click links in text for more info


Barmouth is a town and community in the county of Gwynedd, north-western Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Mawddach and Cardigan Bay. Located in the Historic county of Merionethshire, the Welsh form of the name is derived from "Aber" and the river's name, "Mawddach"; the English form of the name is a corruption of the earlier Welsh form'Abermawdd'. The town grew around the shipbuilding industry, more as a seaside resort. Notable buildings include the medieval Tŷ Gwyn tower house, the 19th century Tŷ Crwn roundhouse prison and St John's Church. William Wordsworth, a visitor to Barmouth in the 19th century, described it thus: "With a fine sea view in front, the mountains behind, the glorious estuary running eight miles inland, Cadair Idris within compass of a day's walk, Barmouth can always hold its own against any rival."Dinas Oleu, located east of the town on the adjoining hillside, was the first tract of land to be donated to the National Trust. In January 2014, two trains were stranded at Barmouth after severe winter storms destroyed the sea wall at nearby Llanaber.

The town is served by Barmouth railway station. Transport for Wales operate westbound services to Pwllheli via Harlech and Criccieth, eastbound services to Birmingham International via Tywyn, Welshpool, Shrewsbury and Wolverhampton. Connections for southbound services to Borth and Aberystwyth can be made at Dovey Junction or Machynlleth. Barmouth Bridge, which takes the Cambrian Line over the River Mawddach, was previously at the end of the Ruabon–Barmouth line, which passed through Bala and Dolgellau; the southern end of the bridge is now the start of the Mawddach Trail, a cycle path and walk way that utilises the old trackbed. Local bus services are provided by Lloyds Coaches, link the town with nearby destinations such as Harlech, Tan-y-Bwlch and Dolgellau. Cross country bus services are available to Wrexham via Bala and Llangollen, as part of the Welsh Government funded TrawsCymru network; the Barmouth Ferry sails from Barmouth to Penrhyn Point, where it connects with the narrow gauge Fairbourne Railway for the village of Fairbourne.

Barmouth is one of the closest seaside resorts to the English West Midlands and a large proportion of its tourist visitors, as well as its permanent residents, are from Wolverhampton, Birmingham and other parts of the Black Country, Telford, Shropshire. The town has a RNLI lifeboat station with a Visitors' Centre with shop and viewing gallery; the nearest rugby club is in Dolgellau, 7 miles away. Barmouth has one major football team: Barmouth & Dyffryn United, the team competes in the Welsh Alliance league and is well-supported by residents. Barmouth is the venue for a motocross event. Taking place on the last weekend in October, the event sees riders take part in beach racing, using a temporary motocross course constructed on the beach. Over 200 riders take part in this event, with spectators attending free of charge; the event attracts champion riders from Wales. The busy harbour plays host to the annual Three Peaks yacht race. Fanny Talbot landowner and philanthropist, donated Cliff of Light, to the National Trust.

Jim Valentine, Rugby Union and Northern Union player for Swinton, killed by lightning in Barmouth 25 July 1904 aged 37. Herbert Tudor Buckland, architect known for his seminal Arts and Crafts Movement houses Commander Harold Godfrey Lowe RD was the fifth officer of the RMS Titanic. Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar, English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages, lived in Barmouth for many years. Adrian Dingle was a Welsh Canadian painter. Johnny Williams, boxer once both the British and Empire heavyweight champion. Tommy Nutter British tailor, reinvented the Savile Row suit in the 1960s. Robert Russell Davies is a British journalist and broadcaster who presents Brain of Britain on BBC Radio 4. Charlie Brooks, actress. St David's Church, Barmouth St John's Church, Barmouth St Tudwal's Church, Barmouth "Barmouth". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. 1911. Barmouth community website latest news from Barmouth and historical photo gallery and much more. photos of Barmouth and surrounding area

Ancient Ksour of Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt and Oualata

The ancient ksour of Ouadane, Chinguetti and Oualata in Mauritania were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1996. Ouadane and Chinguetti are located in the Adrar Region, Tichitt in the Tagant Region and Oualata in the Hodh Ech Chargui Region; these cities were founded around the 11th century as stopping places for the caravans of the Trans-Saharan trade crossing the Sahara. Once prosperous centres of Saharan culture, these cities survive today with many difficulties, not only due to the radical transformation of the trade routes, but above all because of the advancing sands of the desert

Copalyl diphosphate synthase

In enzymology, a copalyl diphosphate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction geranylgeranyl diphosphate ⇌ -copalyl diphosphateHence, this enzyme has one substrate, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, one product, -copalyl diphosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases the class of intramolecular lyases; the systematic name of this enzyme class is -copalyl-diphosphate lyase. This enzyme participates in diterpenoid biosynthesis. RB. "Abietadiene synthase from grand fir: characterization and mechanism of action of the "pseudomature" recombinant enzyme". Biochemistry. 39: 15592–602. Doi:10.1021/bi001997l. PMID 11112547. Peters RJ, Ravn MM, Coates RM, Croteau RB. "Bifunctional abietadiene synthase: free diffusive transfer of the -copalyl diphosphate intermediate between two distinct active sites". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123: 8974–8. Doi:10.1021/ja010670k. PMID 11552804. Peters RJ, Croteau RB. "Abietadiene synthase catalysis: mutational analysis of a prenyl diphosphate ionization-initiated cyclization and rearrangement".

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99: 580–4. Doi:10.1073/pnas.022627099. PMC 117348. PMID 11805316. Ravn MM, Peters RJ, Coates RM, Croteau R. "Mechanism of abietadiene synthase catalysis: stereochemistry and stabilization of the cryptic pimarenyl carbocation intermediates". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124: 6998–7006. Doi:10.1021/ja017734b. PMID 12059223. Peters RJ, Croteau RB. "Abietadiene synthase catalysis: conserved residues involved in protonation-initiated cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to -copalyl diphosphate". Biochemistry. 41: 1836–42. Doi:10.1021/bi011879d. PMID 11827528

Copyright status of works by the federal government of the United States

A work of the United States government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U. S. law and are therefore in the public domain. This act only applies to U. S. domestic copyright as, the extent of U. S. federal law. The U. S. government asserts. Publication of an otherwise protected work by the U. S. government does not put that work in the public domain. For example, government publications may include works copyrighted by a grantee. S. Government; the first Federal statute concerning copyright in government publications was the Printing Law enacted in 1895. Section 52 of that Act provided. Prior to 1895, no court decision had occasion to consider any claim of copyright on behalf of the Government itself. Courts had, considered whether copyright could be asserted as to the text of laws, court decisions, governmental rules, etc. and concluded that such material were not subject to copyright as a matter of public policy.

But other material prepared for State Governments by their employees, notably the headnotes, annotations, etc. prepared by court reporters, had been held copyrightable on behalf of the States. The Copyright Act of 1909 was the first copyright statute to address government publications. Section 7 of the Act provided that "No copyright shall subsist * * * in any publication of the United States Government, or any reprint, in whole or in part, thereof: * * *." Prior to the Printing Act of 1895, no statute governed copyright of U. S. government works. Court decisions had established that an employee of the Federal Government had no right to claim copyright in a work prepared by him for the Government. Other decisions had held that individuals could not have copyright in books consisting of the text of Federal or State court decisions, rules of judicial procedures, etc. i.e. governmental edicts and rulings. Copyright was denied on the grounds of public policy: such material as the laws and governmental rules and decisions must be available to the public and made known as as possible.

While Copyright was denied in the text of court decisions, material added by a court reporter on his own - such as leadnotes, annotations, etc.- was deemed copyrightable by him, although he was employed by the government to take down and compile the court decisions. These cases may be said to have established the principle that material prepared by a government employee outside of the scope of the public policy rule was copyrightable. There appears to be no court decision before 1895 dealing directly with the question of whether the United States Government might obtain or hold copyright in material not within the public policy rule, but the question did arise with respect to State Governments. In the nineteenth century much of the public printing for the States was done under contract by private publishers; the publisher would not bear the expense of printing and publishing, unless he could be given exclusive rights. To enable the State to give exclusive rights to a publisher, a number of States enacted statutes providing that court reporters or other State officials who prepared copyrightable material in their official capacity should secure copyright in trust for or on behalf of the State.

Such copyrights for the benefit of the State were sustained by the courts. Two cases before 1895 may be noted with regard to the question of the rights of individual authors in material prepared for, or acquired by, the United States Government. In Heine v. Appleton, an artist was held to have no right to secure copyright in drawings prepared by him as a member of Commodore Perry's expedition, since the drawings belonged to the Government.' In Folsom v. Marsh, where a collection of letters and other private writings of George Washington had been published and copyrighted by his successors, the purchase of the manuscripts by the United States Government was held not to affect the copyright; the contention of the defendant that the Government's ownership of the manuscripts made them available for publication by anyone was denied. The Printing Law of 1895, designed to centralize in the Government Printing Office the printing and distribution of Government documents, contained the first statutory prohibition of copyright in Government publications.

Section 52 of that Law provides for the sale by the Public Printer of "duplicate stereotype or electrotype plates from which any Government publication is printed," with the proviso "that no publication reprinted from such stereotype or electrotype plates and no other Government publication shall be copyrighted." The provision in the Printing Act concerning copyright of government works was the result of the "Richardson Affair," which involved an effort in the late 1890s by Representative James D. Richardson to copyright a government-published set of Presidential proclamations. Section 7 of the Copyright Act of 1909 provided that "No copyright shall subsist... in any publication of the United States Government, or any reprint, in whole

Arabis alpina

Arabis alpina, the Alpine rock-cress, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae, native to mountainous areas of Europe and East Africa and Eastern Asia and parts of North America. In the British Isles, it is only known to occur in a few locations in the Cuillin Ridge of the Isle of Skye, it inhabits damp gravels and screes over limestone. The stems grow up to 40 cm tall, are topped with loose heads of white, four-petalled flowers; the leaves in the basal rosette are long toothed and stalked, although the stem leaves are stalkless and clasp the stem. Arabis alpina is believed to have originated in Asia Minor about 2 million years ago. From there it migrated twice into East Africa where it grows today on the high East African mountains in the ericaceous belt. Another migration route led A. alpina into Europe, colonised periglacially. In genetic terms, the highest diversity is found in Asia Minor. In central and northern Europe, A. alpina seems to be genetically quite uniform. There is growing interest to develop Arabis alpina as a model organism for genetics, population genetics, molecular biology.

The first genetic linkage map has been created and the first phenotypes perenniality, are tackled by QTL mapping. A subspecies, A. alpina subsp. Caucasica, is now recognised as Arabis caucasica. Natural History Museum

David Miller

David Miller may refer to: David Miller, American film director David Miller, American country musician David Miller, Australian pianist David Miller, operatic tenor and member of the band Il Divo David Alan Miller, conductor David Lee Miller, American film director and producer David L. Miller, American record producer David Miller, British writer and journalist David Miller, poet, literary critic, editor David Lee Miller, American writer and professor David Miller, former mayor of Toronto and president of WWF-Canada David E. Miller, American politician David Wynn Miller, American activist in a tax protest group David Miller, American politician David Miller, American politician David A. Miller, mayor of Lubbock, Texas David Miller, defensive end David Miller, VFL footballer for Richmond David Miller, South African cricketer David Miller, Australian cricketer David Miller, former English cricketer David Miller, American professional darts player David Miller, Canadian ice hockey player David Miller, Canadian sailor David Miller, American college baseball coach David Miller, Seattle architect David Miller, New Zealand entomologist, university lecturer and scientific administrator David Miller, British philosopher David Miller, pioneer in the home birth movement in Australia David Miller, professor at Oxford David Miller, professor at Bristol University David A. B.

Miller, professor at Stanford University David C. Miller, epidemiologist who cared for Albert Schweitzer David Humphreys Miller, American artist and film advisor specialising in the Plains Indians David Hunter Miller, American lawyer and an expert on treaties David Philip Miller, social historian of science David S. Miller, computer programmer David V. Miller, U. S. Air Force general David W. Miller, scholar of the "faith at work" movement David Miller known as Davy "Yiddles" Miller, a member of the Chicago gang Ragen's Colts David Miller, senior Australian public servant David Miller, American aerospace engineer David Miller, Scottish minister David Charles Miller Jr. American ambassador Dave Miller David Millar David E Miller Hill, a summit in Utah