Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks and swans. Most modern species in the order are adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. With the exception of screamers, all have phalli, a trait, lost in the Neoaves. Due to their aquatic nature, most species are web-footed. Anseriformes are one of two types of modern bird thought to be confirmed present during the mesozoic alongside the other dinosaurs, in fact were among the few birds to survive their extinction, along with their cousins the galliformes; these two groups only occupied ecological niches during the mesozoic, living in water and on the ground, while the toothed enantiornithes were the dominant birds that ruled the trees and air. But the fireball, thought to have ended the era of the dinosaurs destroyed all trees as well as animals in the open, a condition that took years to recover.
The anseriformes and galliformes are thought to have survived in the cover of burrows and water, not to have needed trees for food and reproduction. The earliest cretaceous anseriform found so far is vegavis, a goose-like waterfowl thought to have lived as long as 99 million years ago; some members surviving the KT extinction event, including presbyornithids, thought to be the common ancestors of ducks, geese and screamers, the last group once thought to be galliformes, but now genetically confirmed to be related to geese. The first known duck fossils start to appear about 34 million years ago; the Anseriformes and the Galliformes are the most primitive neognathous birds, should follow ratites and tinamous in bird classification systems. Together they belong to the Galloanserae. Several unusual extinct families of birds like the albatross-like pseudotooth birds and the giant flightless gastornithids and mihirungs have been found to be stem-anseriforms based on common features found in the skull region, beak physiology and pelvic region.
The genus Vegavis for a while was found to be the earliest member of the anseriform crown group but a recent 2017 paper has found it to be just outside the crown group in the family Vegaviidae. Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of their stem relatives. Anatidae systematics regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not resolved. See the Anatidae article for more information, for alternate taxonomic approaches. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anserinae; the Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive and John Boyd's website. Order Anseriformes †Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987? †Conflicto Claudia P. Tambussi et al. 2019? †Naranbulagornis Zelenkov 2019 Sub Order Anhimae Wetmore & Miller 1926 Genus †Chaunoides de Alvarenga 1999 Family Anhimidae Stejneger 1885 Genus Anhima Brisson 1760 Genus Chauna Illiger 1811 Sub Order Anseres Superfamily Anseranatoidea Family Anseranatidae Sclater 1880 Genus †Anserpica Mourer-Chauviré, Berthet & Hugueney 2004 Genus †Eoanseranas Worthy & Scanlon 2009 Genus †Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987 Genus Anseranas Lesson 1828 Superfamily Anatoidea Family †Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926 ^ Genus †Teviornis Kuročkin, Dyke & Karhu 2002 Genus †Telmabates Howard 1955 Genus †Headonornis Harrison & Walker 1976 Genus †Presbyornis Wetmore 1926 Genus †Wilaru Boles et al. 2013 Family †Paranyrocidae Miller & Compton 1939 Genus †Paranyroca Miller & Compton 1939 Family Anatidae Leach 1820 Subfamily †Romainvilliinae Lambrecht 1933 Genus †Romainvillia Lebedinský 1927 Genus †Saintandrea Mayr & De Pietri 2013 Subfamily Dendrocygninae Reichenbach 1849–50 Genus Dendrocygna Swainson 1837 Genus Thalassornis Eyton 1838 Subfamily †Dendrocheninae Livezey & Martin 1988 Genus †Dendrochen Miller 1944 Genus †Manuherikia Worthy et al. 2007 Genus †Mionetta Livezey & Martin 1988 Subfamily Stictonettinae Genus Stictonetta Reichenbach 1853 Subfamily Anserinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 Genus †Anserobranta Kuročkin & Ganya 1972 Genus †Asiavis Nesov 1986 Genus †“Chenopis” De Vis 1905 Genus †Cygnavus Lambrecht 1931 Genus †Cygnopterus Lambrecht 1931 Genus †Eremochen Brodkorb 1961 Genus †Megalodytes Howard 1992 Genus †Paracygnus Short 1969 Genus †Presbychen Wetmore 1930 Genus †Cnemiornis Owen 1866 Genus Coscoroba Reichenbach 1853 Genus Cereopsis Latham 1801 Genus Cygnus Garsault 1764 Genus †Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart et al. 2005 Genus Branta Scopoli 1769 Tribe Anserini Vigors 1825 Genus Anser Brisson 1760 [Chen Boie 1822.
Gerald of Wales
Gerald of Wales was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian. As a royal clerk to the king and two archbishops, he travelled and wrote extensively, he visited Rome several times, meeting the Pope. He was nominated for several bishoprics but turned them down in the hope of becoming bishop of St Davids, but was unsuccessful despite considerable support, his final post was as archdeacon of Brecon, from which he retired to academic study for the remainder of his life. Much of his writing survives. Born c. 1146 at Manorbier Castle in Pembrokeshire, Gerald was of mixed Norman and Welsh descent. Gerald was the youngest son of William FitzOdo de Barry or Barri, the common ancestor of the Barry family in Ireland, a retainer of Arnulf de Montgomery and Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor, one of the most powerful Anglo-Norman barons in Wales, his mother was Angharad FitzGerald, a daughter of Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor, Constable of Pembroke Castle, his wife Nest ferch Rhys, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, the last King of South Wales.
Through his mother Angharad, Gerald was a nephew of David fitzGerald, Bishop of St David's, as well as a great-nephew of Gruffydd ap Rhys, the son and heir of Rhys ap Tewdwr, a cousin of Rhys ap Gruffydd, the famous Arglwydd Rhys and his family. Gerald received his initial education at the Benedictine house of Gloucester, followed by a period of study in Paris from c. 1165–74, where he studied the trivium. He was employed by Richard of Dover, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on various ecclesiastical missions in Wales, wherein he distinguished himself for his efforts to remove supposed abuses of consanguinity and tax laws flourishing in the Welsh church at the time, he was appointed in 1174 archdeacon of Brecon, to, attached a residence at Llanddew. He obtained this position by reporting the existence of the previous archdeacon's mistress. While administrating this post, Gerald collected tithes of cheese from the populace. Upon the death of his uncle, the Bishop of St David's, in 1176, the chapter nominated Gerald as his successor.
St David's had the long-term aim of becoming independent of Canterbury, the chapter may have thought that Gerald was the man to take up its cause. Henry II of England, fresh from his struggle with Thomas Becket, promptly rejected Gerald because his Welsh blood and ties to the ruling family of Deheubarth made him seem like a troublesome prospect, in favour of one of his Norman retainers Peter de Leia. According to Gerald, the king said at the time: "It is neither necessary or expedient for king or archbishop that a man of great honesty or vigour should become Bishop of St. David's, for fear that the Crown and Canterbury should suffer thereby; such an appointment would only give strength to the Welsh and increase their pride". The chapter acquiesced in the decision. From c. 1179-8, he taught canon law and theology. He spent an additional five years studying theology. In 1180, he received a minor appointment from the Bishop of St. David's. Gerald became a royal clerk and chaplain to King Henry II of England in 1184, first acting mediator between the crown and Prince Rhys ap Gruffydd.
He was chosen to accompany one of the king's sons, John, in 1185 on John's first expedition to Ireland. This was the catalyst for his literary career, he followed it up, shortly afterward, with an account of Henry's conquest of Ireland, the Expugnatio Hibernica. Both works were revised and added to several times before his death, display a notable degree of Latin learning, as well as a great deal of prejudice against a foreign people. Gerald was proud to be related to some of the Norman invaders of Ireland, such as his maternal uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen and Raymond FitzGerald, his influential account, which portrays the Irish as barbaric savages, gives important insight into Anglo-Norman views of Ireland and the history of the invasion. Having thus demonstrated his usefulness, Gerald was selected to accompany the Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin of Forde, on a tour of Wales in 1188, the object being a recruitment campaign for the Third Crusade, his account of that journey, the Itinerarium Cambriae was followed by the Descriptio Cambriae in 1194.
His two works on Wales remain valuable historical documents, useful for their descriptions – however untrustworthy and inflected by ideology and his unique style – of Welsh and Norman culture. It is uncertain; as a royal clerk, Gerald observed significant political events at first hand, was offered appointments as bishoprics of Wexford and Leighlin, at a little time the bishopric of Ossory and the archbishopric of Cashel, the Welsh Bishopric of Bangor and, in 1191, that of Llandaff. He turned them all down in the hopes of landing a more prominent bishopric in the future, he was acquainted with Walter Map. Retiring from royal service, he lived in Lincoln from c. 1196 to 1198 where his friend William de Montibus was now chancellor of the Cathedral. It was in this perio
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
County Kerry is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and forms part of the province of Munster, it is named after the Ciarraige. Kerry County Council is the local authority for the county and Tralee serves as the county town; the population of the county was 147,707 at the 2016 census. Kerry is the fifth-largest of the 26 counties of the 15th-largest by population, it is the second-largest of Munster's six counties by area, the fourth-largest by population. Uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties: County Limerick to the east and County Cork to the south-east; the county town is Tralee. The diocesan seat is Killarney, one of Ireland's most famous tourist destinations; the Lakes of Killarney, an area of outstanding natural beauty are located in Killarney National Park. The Reeks District is home to Carrauntoohil, Ireland's highest mountain at 1,039m; the tip of the Dingle Peninsula is the most westerly point of Ireland. There are nine historic baronies in the county.
While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Clanmaurice – Clann Mhuiris Corkaguiny – Corca Dhuibhne Dunkerron North – Dún Ciaráin Thuaidh Dunkerron South – Dún Ciaráin Theas Glanarought – Gleann na Ruachtaí Iraghticonnor – Oireacht Uí Chonchúir Iveragh Peninsula – Uíbh Ráthach Magunihy – Maigh gCoinchinn Trughanacmy – Triúcha an Aicme Coolgarriv – An Chúil Gharbh Aghadoe – Achadh Deo Maglass Ard na Caithne Sliabh Luachra Corca Dhuibhne Bounard Kerry faces the Atlantic Ocean and for an Eastern-Atlantic coastal region, features many peninsulas and inlets, principally the Dingle Peninsula, the Iveragh Peninsula, the Beara Peninsula; the county is bounded on the west on the north by the River Shannon. Kerry is one of the most mountainous regions of Ireland and its three highest mountains, Carrauntoohil and Caher, all part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks range.
Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the Blasket Islands, Valentia Island and the Skelligs. Skellig Michael is a World Heritage Site, famous for the medieval monastery clinging to the island's cliffs; the county contains the extreme west point of Ireland, Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands, Tearaght Island, part of the Blaskets. The most westerly inhabited area of Ireland is Dún Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula; the River Feale, the River Laune and the Roughty River flow into the Atlantic. The North Atlantic Current, part of the Gulf Stream, flows north past Kerry and the west coast of Ireland, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North latitude; this means that subtropical plants such as the strawberry tree and tree ferns, not found in northern Europe, thrive in the area. Because of the mountainous area and the prevailing southwesterly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest rainfall in Ireland. Owing to its location, there has been a weather reporting station on Valentia for many centuries.
The Irish record for rainfall in one day is 243.5 mm, recorded at Cloore Lake in Kerry in 1993. In 1986 the remnants of Hurricane Charley crossed over Kerry as an extratropical storm causing extensive rainfall and damage. Kerry means the "people of Ciar", the name of the pre-Gaelic tribe who lived in part of the present county; the legendary founder of the tribe was son of Fergus mac Róich. In Old Irish "Ciar" meant black or dark brown, the word continues in use in modern Irish as an adjective describing a dark complexion; the suffix raighe, meaning people/tribe, is found in various -ry place names in Ireland, such as Osry—Osraighe Deer-People/Tribe. The county's nickname is the Kingdom. On 27 August 1329, by Letters Patent, Maurice FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond was confirmed in the feudal seniority of the entire county palatine of Kerry, to him and his heirs male, to hold of the Crown by the service of one knight's fee. In the 15th century, the majority of the area now known as County Kerry was still part of the County Desmond, the west Munster seat of the Earl of Desmond, a branch of the Hiberno-Norman FitzGerald dynasty, known as the Geraldines.
In 1580, during the Second Desmond Rebellion, one of the most infamous massacres of the Sixteenth century, the Siege of Smerwick, took place at Dún an Óir near Ard na Caithne at the tip of the Dingle Peninsula. The 600-strong Italian and Irish papal invasion force of James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald was besieged by the English forces and massacred. In 1588, when the fleet of the Spanish Armada in Ireland were returning to Spain during stormy weather, many of its ships sought shelter at the Blasket Islands and some were wrecked. During the Nine Years' War, Kerry was again the scene of conflict, as the O'Sullivan Beare clan joined the rebellion. In 1602 their castle at Dunboy was taken by English troops. Donal O'Sullivan Beare, in an effort to escape English retribution and to reach his allies in Ulster, marched all the clan's members and dependants to the north of Ireland. Due to harassment by hostile forces and freezing weather few of the 1,000 O'Sullivans who set out reached their destination. In the aftermath of the War, much of the native owned land in Kerry was confiscated and given to English settlers or'planters'.
The head of the MacCarthy M
The black geese of the genus Branta are waterfowl belonging to the true geese and swans subfamily Anserinae. They occur in the northern coastal regions of the Palearctic and all over North America, migrating to more southernly coasts in winter, as resident birds in the Hawaiian Islands. Alone in the Southern Hemisphere, a self-sustaining feral population derived from introduced Canada geese is found in New Zealand; the scientific name Branta is a Latinised form of Old Norse Brandgás, "burnt goose". The black geese derive their vernacular name for the prominent areas of black coloration found in all species, they can be distinguished from all other true geese by their legs and feet, which are black or dark grey. Furthermore, they have black bills and large areas of black on the head and neck, with white markings that can be used to tell apart most species; as with most geese, their undertail and uppertail coverts are white. They are on average smaller than other geese, though some large taxa are known, which rival the swan goose and the black-necked swan in size.
The Eurasian species of black geese have a more coastal distribution compared to the grey geese which share the same general area of occurrence, not being found far inland in winter. This does not hold true for the American and Pacific species, in whose ranges grey geese are for the most part absent. Based on the Taxonomy in Flux from John Boyd's website. 6–8 living species of black geese are known. In addition, one species has been described from subfossil remains found in the Hawaiian Islands, where it became extinct in prehistoric times. Another undescribed prehistoric species from the Big Island of Hawai‘i was large and flightless, it is certain that at least another species of this genus awaits discovery on the Big Island, judging from the facts that at least one species of Branta was found on every major Hawaiian island, that remains of such birds have not been intentionally searched for on the Big Island. The species are: †Nēnē-nui or woods-walking goose, Branta hylobadistes Similar but hitherto undescribed remains are known from on Kauaʻi and Oʻahu.
Tentatively assigned to Branta: Giant Hawaii goose,? Branta sp; the relationships of the enigmatic Geochen rhuax were long unresolved. After reexamination of the subfossil material and comparisms with other subfossil bones assigned to the genus Branta it was redescribed as Branta rhuax in 2013, it was another prehistoric Big Island form and remains known only from some parts of a single bird's skeleton, which were much damaged because the bird died in a volcanic eruption, with the bones being found in an ash-filled depression under a lava flow. A presumed relation to the shelducks proposed by Lester Short in 1970 was considered unlikely due to that group's biogeography, but more bones of a shelduck-like bird have been found on Kaua‘i. Whether this latter anatid was indeed a shelduck is presently undetermined. Two bones found on Oʻahu indicate the erstwhile present of a gigantic waterfowl on this island, its relationships relative to this genus and the moa-nalos, enormous goose-like dabbling ducks, are undeterminable at present.
Several fossil species of Branta have been described. Since the true geese are hardly distinguishable by anatomical features, the allocation of these to this genus is somewhat uncertain. A number of supposed prehistoric grey geese have been described from North America from the same sites as species assigned to Branta. Whether these are assigned – meaning that the genus Anser was once much more widespread than today and that it coexisted with Branta in freshwater habitat which it today does only most – is not clear. In the case of B. dickeyi and B. howardae, doubts have been expressed about its correct generic assignment. Branta woolfendeni Branta thessaliensis Branta dickeyi Branta esmeralda Branta howardae Branta propinqua Branta hypsibata The former "Branta" minuscula is now placed with the prehistoric American shelducks, Anabernicula. On the other hand, a goose fossil from the Early-Middle Pleistocene of El Salvador is similar to Anser and given its age and biogeography it is to belong to that genus or Branta.
Carboneras, Carles. "Family Anatidae". In del Hoyo, Josep. Handbook of Birds of the World. Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Pp. 536–629, plates 40–50. ISBN 84-87334-10-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
The cackling goose is a North American bird of the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anser species. The black head and neck with white "chinstrap" distinguish this goose from all other geese except the larger Canada goose and the sized barnacle goose. There are up to 5 subspecies of cackling goose, of plumage details; the female looks identical but is lighter and has a different voice. Some are hard to distinguish from the Canada goose, with which the cackling goose was long assumed to form one species, the cackling goose and the smaller Canada goose subspecies being called the lesser Canada goose; the smallest 1.4 kg Cackling geese are much smaller than any Canada goose, but the subspecies B. h. hutchinsii, at up to 3 kg, grows to the same size as some Canada geese. The distinctness of the extinct population of the Komandorski and Kuril Islands B. h. asiatica is controversial. The barnacle goose differs in having grey, rather than brownish, body plumage.
This species is native to North America. It breeds in northern Alaska in a variety of tundra habitats. However, the nest is located in an elevated area near water; the eggs are laid in a shallow depression lined with plant material and down. Males can be aggressive in defending territory. A pair may mate for life. Adult geese are seen leading their goslings in a line with one parent at the front, the other at the back of the "parade". Like most geese, it is migratory, the wintering range being most of the U. S. and locally in western Canada and northern Mexico. The calls overhead from large groups of cackling geese flying in V-shaped formation signal the transitions into spring and fall. In some areas, migration routes have changed due to changes in food sources. Cackling geese have reached western Europe as has been proved by ringing recoveries; the birds are of at least the subspecies hutchinsii, others. Cackling geese are found on occasions in the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, eastern China, throughout Japan.
These birds feed on plant material. When feeding in water, they submerge their heads and necks to reach aquatic plants, sometimes tipping forward like a dabbling duck. Flocks of these birds feed on leftover cultivated grains in fields during migration or in winter, they eat some insects and crustaceans. By the early 20th century, over-hunting and loss of habitat in the late 19th and early 20th centuries had resulted in a serious decline in the numbers of this bird in its native range. With improved game laws and habitat restoration and preservation programs, their populations have recovered in most of their range, although some local populations may still be declining of the subspecies minima and leucopareia. Though the taxonomic distinctness of the Komandorski and Kuril Islands populations, which used to winter in Japan, is controversial, it is without doubt that they disappeared around 1929; the genus name Branta is a Latinised form of Old Norse Brandgás, "burnt goose", the specific epithet hutchinsii commemorates English surgeon Thomas Hutchins, employed by the Hudson's Bay Company.
The cackling goose was considered to be the same species or a subspecies of the Canada goose, but in July 2004 the American Ornithologists' Union's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature split the two into two species, making cackling goose into a full species with the scientific name Branta hutchinsii. The British Ornithologists Union followed suit in June 2005; the AOU has divided the many associated subspecies between both animals. To the present species were assigned: Richardson's cackling goose Aleutian cackling goose Small cackling goose Taverner's cackling goose †Bering cackling goose —doubtfully distinct from B. h. leucopareia. This has been aggravated by the overlap between the small types of Canada goose and larger types of cackling goose; the old "lesser Canada geese" were believed to be a hybrid population, with the birds named taverneri considered a mixture of minima with subspecies occidentalis and parvipes, which today remain with the Canada goose proper. However, taverneri is one of the larger subspecies of cackling geese.
In addition, it has been determined that the barnacle goose is a derivative of the cackling goose lineage, whereas the Hawaiian goose is an insular representative of the Canada goose. A recent proposed revision by Harold C. Hanson suggests splitting Canada and cackling goose into six species and 200 subspecies; the radical nature of this proposal has provoked surprise in some quarters. Stackhouse, Mark; the New Goose. Angus, Wilson. Identification and range of subspecies within the Canada and Cackling Goose Complex. Moser, Timothy J. Craven, Scott R. and Miller, Brian K. Canada Geese in the Mississippi Flyway: A Guide for Goose Hunters and Goose Watchers. Cackling Goose photo gallery at VIREO Cackling Goose Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology