear victor, Pope Urban died in 1644, only months after a peace accord was signed.

Despite Urban's appointment of a number of relatives as cardinals, the College of Cardinals elected Pope Innocent X of the Pamphili family. Innocent X launched an investigation into the conduct of various members of the Barberini family during the wars; the three nephews who had risen to prominence under their uncle Pope Urban VIII, cardinals Antonio and Francesco and Prince Taddeo were forced into exile and fled to Paris under the protection of Cardinal Mazarin. Antonio and Taddeo left first, by sea, but not before hanging the French coat of arms above the door of the Palazzo Barberini to confirm they were under the protection of France. Francesco joined his brothers soon after. Taddeo's wife, Anna Colonna joined her husband and children in Paris but not before making a passionate appeal to the Pope, urging him not to strip the Barberini of their assets; the Pope agreed and, though he paid some debts out of the Barberini estate, left the Barberini alone. In Paris they relied on the hospitality of Louis XIV, King of France, until 1653 when most of the family returned to Rome.

Though Taddeo died in exile in 1647, his brothers reconciled with the papacy through the marriage of Taddeo's younger son Maffeo with Olimpia Giustiniani, a niece of Pope Innocent. Maffeo was given that of Prince of Palestrina. Taddeo's older son Carlo Barberini was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent X. Taddeo's daughter, Lucrezia Barberini, married Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena, further stabilizing relations; the 1627 marriage of Taddeo Barberini and Anna Colonna, daughter of Filippo I Colonna began the century-long process which would see the Barberini merge with the Colonna family. In 1728, the Carbognano branch of the Colonna family added the name Barberini to its family name when Giulio Cesare Colonna di Sciarra married Cornelia Barberini, daughter of Urbano Barberini, the last legitimate male Barberini heir. Though Urbano's wives bore him no legitimate male heirs, Urbano fathered a son, Maffeo Callisto Barberini in 1688 prior to any one of his three marriages; the will of Urbano Barberini's last wife, Maria Teresa Boncompagni, makes mention of this Maffeo Callisto as the Marquis of Corese.

A large portion of the Barberini estate was left for him in her will. Her progeny came into conflict with his over claims to the Barberini estate but the quarrel was settled with an

Kawésqar language

Kawésqar known as Alacaluf, is a critically endangered language isolate spoken in southern Chile by the Kawésqar people. Part of a small family, only the northern language remains. Only 7 speakers of the language remain, most of them on Wellington Island off the southwestern coast of Chile; the alphabet in use has the following letters: a, æ, c, c', e, f, h, i, j, k, k', l, m, n, o, p, p', q, r, rr, s, t, t', u, w, x. However, differences are reported between dialects, some sounds are not represented. Kawésqar has a complex system of grammatical tense, which includes a basic morphological contrast between future, immediate past, recent past, distant past, mythological past events. Alacalufe people List of endangered languages in South America Aguilera Faúndez, Oscar. Léxico Kawesqar-Español, Español-Kawesqar. Boletín de filología 29. Aguilera Faúndez, Óscar: Gramática de la lengua kawésqar. Temuco: Corporación de Desarrollo Indígena. Clairis, Christos: El qawasqar. Lingüística fueguina. Teoría y descripción.

Valdivia: Universidad Austral de Chile. Pieter C. Muysken. 2004. The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Qawasqar dictionary online Alfabeto Kawésqar Kawésqar SerIndigena - Territorio Kawesqar Kawésqar at the World Atlas of Language Structures Online Chilean Languages Collection of Oscar Aguilera and José Tonko - including recordings and transcriptions of stories and conversations in Kawésqar at AILLA. Qawasqar

Edward Hill (Medal of Honor)

Edward Hill was an officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War. He received the Medal of Honor. Hill was born on April 1835 in Liberty, New York. On June 1, 1864, as the Captain of Company K, 16th Michigan Infantry during the Battle of Cold Harbor, Hill "led the brigade skirmish line in a desperate charge on the enemy's masked batteries to the muzzles of the guns, where he was wounded." Hill rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He was awarded the Medal of Honor on December 4, 1893. Hill died on October 23, 1900, was buried in Fredericksburg National Cemetery, in Fredericksburg, Virginia, his grave can be located in Section OS, Grave 2. Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 1 6th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Cold Harbor, Va. June 1, 1864. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Liberty, N. Y. Date of issue: December 4, 1893. Citation: Led the brigade skirmish line in a desperate charge on the enemy's masked batteries to the muzzles of the guns, where he was wounded.

List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: G–L "Civil War Medal of Honor recipients". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. August 6, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2010. "Edward Hill". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-04-16

List of tallest buildings in Victoria, British Columbia

Victoria is both the largest city on Vancouver Island and the capital and second largest metropolitan area in British Columbia. As of September 2019, the tallest building in the city is the incomplete 25-storey, 85.03 m Hudson Place One. There are 14 buildings taller than 50 meters, but there are 10 buildings taller than 50 meters which are being considered by the city council; the second-tallest building in the city is Promontory, standing at 66 m tall with 21 storeys. As of June 2012, the city contains 4 skyscrapers over 60 m and 47 high-rise buildings that exceed 35 m in height; this list ranks buildings in Victoria that stand at least 50 metres tall, based on CTBUH height measurement standards. This does not include antenna masts. British Columbia Parliament Buildings The British Columbia Parliament Buildings are located in Victoria, British Columbia and are home to the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia; the Neo-baroque buildings face north on Belleville street facing the Inner Harbour and diagonally across from The Empress Hotel.

A statue of Queen Victoria stands on the front lawn as well a statue of a soldier to commemorate the province's World War I, World War II and Korean War dead. Atop the central dome is a gold-covered statue of Captain George Vancouver. Empress Hotel The Fairmont Empress is one of the oldest and most famous hotels in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Located on Government Street facing the Inner Harbour, the Empress has become an iconic symbol for the city itself; the hotel has 477 rooms, with most either overlooking the Inner Harbour or the hotel's rear courtyard gardens. It has four restaurants, including The Bengal Lounge, decorated in Victorian-era, Colonial Indian style or Kipling's, named after its once frequent guest and visitor, author Rudyard Kipling. In 2005, Kipling's closed its doors to the public in order for the hotel to gain more space for private functions. List of tallest buildings in British Columbia List of tallest buildings in Vancouver

St Patrick's Old Collegians Football Club

St Patrick's Old Collegians Football Club Inc. Est. 1931 is an Australian rules football club in Prospect Vale and competes in the Northern Tasmanian Football Association. The mascot for the "Saints" is "the Champ" a footballer on the run with ball under the arm and the other arm outstreached, dressed in his football gear with a halo above his head. Prior to the formation of the Northern Tasmanian Football Association the club competed in the Tasmanian Amateur Football League; the club as the name suggests was formed as an offshute for past school boys to continue playing organised sport. The club continues to foster a relationship with St Patrick's College, but not all players are recruited from the school; the club is situated in Prospect Vale on a lower oval of the College's grounds. The oval has adequate lighting facilities to host night games; the oval is unique in that it has a sandy soil and is difficult for grass to grow at the top end of the oval. The oval has been used as a conceptual model for urban salinity in Tasmania.

Seniors Tasmanian Amateur Football League: 1931, 1932, 1935, 1936 TAFL Northern Division: 1948, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1984 NTFA Division Two: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2004 TAFL State Championship: 1932, 1954 Runners Up: 1968, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1979, 2014, 2015Reserves NTFA Division Two 1996, 1998, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2014, 2015 TAFL best and fairest: H. McIntee 1937 Max Allen Cup: D. Hay 1950.

List of Ahmadis

This is an incomplete list of notable or famous Ahmadis, members of the Ahmadiyya Community – a movement whose followers identify as Muslims but are excluded from Islam by the majority of Muslim scholars worldwide. List of distinguished Ahmadis notable as religious figures, politicians, United Nations executives, military personnel, economists and sportspersons. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad – The founder of the Ahmadiyya movement Maulana Hakeem Noor-ud-Din – First Caliph Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad – Second Caliph Mirza Nasir Ahmad – Third Caliph Mirza Tahir AhmadFourth Caliph Mirza Masroor Ahmad – Fifth Caliph and current leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Mufti Muhammad Sadiq A. R. Dard Abdul Rahim Nayyar Maulvi Sher Ali Fateh Muhammad Sial Shams ud Din Khan Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din Maulana Muhammad Ali Malik Ghulam Farid Mirza Bashir Ahmad Khwaja Nazir Ahmad Qazi Muhammad Yousaf Mirza Muhammad Ismail Sayyid Abdul Latif Bashir Ahmad Orchard – first Missionary of the Ahmadiyya Community of European descent Abdul Wahab Adam – Ameer of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Mission, Ghana.

Recipient of Pakistan's Pride of Performance civil award, the National Award for Democracy and Sitara-e-Imtiaz Obaidullah Aleem – Urdu poet Babatunde Jose – Nigerian Journalist Muzaffar Ahmad Noori Bajwa – Editor of The Eastern Herald news journal in India. A political analyst, peace activist, human rights activist, internationally acclaimed anti terrorism and militancy journalist in India. Hadayatullah Hübsch – German writer and journalist Khola Maryam Hübsch – German writer and journalist, daughter of Hadayatullah. Qasim Rashid – American writer Sabir Zafar – Pakistani songwriter and poet. Mahershala Ali – American actor. Saira Wasim – Pakistani-born American miniature paint artist Alhaji Mahama Iddrisu – member of the Council of State and former Minister for Defence Alhaji Malik Al-Hassan Yakubumember of Pan-African Parliament and former Minister for Interior Kobina Tahir Hammond – Member of Parliament for Adansi Asokwa, Ashanti Region Ameen Salifu – Member of Parliament for Wa East, Upper West Region Alhaji Issifu Ali – former Co-chairman of the National Democratic Congress Musheibu Mohammed Alfa – Deputy Minister of Environment and Innovation Mahmud Khalid – former Minister of State for Upper West Region Alhaji Mumuni Abudu Seidu – former Minister of State without portfolio.

Iftikhar A. Ayaz – Tuvaluan consular official, UK Imran Ahmad-Khan – Member of Parliament for Wakefield. Farimang Mamadi Singateh – second and last Governor General of The Gambia Sahibzada Abdul Latif – Afghan Ahmadi Muslim martyr.