Baroque

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The Triumph of the Immaculate by
Paolo de Matteis

The Baroque (US: /bəˈrk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theatre, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe and Latin America.[1][verification needed]

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement.[2][3] The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, power, and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has a resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either a style or period.[4]

The Baroque era is sometimes loosely divided into three approximate phases for convenience:[5][6][7]

  • Early Baroque, c. 1590–1625
  • High Baroque, c. 1625–1660
  • Late Baroque, c. 1660–1725 or later

The term "Late Baroque" is also sometimes used synonymously with the succeeding Rococo movement.

Critical rehabilitation[edit]

The Swiss-born art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) started the rehabilitation of the word Baroque in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass", an art antithetic to Renaissance art. He did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has largely remained in critical favour. For example, the often extreme Sicilian Baroque architecture is today recognised largely due to the work of Sir Sacheverall Sitwell, whose Southern Baroque Art of 1924 was the first book to appreciate the style, followed by the more academic work of Anthony Blunt. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste.[citation needed]

In art history it has become common to recognise "Baroque" stylistic phases, characterised by energetic movement and display, in earlier art, so that Sir John Boardman describes the ancient sculpture Laocoön and His Sons as "one of the finest examples of the Hellenistic baroque",[8] and a later phase of Imperial Roman sculpture is also often called "Baroque". William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as "baroque".[9]

The term "Baroque" may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, craft, or design that are thought to have excessive ornamentation or complexity of line.

Development[edit]

The Baroque originated around 1600, several decades after the Council of Trent (1545–63), by which the Roman Catholic Church answered many questions of internal reform and formulated policy on the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed. Many[quantify] art historians see this turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and of the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci, all of whom were working (and competing for commissions) in Rome around 1600.

Aeneas Flees Burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598

The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and theatrical. Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle, and found inspiration in other artists like Correggio and Caravaggio and Federico Barocci, nowadays sometimes termed 'proto-Baroque'. Germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo. Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful: there are contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint have ousted polyphony, and orchestral colour makes a stronger appearance. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some[which?] experts in philosophy, prose style and poetry, are harder to pinpoint.

Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, the Baroque style continued in use in architecture until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century. See the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace (though in a chaste exterior) whose construction began in 1752.

St. Nicholas Church in Lesser Town in Prague was founded in 1703 under the lead of the Baroque architect Christoph Dientzenhofer.

In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque art-form. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. (See Bernini's David.)

The dryer, less dramatic and colouristic, chastened later stages of 18th century Baroque architectural style are often seen[by whom?] as a separate Late Baroque manifestation, for example in buildings by Claude Perrault. Academic characteristics in the neo-Palladian style, epitomised by William Kent, show a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within interiors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hierarchical tectonic sculptural elements, meant never to be moved from their positions, completed the wall decoration. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail.

Heinrich Wölfflin defined the Baroque as the age where the oval replaced the circle as the center of composition, where centralization replaced balance, and where colouristic and "painterly" effects began to become more prominent. Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion—the Reformation. It has been said[by whom?] that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the Papacy, like secular absolute monarchies, a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Counter-Reformation.

Whatever the truth of this interpretation, the Baroque was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps[original research?] the most important urbanistic revision.

Painting[edit]

A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre),[10] in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement.

Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. A new emphasis on the body, the theatrical and the marginal also characterized baroque artistic expression.[11] Baroque art did not really depict the life style of the people at that time; however, "closely tied to the Counter-Reformation, this style melodramatically reaffirmed the emotional depths of the Catholic faith and glorified both church and monarchy" of their power and influence.[12]

There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. The most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez.[13]

Still-life, by Josefa de Óbidos, c. 1679, Santarém, Portugal, Municipal Library

Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theatre into one grand conceit.[14]

The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo.

A rather different art developed out of northern realist traditions in 17th century Dutch Golden Age painting, which had very little religious art, and little history painting, instead playing a crucial part in developing secular genres such as still life, genre paintings of everyday scenes, and landscape painting. While the Baroque nature of Rembrandt's art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while also continuing to produce the traditional categories.

In a similar way the French classical style of painting exemplified by Poussin is often classed as Baroque, and does share many qualities of the Italian painting of the same period, although the poise and restraint derived from following classical ideas typically give it a very different overall mood.

Sculpture[edit]

In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms—they spiraled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains.

The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini (1598–1680) give highly charged characteristics of Baroque style. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful.

Bernini's Cornaro chapel[edit]

A good example of Bernini's Baroque work is his Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1645–52), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Bernini designed the entire chapel, a subsidiary space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family.

Saint Teresa, the focal point of the chapel, is a soft white marble statue surrounded by a polychromatic marble architectural framing. This structure conceals a window that lights the statue from above. Figure-groups of the Cornaro family sculpted in shallow relief inhabit opera boxes on the two side walls of the chapel. The setting places the viewer as a spectator in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and craning forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint.

St. Theresa is highly idealised and in an imaginary setting. She was a popular saint of the Catholic Reformation. She wrote of her mystical experiences for an audience of the nuns of her Carmelite Order; these writings had become popular reading among lay people interested in spirituality. In her writings, she described the love of God as piercing her heart like a burning arrow. Bernini materialises this by placing St. Theresa on a butt while a Cupid figure holds a golden arrow made of metal and smiles down at her. The angelic figure is not preparing to plunge the arrow into her heart—rather, he has withdrawn it. St. Theresa's face reflects not the anticipation of ecstasy, but her current fulfillment.

This work is widely considered a masterpiece of the Baroque, although the mix of religious and erotic imagery (faithful to St. Teresa's own written account) may raise modern eyebrows. However, Bernini was a devout Catholic and was not attempting to satirize the experience of a chaste nun. Rather, he aimed to portray religious experience as an intensely physical one. Theresa described her bodily reaction to spiritual enlightenment in a language of ecstasy used by many mystics, and Bernini's depiction is earnest.

The Cornaro family promotes itself discreetly in this chapel. They are represented visually, but are placed on the sides of the chapel, witnessing the event from balconies. As in an opera house, the Cornaro have a privileged position in respect to the viewer, in their private reserve, closer to the saint; the viewer, however, has a better view from the front. They attach their name to the chapel, but St. Theresa is the focus. It is a private chapel in the sense that no one could say mass on the altar beneath the statue (in the 17th century and probably through the 19th) without permission from the family, but the only thing that divides the viewer from the image is the altar rail. The spectacle functions both as a demonstration of mysticism and as a piece of family pride.

Architecture[edit]

The main altar of St. John's Co-Cathedral, Malta

In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' colour effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The other Baroque innovation in worldly interiors was the state apartment, a sequence of increasingly rich interiors that culminated in a presence chamber or throne room or a state bedroom. The sequence of monumental stairs followed by a state apartment was copied in smaller scale everywhere in aristocratic dwellings of any pretensions.[citation needed]

Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (see, e.g., Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger, Dresden), Austria and Russia (see, e.g., Peterhof). In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, from c. 1660 to c. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took cues from Baroque garden plans. In Sicily, Baroque developed new shapes and themes as in Noto, Ragusa and Acireale "Basilica di San Sebastiano".[citation needed]

Another example of Baroque architecture is the Cathedral of Morelia, in Michoacán, Mexico. Built in the 17th century by Vincenzo Barrochio, it is one of the many Baroque cathedrals in Mexico.[15] Baroque churches built during the Spanish period are also seen in other former colonies of Spain.[16]

Francis Ching described Baroque architecture as "a style of architecture originating in Italy in the early 17th century and variously prevalent in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, characterised by free and sculptural use of the classical orders and ornament, dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces, and the dramatic combined effects of architecture, sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts."[17]

Theatre[edit]

18th-century painting of the Royal Theatre of Turin

In theatre, the elaborate conceits, multiplicity of plot turns and a variety of situations characteristic of Mannerism, in Shakespeare's tragedies for instance, were superseded by opera, which drew together all the arts into a unified whole.

Theatre evolved in the Baroque era and became a multimedia experience, starting with the actual architectural space. In fact, much of the technology used in current Broadway or commercial plays was invented and developed during this era. The stage could change from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in a matter of seconds. The entire space became a framed selected area that only allows the users to see a specific action, hiding all the machinery and technology—mostly ropes and pulleys.

This technology affected the content of the narrated or performed pieces, practicing at its best the Deus ex Machina solution. Gods were finally able to come down—literally—from the heavens and rescue the hero in the most extreme and dangerous, even absurd situations.

The term Theatrum Mundi—the world is a stage—was also created. The social and political realm in the real world is manipulated in exactly the same way the actor and the machines are presenting and limiting what is being presented on stage, hiding selectively all the machinery that makes the actions happen.

The films Vatel and Farinelli give a good idea of the style of productions of the Baroque period. The American musician William Christie and Les Arts Florissants have performed extensive research on all the French Baroque Opera, performing pieces from Charpentier and Lully, among others that are extremely faithful to the original 17th-century creations.

England[edit]

The influence of the Renaissance was also very late in England, and Baroque theatre is only partly a useful concept here, for example in discussing Restoration comedy. There was an 18-year break when the London theatres were closed during the English Civil War and English Commonwealth until the Restoration of Charles II in 1660.

Germany[edit]

German theatre in the 17th century lacked major contributions. The best known playwright was Andreas Gryphius, who used the Jesuit model of the Dutch Joost van den Vondel and Pierre Corneille. There was also Johannes Velten who combined the traditions of the English comedians and the commedia del'arte with the classic theatre of Corneille and Molière. His touring company was perhaps the most significant and important of the 17th century.

Spain[edit]

The Baroque had a Catholic and conservative character in Spain, following an Italian literary models during the Renaissance.[18] The Hispanic Baroque theatre aimed for a public content with an ideal reality that manifested fundamental three sentiments: Catholic religion, monarchist and national pride and honour originating from the chivalric, knightly world.[19]

Two periods are known in the Baroque Spanish theatre, with the division occurring in 1630. The first period is represented chiefly by Lope de Vega, but also by Tirso de Molina, Gaspar Aguilar, Guillén de Castro, Antonio Mira de Amescua, Luis Vélez de Guevara, Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, Diego Jiménez de Enciso, Luis Belmonte Bermúdez, Felipe Godínez, Luis Quiñones de Benavente or Juan Pérez de Montalbán. The second period is represented by Pedro Calderón de la Barca and fellow dramatists Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza, Álvaro Cubillo de Aragón, Jerónimo de Cáncer, Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla, Juan de Matos Fragoso, Antonio Coello y Ochoa, Agustín Moreto, and Francisco Bances Candamo.[20] These classifications are loose because each author had his own way and could occasionally adhere himself to the formula established by Lope. It may even be that the "manner" of Lope was more liberal and structured than Calderón's.[21]

Lope de Vega introduced through his Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (1609) the new comedy. He established a new dramatic formula that broke the three Aristotle unities of the Italian school of poetry (action, time and place) and a fourth unity of Aristotle which is about style, mixing of tragic and comic elements showing different types of verses and stanzas upon what is represented.[22] Although Lope has a great knowledge of the plastic arts, he did not use it during the major part of his career nor in theatre or scenography. The Lope's comedy granted a second role to the visual aspects of the theatrical representation.[23]

Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and Calderón were the most important play writers in Golden Era Spain. Their works, known for their subtle intelligence and profound comprehension of a person's humanity, could be considered a bridge between Lope's primitive comedy and the more elaborate comedy of Calderón. Tirso de Molina is best known for two works, The Convicted Suspicions and The Trickster of Seville, one of the first versions of the Don Juan myth.[24]

Upon his arrival to Madrid, Cosimo Lotti brought to the Spanish court the most advanced theatrical techniques of Europe. His techniques and mechanic knowledge were applied in palace exhibitions called "Fiestas" and in lavish exhibitions of rivers or artificial fountains called "Naumaquias". He was in charge of styling the Gardens of Buen Retiro, of Zarzuela and of Aranjuez and the construction of the theatrical building of Coliseo del Buen Retiro.[25] Lope's formulas begins with a verse that it unbefitting of the palace theatre foundation and the birth of new concepts that begun the careers of some play writers like Calderón de la Barca. Marking the principal innovations of the New Lopesian Comedy, Calderón's style marked many differences, with a great deal of constructive care and attention to his internal structure. Calderón's work is in formal perfection and a very lyric and symbolic language. Liberty, vitality and openness of Lope gave a step to Calderón's intellectual reflection and formal precision. In his comedy it reflected his ideological and doctrine intentions in above the passion and the action, the work of Autos sacramentales achieved high ranks.[26] The genre of Comedia is political, multi-artistic and in a sense hybrid. The poetic text interweaved with Medias and resources originating from architecture, music and painting freeing the deception that is in the Lopesian comedy was made up from the lack of scenery and engaging the dialogue of action.[27]

Literature[edit]

The most important English authors of the 17th century were playwright William Shakespeare and epic poet John Milton.

In France it was a brilliant period known as Grand Siècle. Molière, Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine wrote famous plays while Jean de La Fontaine and Charles Perrault wrote fables.

Baroque was the greatest era in the history of Spanish literature which is called Siglo de Oro with playwrights Pedro Calderon de la Barca and Lope de Vega, poet Juana Inés de la Cruz as well as Miguel de Cervantes who is regarded as the first novelist.

Philosophy[edit]

René Descartes, John Locke, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Baruch Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes, Francis Bacon, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton are thinkers of the 17th century.

Music[edit]

The term Baroque is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that of Baroque art, but usually encompasses a slightly later period.

It is a still-debated question as to what extent Baroque music shares aesthetic principles with the visual and literary arts of the Baroque period. A fairly clear, shared element is a love of ornamentation, and it is perhaps significant that the role of ornament was greatly diminished in both music and architecture as the Baroque gave way to the Classical period.[citation needed]

The application of the term "Baroque" to music is a relatively recent development, although it has recently been pointed out that the first use of the word "baroque" in criticism of any of the arts related to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734. The critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque," complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.[28]

However this was an isolated reference,[citation needed] and consistent use of the term as a period designator was only begun in 1919, by Curt Sachs,[29] and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English (in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer).[28]

Many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia. Forms such as the sonata, cantata and oratorio flourished. Also, opera was born out of the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody, who attempted to recreate the theatrical arts of the Ancient Greeks. An important technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass, a repeated bass line. Dido's Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique.[30]

Composers and examples[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Brooch depicting an African, based around a naturally irregular baroque pearl.

The French word baroque may be derived from the Portuguese word "barroco" or Spanish "barrueco", both of which refer to a "rough or imperfect pearl", though whether it entered those languages via Latin, Arabic, or some other source is uncertain.[31] It is also yields the Italian "barocco" and modern Spanish "barroco", German "Barock", Dutch "Barok", and so on. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica 11th edition thought the term was derived from the Spanish barrueco, a large, irregularly-shaped pearl, and that it had for a time been confined to the craft of the jeweller.[32] Others derive it from the mnemonic term "Baroco", a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica.[33] The Latin root can be found in bis-roca.[34]

In informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is "elaborate", with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries.

The word "Baroque", like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by later critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th and early 18th centuries. It is a French transliteration of the Portuguese phrase "pérola barroca", which means "irregular pearl", and natural pearls that deviate from the usual, regular forms so they do not have an axis of rotation are known as "baroque pearls".[35]

The term "Baroque" was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which sharply contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, which was printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.[36]

Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style: Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Federico Barocci.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fargis, Paul (1998). The New York Public Library Desk Reference (third ed.). New York: Macmillan General Reference. p. 262. ISBN 0-02-862169-7. 
  2. ^ Hughes, J. Quentin (1953). The Influence of Italian Mannerism Upon Maltese Architecture. Melitensiawath. Retrieved 8 July 2016. pp. 104–110.
  3. ^ Helen Gardner, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art Through the Ages (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2005), p. 516.
  4. ^ Helen Hills (ed), Rethinking the Baroque (Farnham (Surrey) and Burlington (Vermont): Ashgate Publishing, 2011):[page needed].
  5. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2011
  6. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Western painting". Britannica.com. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Shearer West (ed.) The Bulfinch Guide to Art History: A Comprehensive Survey and Dictionary of Western Art and Architecture. Bullfinch 1996. ISBN 0-8212-2137-X
  8. ^ Boardman, John ed., The Oxford History of Classical Art, 1993, OUP, ISBN 0-19-814386-9
  9. ^ Watson W. (1974), Style in the Arts of China, p. 34, 1974, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-021863-7
  10. ^ Peter Paul Rubens The Life of Marie de' Medici Archived 14 September 2003 at the Wayback Machine..
  11. ^ Giardino, Alessandro (2017). Corporeality and Performativity in Baroque Naples. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books Press. p. [page needed]. ISBN 1-4985-6398-8. 
  12. ^ Hunt, Martin, Rosenwein, and Smith (2010). The Making of the West (third ed.). Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's. pp. 469
  13. ^ González de Zarate, J. M. (1985). Las claves emblemáticas en la lectura del retrato barroco. Goya: Revista de Arte, (187–188), 53–62.
  14. ^ "Cornaro Chapel" at Bogelwood.com.
  15. ^ Baird, Joseph Armstrong (1962). The Churches of Mexico, 1530–1810. University of California Press. 
  16. ^ "Spanish Architecture in the Baroque Period". Boundless Art History. Boundless. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  17. ^ Francis DK Ching, A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, p. 133
  18. ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, pp. 1–2
  19. ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, p. 8.
  20. ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, p. 13
  21. ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, p. 91
  22. ^ Lope de Vega, 2010, Comedias: El Remedio en la Desdicha. El Mejor Alcalde El Rey, pp. 446–447
  23. ^ Amadei-Pulice, 1990, María Alicia (1990). Calderón y el barroco: exaltación y engaño de los sentidos. John Benjamins Publishing Company, p. 6
  24. ^ Wilson, Edward M.; Moir, Duncan (1992). Historia de la literatura española: Siglo De Oro: Teatro (1492–1700). Editorial Ariel, pp. 155–158
  25. ^ Amadei-Pulice, 1990, María Alicia (1990). Calderón y el barroco: exaltación y engaño de los sentidos. John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 26–27
  26. ^ Molina Jiménez, María Belén (2008). El teatro musical de Calderón de la Barca: Análisis textual. EDITUM, p. 56
  27. ^ Amadei-Pulice, 1990, María Alicia (1990). Calderón y el barroco: exaltación y engaño de los sentidos. John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 6–9
  28. ^ a b Palisca 2001.
  29. ^ Sachs, Curt (1919). Barockmusik [Baroque Music]. Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters (in German). 26. Leipzig: Edition Peters. pp. 7–15. 
  30. ^ We asked an expert to explain why Dido's Lament breaks our heart every single time | Purcell – Classic FM
  31. ^ OED Online. Accessed 6 June 2008.
  32. ^ "Baroque". Encyclopædia Britannica 1911. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  33. ^ Panofsky, Erwin (1995). "Three Essays on Style". The MIT Press: 19.  |contribution= ignored (help)
  34. ^ "Baroque". Vocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana di Ottorino Pianigiani. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  35. ^ Diogo Mayo (15 September 1967). "Scale Regia". Scalaregia.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  36. ^ Claude V. Palisca, "Baroque". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).

References[edit]

  • Andersen, Liselotte. 1969. "Baroque and Rococo Art", New York: H. N. Abrams.
  • Boucher, Bruce, Italian Baroque Sculpture, 1998, Thames & Hudson (World of Art), ISBN 0500203075
  • Buci-Glucksmann, Christine. 1994. Baroque Reason: The Aesthetics of Modernity. Sage.
  • Downes, Kerry, "Baroque", Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, Web. 23 Oct. 2017, subscription required
  • Gardner, Helen, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya. 2005. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, 12th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-15-505090-7 (hardcover)
  • Martin, John Rupert, Baroque, 1977 (1991 Penguin edn used), Allen Lane/Pelican/Penguin/Viking
  • Palisca, Claude V. (1991) [1961]. Baroque Music. Prentice Hall History of Music (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-058496-7. OCLC 318382784. 
  • Palisca, Claude V. (2001),   Missing or empty |title= (help)[full citation needed]
  • Wakefield, Steve. 2004. Carpentier's Baroque Fiction: Returning Medusa's Gaze. Colección Támesis. Serie A, Monografías 208. Rochester, NY: Tamesis. ISBN 1-85566-107-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]