Charleston, West Virginia
Charleston is the most populous city in, the capital of, the U. S. state of West Virginia. Located at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers, the population during the 2017 Census Estimate was 47,929; the Charleston metropolitan area as a whole had 214,406 residents. Charleston is the center of government and industry for Kanawha County, of which it is the county seat. Early industries important to Charleston included the first natural gas well. Coal became central to economic prosperity in the city and the surrounding area. Today, utilities, government and education play central roles in the city's economy; the first permanent settlement, Ft. Lee, was built in 1788. In 1791, Daniel Boone was a member of the Kanawha County Assembly. Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Power minor league baseball team, the West Virginia Wild minor league basketball team, the annual 15-mile Charleston Distance Run. Yeager Airport and the University of Charleston are in the city. West Virginia University, Marshall University, West Virginia State University have campuses in the area.
After the American Revolutionary War, pioneers began making their way out from the early settlements. Many migrated into the western part of Virginia. Capitalizing on its many resources made Charleston an important part of Virginia and West Virginia history. Today, Charleston is the largest city in the state capital. Charleston's history goes back to the 18th century. Thomas Bullitt was deeded 1,250 acres of land near the mouth of the Elk River in 1773, it was inherited by his brother, Cuthbert Bullitt, upon his death in 1778, sold to Col. George Clendenin in 1786; the first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1787 by Col. Savannah Clendenin and his company of Virginia Rangers; this structure occupied the area, now the intersection of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. Historical conjecture indicates that Charleston is named after Charles. Charles Town was shortened to Charleston to avoid confusion with another Charles Town in eastern West Virginia, named after George Washington's brother Charles.
Six years the Virginia General Assembly established Charleston. On the 40 acres that made up the town in 1794, 35 people inhabited seven houses. Charleston is part of Kanawha County; the origin of the word Kanawha, "Kanawha", derives from the region's Iroquois dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. It is the name of the river that flows through Charleston; the grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia. The phrase has been a matter of Register. In fact, a two-story jail was the first county structure built, with the first floor dug into the bank of the Kanawha River. Daniel Boone, commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the Kanawha County militia, was elected to serve in 1791 in the Virginia House of Delegates; as told in historical accounts, Boone walked all the way to Richmond. By the early 19th century, salt brines were discovered along the Kanawha River and the first salt well was drilled in 1806.
This created great economic growth for the area. By 1808, 1,250 pounds of salt were being produced a day. An area adjacent to Charleston, Kanawha Salines, now Malden, would become the top salt producer in the world. In 1818, Kanawha Salt Company, first trust in United States, went into operation. Captain James Wilson, while drilling for salt, struck the first natural gas well in 1815, it was drilled at the site, now the junction of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard In 1817, coal was first discovered and became used as the fuel for the salt works. The Kanawha salt industry declined in importance after 1861, until the onset of World War I brought a demand for chemical products; the chemicals needed were sodium hydroxide, which could be made from salt brine. The town continued to grow until the Civil War began in 1861; the state of Virginia seceded from the Union, Charleston was divided between Union and Confederate loyalty. On September 13, 1862, the Union and Confederate Armies met in the Battle of Charleston.
Although the Confederate States Army was victorious, occupation of the city was short-lived. Union troops returned just six weeks and stayed through the end of the war; the Northern hold on Charleston and most of the western part of Virginia created an larger problem. Virginia had seceded from the Union, but the western part was under Union control; the issue of statehood was raised. So amid the tumultuous Civil War, West Virginia became a state through Presidential Proclamation. Abraham Lincoln declared the northwestern portion of Virginia to be returned to the Union, on June 20, 1863, West Virginia became the 35th state. In addition to the issue of slavery, West Virginia was driven to separate from Virginia for economic reasons; the heavy industries in the North the steel business of the upper Ohio River region, were dependent on the coal available from western Virginia mines. Federalized military units were dispatched from Ohio to western Virginia early in the war to secure access to the coal mines and transportation resources.
Although the state now existed, settling on a state capital location proved to be difficult. For several years, the capital of West Virginia intermittently traveled between Wheeling and Charleston. In 1877, state citizens voted on the final location of their capital. Charleston received 41,243 votes, Clarksburg received 29,44
In baseball, a no-hitter is a game in which a team was not able to record a single hit. Major League Baseball defines a no-hitter as a completed game in which a team that batted in at least nine innings recorded no hits. A pitcher who prevents the opposing team from achieving a hit is said to have "thrown a no-hitter"; this is a rare accomplishment for a pitcher or pitching staff: only 299 have been thrown in Major League Baseball history since 1876, an average of about two per year. In most cases in MLB, no-hitters are recorded by a single pitcher; the most recent no-hitter by a single pitcher was thrown on May 8, 2018 by James Paxton of the Seattle Mariners against the Toronto Blue Jays at Rogers Centre. The most recent combined no-hitter was thrown on May 4, 2018 by Walker Buehler, Tony Cingrani, Yimi Garcia, Adam Liberatore of the Los Angeles Dodgers against the San Diego Padres at Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey, it is possible to reach base without a hit, most by a walk, error, or being hit by a pitch.
A no-hitter in which no batters reach base at all is a much rarer feat. Because batters can reach base by means other than a hit, a pitcher can throw a no-hitter and still give up runs, lose the game, although this is uncommon and most no-hitters are shutouts. One or more runs were given up in 25 recorded no-hitters in MLB history, most by Ervin Santana of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in a 3–1 win against the Cleveland Indians on July 27, 2011. On two occasions, a team still lost the game. On a further four occasions, a team has thrown a no-hitter for eight innings in a losing effort, but those four games are not recognized as no-hitters by Major League Baseball because the outing lasted fewer than nine innings, it is theoretically possible for opposing pitchers to throw no-hitters in the same game, although this has never happened in the majors. Two pitchers, Fred Toney and Hippo Vaughn, completed nine innings of a game on May 2, 1917 without either giving up a hit or a run. A no-hitter is defined by Major League Baseball as follows: "An official no-hit game occurs when a pitcher allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings."
This definition was specified by MLB's Committee for Statistical Accuracy in 1991, causing recognized no-hitters of fewer than nine innings or where the first hit had been allowed in extra innings to be stricken from the official record books. Games lost by the visiting team in 8½ innings but without allowing any hits do not qualify as no-hitters, as the visiting team has only pitched eight innings. Major League Baseball has recognized 299 no-hitters thrown since 1876. Two no-hitters have been thrown on the same day twice: Ted Breitenstein and Jim Hughes on April 22, 1898. Eight no-hitters were thrown by major league pitchers in the 1884 season. In the modern era, seven no-hitters were thrown in 1990, 1991, 2012, 2015; the longest period between any two no-hitters in the modern era is 3 years, 44 days between Bobby Burke on August 8, 1931, Paul "Daffy" Dean on September 21, 1934. There was a drought of 3 years, 11 months, without a no-hitter after the first National League no-hitter on July 15, 1876, pitched by George Bradley.
The most recent year without any no-hitters is 2005. The greatest span of games without a no-hitter anywhere in the Major Leagues is 6,364, between Randy Johnson's perfect game on May 18, 2004, for the Arizona Diamondbacks, Aníbal Sánchez's no-hitter on September 6, 2006, for the Florida Marlins; the previous record was a 4,015-game streak without a no-hitter from September 30, 1984, to September 19, 1986. The pitcher who holds the record for the most no-hitters is Nolan Ryan, who threw seven in his long career, his first two came two months apart, while he was with the California Angels: the first on May 15, 1973, the second on July 15. He had two more with the Angels on September 28, 1974, June 1, 1975. Ryan's fifth no-hitter with the Houston Astros on September 26, 1981, broke Sandy Koufax's previous record, his sixth and seventh no-hitters came with the Texas Rangers on June 1, 1990, May 1, 1991. When he tossed number seven at age 44, he became the oldest pitcher to throw a no-hitter. Only Ryan, Sandy Koufax, Cy Young, Bob Feller, Larry Corcoran have pitched more than two no-hitters.
Corcoran was the first pitcher to throw a second no-hitter in a career, as well as the first to throw a third. Thirty-six pitchers have thrown more than one combined no-hitters not counting. Randy Johnson has the longest gap between no-hitters: he threw a no-hitter as a member of the Seattle Mariners on June 2, 1990, a perfect game as an Arizona Diamondback on May 18, 2004; the pitcher who holds the record for the shortest time between no-hitters is Johnny Vander Meer, the only pitcher in history to throw no-hitters in consecutive starts, while playing for the Cincinnati Reds in 1938. Besides Vander Meer, Allie Reynolds, Virgil Trucks and Max Scherzer are the only other major leaguers to throw two no-hitters in the same regular season. Jim Maloney had two no-hitters under the previous rules in the 1965 season
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
History of the Philadelphia Athletics
The Oakland Athletics, a current Major League Baseball franchise, originated in Philadelphia. This article details the history of the Philadelphia Athletics, from 1901 to 1954, when they moved to Kansas City. See also: Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame The Western League had been renamed the American League in 1900 by league president Bancroft Johnson, declared itself the second major league in 1901. Johnson eliminated some franchises in the West. Philadelphia had a new franchise created to compete with the National League's Philadelphia Phillies. Former catcher Connie Mack was recruited to manage the club. Mack in turn persuaded Phillies minority owner Ben Shibe as well as others to invest in the team, which would be called the Philadelphia Athletics. Mack himself bought a 25% interest, while the remaining 25% was sold to Philadelphia sportswriters Sam Jones and Frank Hough; the new league recruited many of its players from the existing National League, persuading them to "jump" to the American League in defiance of their National League contracts.
One of the players who jumped to the new league was second baseman Nap Lajoie of the crosstown Phillies. He won the A. L.'s first batting title with a.426 batting average, still a league record. The Athletics and the American League received a setback when, on April 21, 1902, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court invalidated Lajoie's contract with the Athletics, ordered him back to the Phillies; this order, was only enforceable in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Lajoie was sold to Cleveland, but was kept out of road games in Philadelphia until the National Agreement was signed between the two leagues in 1903. In the early years, the A's established themselves as one of the dominant teams in the new league, winning the A. L. pennant six times, winning the World Series in 1910, 1911, 1913. They won over 100 games in 1910 and 1911, 99 games in 1914; the team was known for its "$100,000 Infield", consisting of Stuffy McInnis, Eddie Collins, Jack Barry, Frank "Home Run" Baker as well as pitchers Eddie Plank and Chief Bender.
Rube Waddell was a major pitching star for the A's in the early 1900s. According to Lamont Buchanan in The World Series and Highlights of Baseball, the A's fans were fond of chanting, "If Eddie Plank doesn't make you lose / We have Waddell and Bender all ready to use!" Plank holds the franchise record for career victories, with 284. In 1909, the A's moved into Shibe Park; this remains the second and last time in franchise history where a new ballpark was built for the A's. In the decade, Mack bought the 25% of the team's stock owned by Jones and Hough to become a full partner with Shibe. Shibe ceded Mack full control over the baseball side while retaining control over the business side. In 1914, the Athletics lost the 1914 World Series to the "Miracle Braves" in a four-game sweep. Mack sold or released most of the team's star players soon after. In his book To Every Thing a Season, Bruce Kuklick points out that there were suspicions that the A's had thrown the Series, or at least "laid down" in protest of Mack's frugal ways.
Mack himself alluded to that rumor years but debunked it. He claimed that the team was torn by numerous internal factions, was distracted by the allure of a third major league, the Federal League; the Federal League had been formed to begin play in 1914. As the AL had done 13 years before, the new league raided existing AL and NL teams for players. Several of his best players, including Bender, had decided to jump before the World Series. Mack refused preferring to rebuild with younger players; the result was near-total collapse. The Athletics went from a 99–53 record and a pennant in 1914 to a record of 43–109 and last place in 1915, to 36–117 in 1916; the team would finish in last place every year through 1922 and would not contend again until 1925. Shibe died in 1922, his sons Tom and John took over the business side, leaving the baseball side to Mack. By this time Mack had cemented his famous image of the tall and well-dressed man waving his players into position with a scorecard. Unlike most managers, he chose to wear a high-collar shirt, ascot scarf, a straw boater hat instead of a uniform, a look that he never changed for the rest of his life decades after it went out of fashion.
This came at the price of Mack not being allowed on-field during games per league regulations. By the latter half of the 1920s, Mack had assembled one of the most feared batting orders in the history of baseball featuring three future Baseball Hall of Fame members. At its heart were Al Simmons, who batted.334 and hit 307 home runs over his major league career, Jimmie Foxx, who hit 30 or more home runs in 12 consecutive seasons and drove in more than 100 runs in 13 consecutive years, Mickey Cochrane, one of the best-hitting catchers in baseball history. A fourth future Hall of Fame member was pitcher Lefty Grove, who led the American League in strikeouts seven years in a row, had the league's lowest earned run average a record nine times. In 1927 and 1928, the Athletics finished second to the New York Yankees won pennants in 1929, 1930 and 1931, winning the World Series in 1929 and 1930. In each of the three years, the Athletics won over 100 games. While the 1927 New York Yankees, whose batting order was known as the Murderers' Row, are remembered as one of the best teams in baseball history, the Athlet
Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award
The Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award is an annual Major League Baseball award given to one outstanding player in the American League and one in the National League. Since 1931, it has been awarded by the Baseball Writers' Association of America; the winners receive the Kenesaw Mountain Landis Memorial Baseball Award, which became the official name of the award in 1944, in honor of the first MLB commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who served from 1920 until his death on November 25, 1944. MVP voting takes place before the postseason, but the results are not announced until after the World Series; the BBWAA began by polling three writers in each league city in 1938, reducing that number to two per league city in 1961. The BBWAA does not offer a clear-cut definition of what "most valuable" means, instead leaving the judgment to the individual voters. First basemen, with 34 winners, have won the most MVPs among infielders, followed by second basemen, third basemen, shortstops.
Of the 25 pitchers who have won the award, 15 are right-handed. Walter Johnson, Carl Hubbell, Hal Newhouser are the only pitchers who have won multiple times, Newhouser winning consecutively in 1944 and 1945. Hank Greenberg, Stan Musial, Alex Rodriguez, Robin Yount have won at different positions, while Rodriguez is the only player who has won the award with two different teams at two different positions. Barry Bonds has won the most and the most consecutively. Jimmie Foxx was the first player to win multiple times. Frank Robinson is the only player to win the award in both the National Leagues; the award's only tie occurred in the National League in 1979, when Keith Hernandez and Willie Stargell received an equal number of points. There have been 18 unanimous winners; the New York Yankees have the most winning players with 22, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 17 winners; the award has never been presented to a member of the following three teams: Arizona Diamondbacks, New York Mets, Tampa Bay Rays.
In recent decades, pitchers have won the award. When Justin Verlander won the AL award in 2011, he became the first pitcher in either league to be named the MVP since Dennis Eckersley in 1992. Verlander became the first starting pitcher to win this award since Roger Clemens accomplished the feat in 1986; the National League went longer without an MVP award to a pitcher. After Bob Gibson won in 1968, no pitcher in that league was named MVP until Clayton Kershaw in 2014. Before the 1910 season, Hugh Chalmers of Chalmers Automobile announced he would present a Chalmers Model 30 automobile to the player with the highest batting average in Major League Baseball at the end of the season; the 1910 race for best average in the American League was between the Detroit Tigers' disliked Ty Cobb and Nap Lajoie of the Cleveland Indians. On the last day of the season, Lajoie overtook Cobb's batting average with seven bunt hits against the St. Louis Browns. American League President Ban Johnson said a recalculation showed that Cobb had won the race anyway, Chalmers ended up awarding cars to both players.
The following season, Chalmers created the Chalmers Award. A committee of baseball writers were to convene after the season to determine the "most important and useful player to the club and to the league". Since the award was not as effective at advertising as Chalmers had hoped, it was discontinued after 1914. In 1922 the American League created a new award to honor "the baseball player, of the greatest all-around service to his club". Winners, voted on by a committee of eight baseball writers chaired by James Crusinberry, received a bronze medal and a cash prize. Voters were required to select one player from each team and player-coaches and prior award winners were ineligible. Famously, these criteria resulted in Babe Ruth winning only a single MVP award before it was dropped after 1928; the National League award, without these restrictions, lasted from 1924 to 1929. The BBWAA first awarded the modern MVP after the 1931 season, adopting the format the National League used to distribute its league award.
One writer in each city with a team filled out a ten-place ballot, with ten points for the recipient of a first-place vote, nine for a second-place vote, so on. In 1938, the BBWAA raised the number of voters to three per city and gave 14 points for a first-place vote; the only significant change since occurred in 1961, when the number of voters was reduced to two per league city. "Esurance MLB Awards" Best Major Leaguer "Players Choice Awards" Player of the Year Baseball America Major League Player of the Year Baseball Digest Player of the Year Best Major League Baseball Player ESPY Award The Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award Sporting News Player of the Year List of Major League Baseball awards Baseball awards a A player is considered inactive if he has announced his retirement or not played for a full season. B A unanimous victory indicates. C Torre is a member of the Hall of Fame, but not as a player, he was inducted in 2014 as a manager. D Hernandez and Stargell both received 216 points in the 1979 voting.
Most Valuable Player MVP Awards & Cy Young
In baseball statistics, an error is an act, in the judgment of the official scorer, of a fielder misplaying a ball in a manner that allows a batter or baserunner to advance one or more bases or allows an at bat to continue after the batter should have been put out. The term error can refer to the play during which an error was committed. An error does not count as a hit but still counts as an at bat for the batter unless, in the scorer's judgment, the batter would have reached first base safely but one or more of the additional base reached was the result of the fielder's mistake. In that case, the play will be scored both as an error. However, if a batter is judged to have reached base because of a fielder's mistake, it is scored as a "hit on error," and treated the same as if the batter had been put out, hence lowering his batting average. A batter does not receive credit for a run batted in when runs score on an error, unless the scorer rules that a run would have scored if the fielder had not made a mistake.
For example, if a batter hits a ball to the outfield for what should be a sacrifice fly and the outfielder drops the ball for an error, the batter will still receive credit for the sacrifice fly and the run batted in. If a play should have resulted in a fielder's choice with a runner being put out and the batter reaching base safely but the runner is safe due to an error, the play will be scored as a fielder's choice, with no hit being awarded to the batter and an error charged against the fielder. Passed balls and wild pitches are not scored as errors. If a batted ball were hit on the fly into foul territory, with the batting team having no runner on base, a fielder misplayed such ball for an error, it is possible for a team on the winning side of a perfect game to commit at least one error, yet still qualify as a perfect game. There is a curious loophole in the rules on errors for catchers. If a catcher makes a "wild throw" in an attempt to prevent a stolen base and the runner is safe, the catcher is not charged with an error if it could be argued that the runner would have been put out with "ordinary effort."
There is therefore a "no fault" condition for the catcher attempting to prevent a steal. However, when considering that the majority of stolen base attempts are successful, this "no fault rule" is understandable due to the difficulty of throwing out runners. If the runner takes an additional base due to the wild throw, an error is charged for that advance. However, if the catcher's glove is hit by the bat, it is counted as a catcher's interference and the catcher is given an error unless the batter gets a hit off the play. If a run scores by the end of the inning that would not have scored in the absence of the error, the run is categorized as unearned, meaning that it is not treated in the statistics as having been the responsibility of the pitcher. Traditionally, the number of errors was a statistic used to quantify the skill of a fielder. Research has shown that the error rate is higher when the quality of fielding is suspect, e.g. the performance of an expansion team in its first year, or the fielding done by replacement players during World War II, is lower when playing conditions are better, e.g. on artificial turf and during night games.
However and analysts have questioned the usefulness and significance of errors as a metric for fielding skill. Notably, mental misjudgments, such as failure to cover a base or attempting a force out when such a play is not available, are not considered errors. A more subtle, though more significant objection to the error, as sabermetricians have noted, is more conceptual. In order for a fielder to be charged with an error, he must have done something right by being in the correct place to be able to attempt the play. A poor fielder may "avoid" many errors by being unable to reach batted or thrown balls that a better fielder could reach. Thus, it is possible that a poor fielder will have fewer errors than any fielder with higher expectancies. In recent times, official scorers have made some attempt to take a fielder's supposed "extraordinary" effort or positioning into account when judging whether the play should have been successful given ordinary effort. However, this still leaves statistics, such as fielding percentage, that are based on errors as a way to compare the defensive abilities of players.
Errors hold significance in calculating the earned run average of a pitcher. Runs scored due to an error are unearned, do not count toward a pitcher's ERA. In Major League Baseball, Herman Long holds the Major League records with 1096 errors in his career between 1889 and 1904. Bill Dahlen, Deacon White and Germany Smith are the only other players to make 1,000 errors during their MLB careers. All of these players played at least one season before 1900; the 20th century record is held by Rabbit Maranville with 711 errors. Among active players, Adrián Beltré leads with 304 errors over 2711 career games through the end of the 2017 season; the major league record for errors by a pitcher in a career is held with 64 errors. That is the National League record; the American career mark is held by Ed Walsh. The most errors made by a pitcher in a season is 28 by Jim Whitney, the National League record; the American League record of 15 is held by three pitchers, Jack Chesbro, Rube Waddell, Ed Walsh. The record for most errors made by a pitcher in one inning is three, first set by Cy Seymour in 1898.
The record was tied by Tommy John in 1988, Jaime Navarro in 1996 and Mike Sirotka in 1999. Ivey Wingo holds the major league and National League records for most
Venice is a city in Sarasota County, United States. The city includes what locals call "Venice Island", a portion of the mainland, accessed via bridges over the artificially created Intracoastal Waterway; the city is located north of Englewood. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 20,746, it is noted for its large snowbird population and was voted as a top 10 Happiest Seaside Towns by Coastal Living. Venice is a principal city of Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles, of which 15.3 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles, or 8.19%, is water. The climate of Venice is Humid Subtropical, bordering closely on a Tropical Savanna climate and features pronounced wet and dry season. Summers in Venice are warm and humid with high temperatures reaching the lower 90s and falling to the upper 70s overnight, although temperatures on many summer nights fail to drop below 80; the reason for this narrow diurnal range results from a high amount of atmospheric moisture, which translates to high relative humidity.
This abundant moisture, in addition to moderating temperatures serves to contribute to the development of convective thunderstorms that erupt during the mid-late afternoon. These popcorn variety thunderstorms are brief and not severe, but can bring heavy rain and frequent cloud to ground lightning; these storms lower the surface temperatures by 10 degrees or more, but raise the relative humidity, thereby negating any comforting factor. This wet seasons begins in early June, subsides in early-mid October. Autumn in Venice is characterized by the onset on the dry season. Beginning in October, temperatures decline gradually along with the ceasing of the daily thunderstorms which typified the daily weather of the preceding summer. During this time, sunny skies and temperatures ranging from the 80s during the day to the comfortable 60s at night are the rule. Winter in Venice is very mild when compared to the rest of the United States and Canada. A typical day will features sunny skies and high temperatures in the low 70s and overnight lows the low 50s.
Cold fronts originating from continental North America will reach the area. Although this air is moderated in its descent down the Florida peninsula, it can still bring cool to cold air; these cold snaps are very short lived, but can cause overnight temperatures to drop as low as the 30s and daytime temperatures struggling to escape the 50s, with a brisk northerly wind. It is during these infrequent cold snaps that the area experiences infrequent frost. Precipitation during the winter is scant and averages no greater than 2 inches per month, most of, associated with frontal activity. Spring in Venice, is much like autumn. In mid-February, temperatures begin a gradual upward trend, with daily high temperatures above 80 dominating by early April. Like the preceding winter, conditions continue to by rather dry; this factor combined with the rise in temperatures, contributes to an elevated risk of wildfires. In a normal year, these dry conditions are brought to an end by the abrupt onset of the wet season in early June.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,764 people, 9,680 households, 5,362 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,948.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,516 housing units at an average density of 1,482.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.14% White, 0.55% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.10% of the population. There were 9,680 households out of which 7.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 30.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.76 and the average family size was 2.25. In the city, the population was spread out with 6.9% under the age of 18, 2.3% from 18 to 24, 10.2% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 57.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 69 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,536, the median income for a family was $46,898. Males had a median income of $35,271 versus $26,132 for females; the per capita income for the city was $28,220. About 3.7% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over. Venice has been listed in many publications as being the "Shark's Tooth Capital of the World", it hosts the Shark's Tooth Festival every year to celebrate the abundance of fossilized shark's teeth that can be found on its coastal shores. The following structures and areas are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Armada Road Multi-Family District Blalock House Eagle Point Historic District Edgewood Historic District Hotel Venice House at 710 Armada Road South Johnson-Schoolcraft Building Levillain-Letton House Triangle Inn Valencia Hotel and Arcade Venezia Park Historic District Venice Depot Venice Theatre – The Venice Theatre is the largest per-capita community theater in the United States with an operating budget of three million dollars Venice Symphony Venice's newspaper is the Venice Gondolie