Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as The City or Town to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide, the locality is home to the Parliament of South Australia and many key state government offices. Due to the construction of new apartments in the city. Before the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, the colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, and the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light, Kaurna numbers were significantly reduced by at least two widespread epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River. When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people, british Captain Matthew Flinders, along with French Captain Nicolas Baudin, charted the southeast coast of Australia, where Adelaide is located.
Flinders named Mount Lofty in 1802, but provided little information on Adelaide itself, charles Sturt explored the Murray and wrote a favourable reflection on what he saw. Colonel William Light is credited largely with settling and laying out the Adelaide region, Adelaide was not as badly effected by the 1860s economic depression of Australia as other gold rush cities like Sydney and Melbourne, allowing it to prosper. Historian F. W. Crowley noted that the city was full of elite upper class citizens which provided a stark contrast of the poverty of the labour areas. Due to its historic puritan wealth during the 20th century, the city retains a portion of Victorian architecture. Adelaide is separated from its metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides. Surrounding this central business district are a number of medium to low density apartments, townhouses. These squares occupy 32 of the 700 numbered town acre allotments on Lights plan, All east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street, except for North and South terraces.
They alternate between being wide and narrow,99 and 66 feet, except for the central Grote and Wakefield which are extra-wide,132 feet, along with the surrounding four terraces. The Street Naming Committee comprised, All members of the committee had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre, Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street, the naming of the streets was completed on 23 May 1837 and gazetted on 3 June. It has been held since 2004 by Kate Ellis of the Labor party, in the South Australian House of Assembly, Adelaide is within the Electoral district of Adelaide. Since the March 2010 state election, the seat has held by Rachel Sanderson of the Liberal party
McLaren Vale is a wine region approximately 35 km south of Adelaide in South Australia. It is internationally renowned for the wines it produces, the region was named after either David McLaren, the Colonial Manager of the South Australia Company or John McLaren who surveyed the area in 1839. Among the first settlers to the region in late 1839, were two English farmers from Devon, William Colton and Charles Thomas Hewett, William Colton established the Daringa Farm and Charles Thomas Hewett established Oxenberry Farm. Both men would be prominent in the days of McLaren Vale. Grapes were first planted in the region in 1838 and some more than 100 years old are still producing. Today there are more than 88 cellar doors in McLaren Vale, the majority are small family-run operations and boutique wineries. In February 2011, South Australian Premier Mike Rann announced that legislation would be introduced to protect the unique heritage of the Barossa Valley. Premier Rann said, Barossa and McLaren Vale food and wine are key icons of South Australia and we must never allow the Barossa or McLaren Vale to become suburbs of Adelaide.
Legislation to protect the character of McLaren Vale was passed by the South Australian Parliament in 2012, McLaren Vale has a Mediterranean climate with four clear seasons. With a dry summer, the area has dry weather from December through to March or April. It is gentle with long days and short cool nights. Winter rains of 580–700 mm per annum flow into a fresh spring, the region rarely experiences frost or drought due to its close proximity to the sea. The region is bounded to the south by the Sellicks Hill Range and it extends east to the historic town of Clarendon and the area around the Mount Bold Reservoir. To the north it reaches to Reynella, named after the first winemaker in the area John Reynell, the McLaren Vale region is well known for its dry red wines, especially those made from Shiraz and Mourvedre. Cabernet Sauvignon and Petit Verdot are grown, white wine varieties in the region include Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, and Riesling. In recent years some wineries have begun using less common such as Sangiovese, Barbera, Vermentino.
Notable for producing Shiraz, the grape is by far the most important variety for the region, accounting for about 50% of the total crush. The areas thin soils, limited water and warm summers harness Shiraz’s natural vigor and produce intense flavored fruit, McLaren Vale wines are distinguished by their ripeness, structure and complexity
For other similarly named people, see William Light Colonel William Light was a British military officer and the first Surveyor-General of the Colony of South Australia. He is famous for choosing the site of the capital and for designing the layout of its streets and parks – in the Adelaide city centre. Light was born in Kuala Kedah, Kedah and he lived in Penang until the age of six, when he was sent to England to be educated. Light was the second son of Captain Francis Light, the Superintendent of Penang, and Martina Rozells, who was of Portuguese or French. At the age of 13, Light volunteered for the Royal Navy and he travelled through Europe and India before joining the 4th Dragoons regiment of the British Army in 1808. Light married E. Perois in Ireland in 1821, in 1823 he returned to Spain to fight the French invasion as a lieutenant colonel in the Spanish Army. He was badly wounded and spent the six years travelling Europe. Between 1830 and 1835 he helped Mohammad Ali, founder of modern Egypt, here Light met John Hindmarsh, who at that time served under him and succeeded him as captain of the Nile.
Light was initially considered for the position of Governor of South Australia – this was, instead, in 1835, Light was appointed Surveyor-General of the new colony. He sailed for South Australia with his mistress Maria Gandy, there Light selected the location and laid out the street plan of the city of Adelaide. The Adelaide city centre was planned by Light in a grid fashion, one of the reasons he chose the location was because clouds drifting over the nearby Adelaide Hills would provide rainfall. This was an indicator of good conditions for agriculture. When Light was designing Adelaide, his plans included surrounding the city with 1,700 acres of parklands and this would provide clean fresh air throughout Adelaide. European cities often had polluted stale air and Light wanted to avoid this occurring in Adelaide and it is sometimes claimed that Light designed the city of Christchurch in New Zealand. However, this is not possible, Light died in Adelaide in 1839, Lights role in founding and designing the South Australian capital is remembered as Lights Vision, and commemorated with a statue on Montefiore Hill, of Light pointing to the City of Adelaide below.
My enemies however, by disputing their validity in every particular, have me the good service of fixing the whole of the responsibility upon me. I am perfectly willing to bear it, and I leave it to posterity and not to them, legend has it that this was the spot from which Light chose the site for the city. However, there is evidence that the first place could have been near the corner of North Terrace and West Terrace, in December 1837 Light led an exploration from Adelaide and naming the Barossa Valley
Angaston, South Australia
Angaston is a town on the eastern side of the Barossa Valley in South Australia,77 km northeast of Adelaide. Angaston is in the Barossa Council local government area, the electoral district of Schubert. Angaston was the terminus of the Barossa Valley railway line which was built in 1911, the railway has now closed and been replaced by a bike path from Nuriootpa. Sir John Keith Angas pastoralist Hugh Thomas Moffitt Angwin engineer and public servant William Hague storekeeper and politician Brian Hurn, the race started in Nuriootpa and was won by Simon Gerrans of Orica-GreenEDGE
Barossa Valley (wine)
The Barossa Valley wine region is one of Australias oldest wine regions. Located in South Australia, the Barossa Valley is about 56 km northeast of the city of Adelaide, the hot continental climate of the region promoted the production of very ripe grapes that was the linchpin of the early Australian fortified wine industry. During this period the name Barossa Valley rarely appeared on wine labels and this led to a renaissance in the Barossa Valley which catapulted the region to the forefront of the Australian wine industry. Many of Australias largest and most notable wineries are either headquartered or own extensive holdings in the Barossa Valley and these include such wineries as Penfolds, Peter Lehmann, Orlando Wines, Wolf Blass and Yalumba. Other grape varieties grown in the Barossa Valley include Grenache, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, in February 2011, South Australian Premier Mike Rann announced that special legislation would be introduced to protect the unique heritage of the Barossa Valley and McLaren Vale.
Premier Rann said, Barossa and McLaren Vale food and wine are key icons of South Australia and we must never allow the Barossa or McLaren Vale to become suburbs of Adelaide. The Character Preservation Act 2012 was subsequently passed by the South Australian Parliament, in December 1837 an expedition led Colonel William Light and was surveyed in 1839 by his assistant surveyor, William Jacob, as part of a wider survey of the Barossa region. Light chose the name in memory of the British victory over the French in the Battle of Barrosa, the name Barossa was registered in error, due to a clerical error in transcribing the name Barrosa. In 1841, the South Australian Company chartered three ships to Silesia to offer refuge and land in the Barossa Valley to any willing to volunteer to help establish the colony. Nearly 500 families accepted the offer and settled in the Barossa Valley, after trying many types of agricultural crops, the settlers found the warm fertile valley to be ideally suited for viticulture.
The early focus of the Barossa Valley wine industry was on the production of Riesling, the hot valley floor contributed to a very ripe, alcoholic wine that would often turn brown. These port-style wines would become the center of the Barossa Valley wine industry for decades to come and this was partly due to the extensive association that the Barossa Valley had with Shiraz, including vast old vines plantings that were several decades old. During this period Shiraz was considered a common variety that was not as fashionable as the prestigious Cabernet Sauvignon that was popular in the worlds wine market. Most of the grapes produced in the Barossa Valley during this time was used as part of anonymous blends with the name Barossa Valley rarely appearing on wine labels. By the late 20th century, the reputation of the Barossa Valley started to change as several small boutique varieties began earning critical acclaim for their Barossa Valley wines. This style of big, full bodied Shiraz with rich and spice notes became synonymous not only the Barossa Valley.
In the words of Master of Wine Jancis Robinson, the Barossa Valley became Australias quintessential wine region, in general the Barossa Valley has a continental climate but its series of transverse valleys and sloping hills does produce a wide range of mesoclimates. Temperatures vary from very warm on the floors to progressively cooler at higher altitudes on the hillsides
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages, before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. Thus, the number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most often subscribe to their own national identities, the German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic language of the people.
It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German, used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of a German emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century. The Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni and it was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects, while in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci, originally with a meaning foreigner, the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century, the Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages.
Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War and these states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe, the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe, during antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, in Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would become an influence in the development of a common German identity
German Australians are Australian citizens of ethnic German ancestry. The German community constitute one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia and it is the sixth most identified ancestry in Australia behind Australian, Irish and Italian. The 2011 Census counted 108,000 Australian residents who were born in Germany, however,898,700 persons identified themselves as having German ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry. This number does not include people of German ancestry who selected their ancestry as simply Australian, the 2001 census recorded 103,010 German-born in Australia, although this excludes persons of German ethnicity and culture born elsewhere, such as the Netherlands and Romania. In December 2001, the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs estimated that there were 15,000 Australian citizens resident in Germany, according to the 2001 Census, the Germany-born are more likely than Australians as a whole to live in South Australia and Victoria. They are likely to live in rural and regional areas.
It is probable their German Australian children share this settlement pattern, in 2001, the German language was spoken at home by 76,400 persons in Australia. German is the eighth most widely spoken language in the country after English, Italian, Arabic, Spanish, Germans have been in Australia since the commencement of European settlement in 1788. At least seventy-three Germans arrived in Australia as convicts, Germans formed the largest non-English-speaking group up to the 20th century. Forty-Eighters is a term for those who participated in or supported the European Revolutions of 1848, many emigrated as a result of those revolutions. In particular, following the failure of the March Revolution in Germany. Many Germans had emigrated to Australia to flee the rise of militarism, by 1900, Germans were the fourth-largest European ethnic group on the continent, behind the English and Scots. By 1914, the number of German-Australians was estimated at approximately 100,000, during both World Wars Germans were considered an enemy within and a number were interned or deported – or both.
The persecution of German Australians included the closure of German schools, the banning of the German language in government schools, to avoid persecution and/or to demonstrate that they commit themselves to their new home, many German Australians changed their names into Anglicised or Francophone variants. After the Second World War, Australia received an influx of ethnic German displaced persons who were a significant proportion of Australias post war immigrants. A number of German scientists were recruited soon after the War through the ESTEA scheme, in the 1950s and 1960s, German immigration continued under assisted migration programs promoted by the Australian Government. By July 2000, Germany was the fifth most common birthplace for settler arrivals in Australia after United Kingdom, Italy, by 1991, there were 112,000 German-born persons in Australia. Australia has long been a destination for German backpacker tourists and students
Many in the county today continue to assert a distinct identity separate from or in addition to English or British identities. Cornish identity has been adopted by migrants into Cornwall, as well as by emigrant and descendant communities from Cornwall, although not included as an explicit option in the UK census, the numbers of those claiming Cornish ethnic and national identity are officially recognised and recorded. The name Cornwall and its demonym Cornish are derived from the Celtic Cornovii tribe, the Anglo-Saxon invasion and settlement of Britain in the 5th to 6th centuries pushed Celtic culture and some Celtic peoples to the northern and western fringes of Britain. The Cornish people, who shared the Brythonic language with the Welsh, the Battle of Deorham between the Britons and Anglo-Saxons is thought to have resulted in a loss of landlinks with the people of Wales. The Cornish people and their Brythonic Cornish language experienced a process of anglicisation and attrition during the Medieval, by the 18th century, and following the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Cornish language and identity had faded, replaced by the English language and British identity.
A Celtic revival during the early-20th century enabled a cultural self-consciousness in Cornwall that revitalised the Cornish language, in the 2011 census, the population of Cornwall, including the Isles of Scilly was estimated to be 532,300. Weighting of the 2001 Census data gives a figure of 154,791 people with Cornish ethnicity living in Cornwall, the Cornish have been described as a special case in England, with an ethnic rather than regional identity. The British are the citizens of the United Kingdom, a people who by convention consist of four national groups, another international rugby union player, Josh Matavesi, describes himself as Cornish-Fijian and Cornish not English. A survey by Plymouth University in 2000 found that 30% of children in Cornwall felt Cornish, a 2004 survey on national identity by the finance firm Morgan Stanley found that 44% of respondents in Cornwall saw themselves as Cornish rather than British or English. A2008 study by the University of Edinburgh of 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren in Cornwall found that 58% of respondents felt themselves to be either ‘Fairly’ or ‘Very much’ Cornish, the other 42% may be the result of in-migration to the area during the second half of the twentieth century.
A2010 study by the University of Exeter into the meaning of contemporary Cornish identity across Cornwall found that there was a west-east distance decay in the strength of the Cornish identity. The study was conducted amongst the community as they were deemed to be the socio-professional group most objectively representative of Cornishness. All participants categorised themselves as Cornish and identified Cornish as their ethnic group orientation. Those in the west primarily thought of themselves as Cornish and British/Celtic, all participants in West Cornwall who identified as Cornish and not English described people in East Cornwall, without hesitation, as equally Cornish as themselves. Those who identified as Cornish and English stressed the primacy of their Cornishness, ancestry was seen as the most important criterion for being categorised as Cornish, above place of birth or growing up in Cornwall. This study supports a 1988 study by Mary McArthur that had found that the meanings of Cornishness varied substantially, both studies observed that the Cornish were less materialistic than the English.
The Cornish generally saw the English, or city people, as being friendly and more aggressively self-promoting. The Cornish saw themselves as friendly and caring, a campaign for the inclusion of a Cornish tick-box in the nationality section of the 2011 census failed to win the support of parliament in 2009
Barossa Valley Way
The Barossa Valley Way is the main road linking most of the major towns of the Barossa Valley in South Australia. It is designated as state route B19 for its entire length and it is 34 km long, roughly following the North Para River. Route B19 starts at the junction of Main North Road and Gawler bypass road at the end of Gawler. It proceeds into Gawler along the Adelaide Road, over the bridge across the South Para River. Route B19 turns right onto the Barossa Valley Way in the centre of the town, the Barossa Valley Way passes through Sandy Creek, Rowland Flat and Nuriootpa, where it crosses the North Para River and meets the Sturt Highway. The route is predominantly on the floor, with wineries. Australian Roads portal Highways in Australia List of highways in South Australia Barossa Valley
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it
Time in Australia
Australia uses three main time zones, Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time. Australias external territories observe different time zones, Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Dominions adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each city or town was free to determine its local time. Daylight saving time is used in South Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania, and it is not currently used in Western Australia, Queensland or the Northern Territory. The standardization of time in Australia began in 1892, when surveyors from the six Dominions in Australia met in Melbourne for the Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors, the delegates accepted the recommendation of the 1884 International Meridian Conference to adopt Greenwich Mean Time as the basis for standard time. The Dominions enacted time zone legislation, which took effect in February 1895.
The clocks were set ahead of GMT by eight hours in Western Australia, by nine hours in South Australia, and by 10 hours in Queensland, New South Wales, the three time zones became known as Eastern Standard Time, Central Standard Time, and Western Standard Time. Broken Hill in the far west of New South Wales adopted Central Standard Time due to it being connected by rail to Adelaide but not Sydney at the time. In May 1899, South Australia advanced Central Standard Time by thirty minutes, in doing so, South Australia adopted a time meridian located outside its boundaries – another departure from international convention. Attempts to correct these oddities in 1986 and 1994 were rejected, when the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and placed under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, that Territory kept Central Standard Time. Likewise, when the ACT was broken off from New South Wales, Australia has kept a version of the UTC atomic time scale since the 1990s, but Greenwich Mean Time remained the formal basis for the standard times of all of the states through 2005.
All states have adopted the UTC standard, starting on 1 September 2005, such instruments may be valid for only the current year, and so this section generally only refers to the legislation. In New South Wales and Western Australia, the starting and ending dates, during World War I and World War II all states and territories used daylight saving time. In 1968 Tasmania became the first state in peacetime to use DST, followed in 1971 by New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not adopt it. Queensland and Western Australia have occasionally used DST during the past 40 years during trial periods. The main DST zones are the following, Central Daylight Saving Time – UTC+10,30, in South Australia Eastern Daylight Saving Time – UTC+11, in New South Wales, the ACT, and Tasmania. During the usual periods of DST, the three time zones in Australia become five zones
Moculta, South Australia
At the 2006 census, Moculta shared a population of 384 with parts of the neighbouring localities of Angaston and Truro. The earliest settlers in the area were English and Irish migrants, german migrants came to the area from 1853. They built both the Gruenberg and Gnadenberg Lutheran churches, the township of Moculta itself was surveyed in 1865 and occupied soon after. The locality of Grünberg was renamed to Karalta as a consequence of the move to rename names of enemy origin during World War I and it is now included in Moculta and Penrice Gnadenberg is now included in Moculta