Barnard College is a private women's liberal arts college located in Manhattan, New York City. Founded in 1889 by Annie Nathan Meyer, who named it after Columbia University's 10th president, Frederick Barnard, it is one of many women's colleges founded in the nineteenth century. Barnard College is one of Columbia University's four official undergraduate colleges; the acceptance rate of the Class of 2023 was 11.3%, the most selective and diverse class in the college's 129-year history. The college was founded as a response to Columbia's refusal to admit women into their institution. Barnard is affiliated with but and financially separate from Columbia. Students share classes, Greek life, sports teams and more with Columbia University. Students receive a diploma from both Barnard Columbia University. Barnard offers Bachelor of Arts degree programs in about 50 areas of study. Students may pursue elements of their education at greater Columbia University, the Juilliard School, the Manhattan School of Music, The Jewish Theological Seminary, which are based in New York City.
Its 4-acre campus is located in the Upper Manhattan neighborhood of Morningside Heights, stretching along Broadway between 116th and 120th Streets. It is directly near several other academic institutions; the college is a member of the Seven Sisters, an association of seven prominent women's liberal arts colleges. For its first 229 years Columbia College of Columbia University admitted only men for undergraduate study. Barnard College was founded in 1889 as a response to Columbia's refusal to admit women into its institution; the college was named after Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard, a deaf American educator and mathematician who served as the tenth president of Columbia from 1864 to 1889. He advocated equal educational privileges for men and women, preferably in a coeducational setting, began proposing in 1879 that Columbia admit women; the board of trustees rejected Barnard's suggestion, but in 1883 agreed to create a detailed syllabus of study for women. While they could not attend Columbia classes, those who passed examinations based on the syllabus would receive a degree.
The first such woman graduate received her bachelor's degree in 1887. A former student of the program, Annie Meyer, other prominent New York women persuaded the board in 1889 to create a women's college connected to Columbia. Barnard College's original 1889 home was a rented brownstone at 343 Madison Avenue, where a faculty of six offered instruction to 14 students in the School of Arts, as well as to 22 "specials", who lacked the entrance requirements in Greek and so enrolled in science; when Columbia University announced in 1892 its impending move to Morningside Heights, Barnard built a new campus nearby with gifts from Mary E. Brinckerhoff, Elizabeth Milbank Anderson and Martha Fiske. Two of these gifts were made with several stipulations attached. Brinckerhoff had offered $100,000 in 1892, on the condition that the Barnard acquire land within 1,000 feet of the Columbia campus within the next four years; the Barnard trustees purchased land between 119th-120th Streets after receiving funds for that purpose in 1895.
Anderson, who gave $170,000, requested that Charles A. Rich be hired. Rich designed the Milbank and Fiske Halls, built in 1897–1898; the first classes at the new campus were held in 1897. Despite Brinckerhoff's, Anderson's, Fiske's gifts, Barnard remained in debt. Ella Weed supervised the college in its first four years. Jessica Finch is credited with coining the phrase, "current events," while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s; as the college grew it needed additional space, in 1903 it received the three blocks south of 119th Street from Anderson who had purchased a former portion of the Bloomingdale Asylum site from the New York Hospital. Rich provided a master plan for the campus, but only Brooks Hall was built, being constructed between 1906 and 1908. None of Rich's other plans were carried out. Students' Hall, now known as Barnard Hall, was built in 1916 to a design by Arnold Brunner. Hewitt Hall was the last structure to be erected, in 1926–1927. All three buildings were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
An inability to raise funds precluded the construction of any other buildings. By the mid-20th century Barnard had succeeded in its original goal of providing a top tier education to women. Between 1920 and 1974, only the much larger Hunter College and University of California, Berkeley produced more women graduates who received doctorate degrees. Bachelor of Arts degree in about 50 areas of study are offered to Barnard graduates. Joint programs for the Bachelor of Science and other degrees exist with Columbia University, Juilliard School, The Jewish Theological Seminary; the most popular majors at the college include Economics, Political Science, Psychology, Biological Sciences and Computer Science. The liberal arts general education requirements are collectively called Foundations. Students must take two courses in the sciences, study a single foreign language for two semesters, take two courses in the arts/humanities as well as two in the social sciences. In addition, students must complete at least one three-credit course in each of the following categories, known as the Modes of Thinking: Thinking Locally—New York City, Thinking through Global Inquiry, Thinking about Social Difference, Thinking with Historical Perspective, Thinking Quantitatively and Empirically, Thinking Technologically and Digitally.
The use of AP or IB
Ostoja is a Polish coat of arms that originated from Sarmatian Tamga and refer to Royal Sarmatians using Draco standard. Following the end of the Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages it was used by Ostoja family in Lesser Poland and also in Kujavia and Greater Poland, it is a coat of arms of noble families that fought in the same military unit using battle cry Hostoja or Ostoja, that applied their ancient heritage on the Coat of Arms, forming a Clan of knights. When the Clan expanded their territory to Pomerania, Slovakia and Romania they adopted a few noble families of Ruthenian origin that in 14-15th century settled down in Lithuania and Ukraine turning into the Clan of Ostoja; as different lines of the clan formed surnames after their properties and adding the adoptions, Ostoja was recognized as CoA of several families, not necessary connected to the original Clan, forming Heraldic clan. Original version: the coat of arms of the medieval version differed from the generalized form in times; the following reconstruction appearance comes from Josef Szymanski: Gules, between an increscent and a decrescent a cross in pale point downwards, all Or.
On a helmet a dragon Sable, exhaling fire Gules, on two crescents pointing up, Or. Mantling Sable, lined Or Modern version from the 17th century replaced a cross between crescents with the sword in pale point downwards. On a crowned helmet, five ostrich feathers; the last image is of the seal of Dobieslaw de Koszyce from 1381, identical to an early sign found on the entry of the church in Wysocice of Nicolaus Ostoja de Sciborzyce from about 1232. Those coat of arms as below are of noble families and linked en masse to Ostoja because the moon or the sword in the shield; the list of imaginary Ostoja coats of arms might be longer than here presented. There are Russian families that where ennobled and given the coat of arms that looked like Ostoja during the partition time and that some call Ostoja, it is possible that coats of arms where painted with error during the nobility verification process in the time of partition. Families that are members of the Clan of Ostoja: Below, CoA from the left: Błyszczanowicz - ancient family noted in 1497, error in 1806 by Russian authorities in Kiev that painted the coat of arms in the wrong way.
Miklaszewski - this family was adopted to the Clan of Ostoja in 1569 when the family received nobility. Supposed to sign original Ostoja coat of arms. Third from the left is Ochocki coat of arms that received nobility in 1683 and was adopted to the Clan of Ostoja and sign modern version of Ostoja with sword instead of a cross. Fourth from the left, Gawłowski family of ancient origin and with a coat of arms, simple error of foreign authorities, supposed to be original version of Ostoja. Strzałkowski family is of ancient origin here the coat of arms is modified during partition of the Commonwealth but here most family helped authorities to change their original coat of arms. Purpose or reason of, not known; the coat of arms of Nagorski family that received nobility in 1590 and was adopted to the Clan of Ostoja. Note that there is another family of Nagorski of Ostoja of ancient origin but it is impossible now to separate those families from each other. Families that are not members of the Clan of Ostoja Second row from the left: Bogorajski, received nobility in 1775 and a rang crown of a baron not being a baron, although in this version crown of the noble by error since there are no other paintings of correct coat of arms yet.
Next coat of arms is of Raczewski family that received nobility in 1775. The coat of arms of Kleczewski family followed by Mokrzewski family that are not members of the clan but show similar coats of arms to Ostoja. Last three coat of arms in this row are of families Orda and Wasilewski - none of them are members of the Clan, coat of arms have been added to Ostoja and are called variant of Ostoja coat of arms. Third row from the left: coat of arms of Fincke von Finkenthal family that received nobility in 1805, followed by the coat of arms of the Ostaszewski family that received nobility in 1785, most the name is wrongly spelled, should be Ostarzewski. Third coat of arms from the left is of Krall family that received nobility in 1768 followed by the coat of arms of the Szyszko family that should be not mixed up with ancient Szyszkowski de Szyszki family; the coat of arms of the Turkuł family that received nobility in 1676, this family is extinct. The last two coats of arms in third row are of Zawadzki families.
Both families have never been considered as members of the Clan of Ostoja but here their coat of arms become recognized as variant of the Ostoja coat of arms. In the case of Wysocki family belong to the Clan of Kolumna with a modified coat of arms called Kolumna ze skrzydlami - Kolumna with wings. Below is the coat of arms of ancient German family von Finkenstein written as Fink von Finkenstein referring to the family of Fink, noted in German records in the 13th century; this family moved at that time to the land occupied by Teutonic Knights. In time this family become prominent, it is not known who decided to call this coat of arms Ostoja Pruska but it is a significant example of breaking every possible heraldic rule in the name of Polish clan tradition where clan members used same coat of arms. It seems that this coat of arms was added to Ostoja by force. There are two families that where part of the Clan of Ostoja in the 14th century according to the records of Teutonic Knights, they lived in Pomerania and that have been given this coat of arms by all publications - the families of Lniski and Sk
Harold Gould was a Welsh professional golfer. He won the Welsh Professional Championship six times between 1946 and 1963 and twice represented Wales in the Canada Cup. Gould finished tied for second place in the 1949 PGA Assistants' Championship, five shots behind the winner, Harry Weetman and tied with Peter Alliss. Gould was an assistant professional at Radyr Golf Club before World War II, moving to Royal Porthcawl Golf Club after the war and to Southerndown Golf Club in 1950. Gould played in the 1954 Canada Cup with the 1955 Canada Cup with Dennis Smalldon. In 1954 Gould scored 316 34 shots worse than Rees; the following year he improved, three strokes behind his partner Smalldon. Gould won his sixth Welsh Professional Championship in June 1963 at the age of 48. 1946 Welsh Professional Championship 1948 Welsh Professional Championship 1949 Welsh Professional Championship 1951 Welsh Professional Championship 1954 Welsh Professional Championship 1963 Welsh Professional Championship Note: Gould only played in The Open Championship.
CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Canada Cup: 1954, 1955