Stone is a market town and civil parish in Staffordshire, England, 7 miles north of Stafford and 7 miles south of Stoke-on-Trent. It was an urban district council and a rural district council before becoming part of the Borough of Stafford in 1974. Stone is a growing town, according to the national census. Stone recorded a population of 12,305 in 1991, 14,555 in 2001, 16,385 in 2011. There is a Bronze Age ring ditch at Pirehill suggesting occupation in prehistoric times. Stone lies within the territory of the Iron Age Celtic tribe'the cornovii' mentioned by Ptolemy 2nd century AD in Geographia. To the northwest of Stone lies one of their hill forts which overlooks the Trent and the salt production in the region; the early history of Stone is unclear and clouded by the 12th century medieval romance concerning the murder of the Saxon princes Wulfad and Rufin by their father Wulfhere of Mercia who reputedly had his base near Darleston. The murder of Wulfad in the 7th century and his subsequent entombment under a cairn of stones is the traditional story.
More recent research points to older, though no less interesting nor tangible, possibilities regarding its name and founding. Around Stone lie several Romano British sites and it is not inconceivable that the stone remains of a bridge or milestone continuing the Roman road from Rocester to Blyth Bridge and potentially through Stone, is alluded to in the name; the settlement of Walton is ancient Brythonic. The most derivation for most places called Stone is from a prehistoric megalith, Roman milestone, a natural boulder or rock formation, or from'a place where stone was obtained' and a Keuper sandstone outcrop on the north side of Stone, long quarried for building materials, may be the topographical feature from which the place was named, it may be noted that a huge stone or erratic is recorded on Common Plot and in that respect it is unclear whether Stone Field here, one of the open-fields of Stone is'the field at Stone' or'the field with the stone'. Stone lay within the Pirehill hundred of Staffordshire named after nearby Pire Hill.
In 1251, Henry III granted Stone a market charter. The Common Plot is a large area of open and wooded common land sited just to the north of the town of Stone; the Duke of Cumberland built extensive winter fortifications and a camp here, traces of which can still be seen, during the winter of 1745/46. The purpose of the camp was to bring the Duke's army down from the freezing Staffordshire Moorlands and Peak District, where they had been seeking to stop an advance on London by a force of 6,000 Jacobite rebels; the rebels were thought to be using pack-horse routes over the high country, with the aim of reaching Derby. Stone was strategic in preventing any break-away Jacobite group going across to Wales to recruit more men there, but with winter coming on, the Jacobites decided to retreat back to Scotland. Stone Urban District was an urban district, it was based on the Stone civil parish which equates to the town of Stone. There were two amendments in parts of the Stone Rural parish in Stone Rural District were transferred in.
The district was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972, replaced with Stafford Borough Council and Stone Town Council. The latter publishes a history of Stone; the place-name's meaning is what is stated, a "stone, rock", from the Old English stān. The local story is that the town was named after the pile of stones taken from the River Trent raised on the graves of the two princes and Wulfad, killed in AD 665 by their father, King Wulfhere of Mercia, because of their conversion to Christianity. However, this legend is unlikely to be true. Wulfhere was a Christian when he became king, the story on which it is based is set by Bede in another part of the country over ten years after Wulfhere's death; the church built over these stones in 670 lasted until the 9th century before being destroyed by invading Danes. It was replaced in 1135 by the Augustinian Stone Priory, which survived until its dissolution in the reign of Henry VIII; the building collapsed in 1749 and the present church of St. Michael's was built in 1758.
All that remains of the original priory is the rib-vaulted undercroft which forms the foundations beneath Priory House, located on Lichfield Street opposite the Frank Jordan Community Centre. Stone stands in the valley of the River Trent, was an important stopping-off point for stagecoaches on one of the roads turnpiked in the 18th century. A directory for 1851 says that Stone was a lively town, a great thoroughfare for coaches and travellers…. No fewer than 38 stage coaches passed through the town daily; the main coaching route was the London to Holyhead route, via Watling Street as far as Lichfield and from Lichfield to Holyhead via the A51. To support the coaching trade Stone was a principal stopping point with many coaching inns to refresh both horses and travellers. Notable hostelries include the Crown Hotel, Crown & Anchor, Red Lion and the Black Horse Inn; the River Trent, which runs through the town, had been used for cargo-carrying vessels since Roman times but further inland smaller boats could only be used.
Seasonal fluctuations in water depth proved insurmountable, although cargo could be carried from the sea as far south as Wilden Ferry, where the River Derwent joins the Trent and increases the quantity of water onwards by road. Prior to tarmac roads, journeys overland by roads were slow and delicate wares were prone to breakages over the rough terrai
Charles II of England
Charles II was king of England and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, king of England and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim.
After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance; the major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, Duke of York, was a Catholic.
The crisis saw the birth of anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685, he was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he was succeeded by his brother James. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630, his parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII.
Charles was their second child. Their first son died within a day. England and Ireland were predominantly Anglican and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud, he was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country.
By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Setting off from Falmouth after staying at Pendennis Castle, he went first to the Isles of Scilly to Jersey, to France, where his mother was living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who falsely claimed that they had secretly married, her son, James Crofts, was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.
Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, England became a republic. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland; when negotiations with the Scot
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, his reign is now remembered for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.
Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne. In February 1689, Parliament held he had'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644; the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651.
Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.
During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy, he declined the position.
House of Lords
The House of Lords known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, though the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, S
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, was an English nobleman and politician. Although hailing from a family with strong Catholic leanings, he was raised a Protestant, he was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, held many high offices during her reign. Norfolk was the son of Earl of Surrey, he commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage, his father predeceased his grandfather, so Norfolk inherited the Dukedom of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk in 1554. He was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, Lady Elizabeth Howard, he was trusted with public office despite his family's history and leanings towards Catholicism. While still young, Norfolk was Queen's Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise.
He negotiated the February 1560 Treaty of Berwick by which the Congregation invited English assistance, after the Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in July of that year he was able to return to the court. Norfolk commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was the Principal of the commission at York in 1568 to hear evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots presented by Regent Moray, including the casket letters. Having married and lost three wives by 1567, despite having presided at the York commission, Norfolk schemed to marry Mary, Queen of Scots. William Maitland of Lethington favoured the proposed union, Mary herself consented to it, but Norfolk was unwilling to take up arms. While he delayed Elizabeth ordered his arrest in October 1569 and imprisoned him. Following his release in August 1570, after some hesitation, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England.
The plot was revealed to the queen's minister Lord Burghley, after a 1571 trial, Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at the Church of St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London. Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was restored to his sons; the title of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations to his great-great-grandson Thomas Howard. Thomas Howard's first wife was Mary FitzAlan, who after the death of her brother Henry in 1556 became heiress to the Arundel estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, she died after a year of marriage, having given birth to a son: Philip Howard, who became the 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that modern Dukes of Norfolk derive their surname of'FitzAlan-Howard' and their seat in Arundel. Though her funeral effigy is found at Framlingham church, Mary FitzAlan was not buried there but first at the church of St. Clement Danes, Temple Bar and under the direction of her grandson's will, at Arundel.
Norfolk next married another heiress, Margaret Audley, widow of Sir Henry Dudley and daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden. Margaret's children by her marriage to Norfolk were: 1st Earl of Suffolk. After Margaret's death in 1563, Norfolk married Elizabeth Leyburne, widow of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gillesland and daughter of Sir James Leyburn. Norfolk's three sons by his first two wives, Philip and William, married Anne and Elizabeth Dacre; the Dacre sisters were the daughters of Elizabeth Leyburne by her marriage to Thomas Dacre and were, stepsisters to Norfolk's sons. Following the death of his third wife, Norfolk made an effort in 1569 to marry Queen of Scots; the marriage, of course, never happened, Norfolk was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth and executed for this. Thomas Howard appears as a character in the Philippa Gregory novels The Virgin's Lover and The Other Queen, in the novel I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles. A fictionalized version of the 4th Duke of Norfolk appears as a villain, played by Christopher Eccleston, in the 1998 film Elizabeth.
Another version of the Duke is in the BBC mini-series The Virgin Queen, played by Kevin McKidd. In the Channel 4 documentary Elizabeth presented by David Starkey, the Duke is portrayed by actor John Gully. Dukes of Norfolk family tree John George Howard, a Toronto architect who claims to be related to the Duke. Edwards, Francis; the marvellous chance: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, the Ridolphi plot, 1570-1572. ISBN 0-246-64474-5. "Murdin, William: Collection of State Papers, 1571-1596". London. 1759. Papers from Norfolk's treason trial 1568-1572. Williams, Neville. Thomas Howard, Fourth duke of Norfolk. ASIN B0007DRE5Y. William Cooke Taylor, ed.. Thomas Howard: Fourth Duke of Norfolk; the Benedictine Brethren of Glendalough. ISBN 1-4254-6159-X. "Howard, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Swynnerton is a village and civil parish in Staffordshire, England. It lies in the Borough of Stafford, at the 2001 census had a population of 4,233, increasing to 4,453 at the 2011 Census. Swynnerton is listed in the Domesday Book identifying the lord in 1066 as Brothir and in 1086, in service to Robert de Stafford, the tenant-in-chief; the record shows the settlement consisted of ten villagers' households, five smallholders. Property consisted of eight ploughlands suitable for one lord's plough teams, six men's plough teams. Other resources are listed as ten acres of meadow, one league of woodland; the owner's value was estimated at £2. St Mary's Church dates back to at least the 13th century, as far back as the 11th century. Swynnerton received its charter from Edward I in 1306. During the 14th century a market used to be held every Wednesday and an annual fair was held on 15 August each year. A grand manor house used to exist until its destruction in the English Civil War by Cromwell's men, its replacement being Swynnerton Hall, built in 1725 by Francis Smith of Warwick, which still dominates the Swynnerton skyline today.
The Roman Catholic church of Our Lady adjoins the hall, built in 1868 by Gilbert Blount. Most of the houses in the village are post World War II. Nearby Cold Meece houses a British Army training area that used to be a Royal Ordnance Factory, ROF Swynnerton, it is used by the Air Training Corps and the Army Cadet Force, but is a regular training area for the British Army. Thomas Fitzherbert was an English Jesuit. Fitzherbert was born at Swynnerton, his father having died whilst he was an infant, he was as a child, the head of an important family and the first heir born at Swynnerton. Lord Stafford's family presence dates back several centuries. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is believed to have penned his famous poem, The Village Blacksmith, in Swynnerton. A member of the Fitzherbert family, keeper of the Tower of London, is buried inside St Mary's church; the one real love story in the life of George IV is that which tells of his marriage with a lady who might well have been the wife of any king. This was Maria Anne Smythe, better known as Mrs. Fitzherbert, who met the six-years junior then-Prince of Wales in 1784.
She had been married to Thomas Fitzherbert of Swynnerton until his death in 1781, which left her well provided for. Maria Fitzherbert's face was one, her eyes were peculiarly languishing, and, as she had been twice a widow, was six years his senior, she had the advantage over a less experienced lover. She was a Catholic, so by another act of Parliament any marriage with her would be illegal, yet just because of all these different objections the prince was doubly drawn to her, was willing to sacrifice the throne if he could but win her. Maria Fitzherbert died on 27 March 1837. Although the marriage was declared invalid under English civil law, Pope Pius VII declared the marriage legal. D&G Bus service number 14 calls at the church bus stop five times a day on its way to and from Hanley, Barlaston and Eccleshall and Stafford; the village pub, the Fitzherbert Arms, has two dining areas and accommodation. Eccleshall Stafford Stone Tittensor Yarnfield Swynnerton Parish Council Website Swinnerton / Swynnerton Family web pages Our Lady Parish Church web pages Website of Potteries.org - Neville Malkin's "Grand Tour" of the Potteries Retrieved Feb 2017 = Has several old pictures and historical narrative about St. Mary's Church, Swynnerton
Duke of Buckingham
Duke of Buckingham, referring to Buckingham, is a title, created several times in the peerages of England, Great Britain, the United Kingdom. There have been Earls of Buckingham and Marquesses of Buckingham; the first creation of the dukedom was on 14 September 1444, when Humphrey Stafford, 6th Earl of Stafford, was made Duke of Buckingham. On his father's side, Stafford was descended from Edmond de Stafford, summoned to Parliament as Lord Stafford in 1299; the second Baron had been created Earl of Stafford in 1351. On his mother's side, Stafford was the son of Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Buckingham, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham, youngest son of King Edward III of England. Stafford was an important supporter of the House of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses, was killed at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460; the 1st Duke of Buckingham was succeeded by his grandson, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who aided Richard III in his claiming the throne in 1483, but who led a revolt against Richard and was executed that same year.
His titles were forfeited along with the dukedom. His son, Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, was restored to the title upon Henry VII's accession to the throne in 1485, but he was executed for treason in 1521 due to his opposition to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Henry VIII's chief advisor. At this time the title became extinct; the second creation of the dukedom was in 1623 for George Villiers, a favourite of James I of England. He had been made Baron Whaddon, of Whaddon in the County of Buckingham, Viscount Villiers in 1616 Earl of Buckingham in 1617 Marquess of Buckingham in 1618 until he was created Earl of Coventry and Duke of Buckingham in 1623. Buckingham, who continued in office as chief minister into the reign of James's son, Charles I, was responsible for a policy of war against Spain and France. In 1628 he was assassinated by John Felton, a disgruntled army officer who had served under him, as he prepared an expedition to relieve the Huguenots of La Rochelle, his son, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, was a notable advisor in the reign of Charles II, along with Lord Ashley made up the Protestant axis of the famous Cabal Ministry.
He started the first foxhunt in England, The Bilsdale Hunt in 1668 and started the Sinnington Hunt in 1680. After digging for a fox above Kirkbymoorside, being too far from his home in Helmsley, North Yorkshire, he died from a chill in the house of a tenant. With his death in 1687, the title again became extinct. Several other members of the Villiers family have been elevated to the peerage. Christopher Villiers, 1st Earl of Anglesey, John Villiers, 1st Viscount Purbeck, were brothers of the first Duke of Buckingham. Edward Villiers, 1st Earl of Jersey, was the great-nephew of the first Duke of Buckingham while Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon, was the second son of the second Earl of Jersey; the third creation of the dukedom, as Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, was in 1703 for John Sheffield, 3rd Earl of Mulgrave, 1st Marquess of Normanby, a notable Tory politician of the late Stuart period, who served under Queen Anne as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council. The dukedom was created in the Peerage of England.
The full title was Duke of the County of Buckingham and of Normanby but in practice only Duke of Buckingham and Normanby was used. The duke's family descended from Sir Edmund Sheffield, second cousin of Henry VIII, who in 1547 was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Sheffield and in 1549 was killed in the streets of Norwich during Kett's Rebellion. On the death of the 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Normanby in 1735, the titles became extinct; the Sheffield family estates passed to the 2nd Duke's half-brother Charles Herbert Sheffield, the illegitimate son of the 1st Duke by Frances Stewart. He is the ancestor of the Sheffield Baronets, of Normanby; the fourth creation of the dukedom, as Duke of Buckingham and Chandos in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, was in 1822 for Richard Temple-Grenville, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham, a landowner and politician. He was the son of George Nugent Temple Grenville, 3rd Earl Temple, the son of Prime Minister George Grenville, and, created Marquess of Buckingham in the peerage of Great Britain in 1784.
The 1st Marquess of Buckingham had married Lady Mary Nugent, daughter of Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent. Mary was in 1800 created Baroness Nugent in her own right in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to her second son George. In 1788 Lord Buckingham succeeded his father-in-law as second Earl Nugent according to a special remainder in the letters patent, at the same time assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Nugent. After the 1st Marquess of Buckingham's death in 1813, his titles passed to his son Richard Temple-Grenville, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham, he married Lady Anne Eliza Brydges, the only child of James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos, assumed by Royal licence the additional surnames of Brydges-Chandos in 1799. In 1822 Lord Buckingham was created Earl Temple of Stowe, in the County of Buckingham, Marquess of Chandos and Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the earldom was created with remainder, failing male issue of his own, to the heirs male of the body of his deceased great-grandmother Hester Grenville, 1st Countess Temple, in default thereof to his granddaughter Lady Anne Eliza Mary