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Barque

A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel with three or more masts having the fore- and mainmasts rigged square and only the mizzen rigged fore and aft. Sometimes, the mizzen is only fore-and-aft rigged, bearing a square-rigged sail above; the word "barque" entered English via French, which in turn came from the Latin barca by way of Occitan, Spanish, or Italian. The Latin barca may stem from Celtic Greek baris", a term for an Egyptian boat; the Oxford English Dictionary, considers the latter improbable. The word barc appears to have come from Celtic languages; the form adopted by English from Irish, was "bark", while that adopted by Latin as barca early, which gave rise to the French barge and barque. In Latin and Italian, the term barca refers to a small boat, not a full-sized ship. French influence in England led to the use in English of both words, although their meanings now are not the same. Well before the 19th century, a barge had become interpreted as a small vessel of coastal or inland waters.

Somewhat a bark became a sailing vessel of a distinctive rig as detailed below. In Britain, by the mid-19th century, the spelling had taken on the French form of barque. Although Francis Bacon used this form of the word as early as 1592, Shakespeare still used the spelling "barke" in Sonnet 116 in 1609. Throughout the period of sail, the word was used as a shortening of the barca-longa of the Mediterranean Sea; the usual convention is that spelling barque refers to a ship and bark to tree hide, to distinguish the homophones."Barcarole" in music shares the same etymology, being a folk song sung by Venetian gondolier and derived from barca - "boat" in Italian. In the 18th century, the British Royal Navy used the term bark for a nondescript vessel that did not fit any of its usual categories. Thus, when the British admiralty purchased a collier for use by James Cook in his journey of exploration, she was registered as HM Bark Endeavour to distinguish her from another Endeavour, a sloop in service at the time.

She happened to be a ship-rigged sailing vessel with a plain bluff bow and a full stern with windows. William Falconer's Dictionary of the Marine defined "bark", as "A general name given to small ships: it is however peculiarly appropriated by seamen to those which carry three masts without a mizzen topsail. Our Northern Mariners, who are trained in the coal-trade, apply this distinction to a broad-sterned ship, which carries no ornamental figure on the stem or prow."The UK's National Archives state that a paper document surviving from the 16th century in the Cheshire and Chester Archives and Local Studies Service, notes the names of Robert Ratclyfe, owner of the bark "Sunday" and 10 mariners appointed to serve under Rt. Hon. the Earl of Sussex, Lord Deputy of Ireland. By the end of the 18th century, the term barque came to refer to any vessel with a particular type of sail-plan; this comprises three masts, fore-and-aft sails on the aftermost mast and square sails on all other masts. Barques were the workhorse of the golden age of sail in the mid-19th century as they attained passages that nearly matched full-rigged ships, but could operate with smaller crews.

The advantage of these rigs was that they needed smaller crews than a comparable full-rigged ship or brig-rigged vessel, as fewer of the labour-intensive square sails were used, the rig itself is cheaper. Conversely, the ship rig tended to be retained for training vessels where the larger the crew, the more seamen were trained. Another advantage is that a barque can outperform a schooner or barkentine, is both easier to handle and better at going to windward than a full-rigged ship. While a full-rigged ship is the best runner available, while fore-and-aft rigged vessels are the best at going to windward, the barque is the best compromise, combines the best elements of these two. Most ocean-going windjammers were four-masted barques, since the four-masted barque is considered the most efficient rig available because of its ease of handling, small need of manpower, good running capabilities, good capabilities of rising toward wind; the main mast was the tallest. The four-masted barque can be handled with a small crew—at minimum, 10—and while the usual crew was around 30 half of them could be apprentices.

Today many sailing-school ships are barques. A well-preserved example of a commercial barque is the Pommern, the only windjammer in original condition, its home is in Mariehamn outside the Åland maritime museum. The wooden barque Sigyn, built in Gothenburg 1887, is now a museum ship in Turku; the wooden whaling barque Charles W. Morgan, launched 1841, taken out of service 1921, is now a museum ship at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut; the Charles W. Morgan has been refit and is sailing the New England coast; the United States Coast Guard still has an operational barque, built in Germany in 1936 and captured as a war prize, the USCGC Eagle, which the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London uses as a training vessel. The Sydney Heritage Fleet restored an iron-hulled three-masted barque, the James Craig constructed as Clan Macleod in 1874 and sailing at sea fortnightly; the oldest active sailing vessel in the world, the Star of India, was built in 1863 as a full-rigged ship converted into a barque in 1901.

This type of ship inspired the French composer Maurice Ravel to write his famous piece, Une Barque sur l'ocean composed for piano, in 1905 orchestrated in 1906. In Ancient Egypt, referred to using the French word as Egyptian hierogl

William Moreton

William Moreton was an English prelate in the Church of Ireland who served as the Bishop of Meath from 1705-1716. He was born in Chester in eldest son of Edward Moreton, prebendary of Chester, his father, son of William Moreton of Moreton, was educated at Eton and King's College, was incorporated at Oxford M. A. 1626 and D. D. 1636. It appears that his property was sequestrated in 1645, that he was nominated by Lord Byron a commissioner to superintend the capitulation of Chester to the parliamentary forces in January 1646. Restored to his benefices at the Restoration, he died at Chester on 28 February 1664–65, was buried in Sefton Church, where a Latin inscription commemorates his equanimity under misfortune, he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 5 December 1660. William graduated B. A. 19 February 1664, M. A. 21 March 1667, B. D. 3 November 1674. In 1669, he became rector of Churchill and was for some time chaplain to Aubrey Vere, earl of Oxford. In 1677, he accompanied James, duke of Ormonde, lord-lieutenant, as his chaplain.

D. of Oxford by special decree. A few days 22 December, he was appointed dean of Christ Church, Dublin, in which capacity Mant speaks of him as'the vehement and pertinacious opponent of the Archbishop of Dublin's episcopal jurisdiction.'On 13 February 1682, he was appointed to the see of Kildare, with the preceptory of Tully, was consecrated in Christ Church, Dublin, on the 19th by the Archbishop of Armagh. The sermon, preached by Foley, bishop of Down and Connor, was published. Moreton was made a privy councillor of Ireland on 5 April 1682, was created D. D. of Dublin in 1688. In the preamble to this petition, it was stated that the revenue of the see of Kildare, though the second in Ireland, did not exceed £170 per annum, he was translated to the see of Meath on 18 September 1705, was made a commissioner of the great seal by Queen Anne. He died at Dublin on 21 November 1715, was buried in Christ Church Cathedral on 24 November, he married firstly Mary Atkins in the summer of 1682, had a son Richard and a daughter Annabella, who married barrister William Taylor.

He secondly married Mary Harman, with whom he had a further son, his successor William, a daughter Mary, who married Lieutenant-Colonel Howard. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Norgate, Gerald le Grys. "Moreton, William". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Unto This Last

Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles. Ruskin says himself that the articles were "very violently criticized", forcing the publisher to stop its publication after four months. Subscribers sent protest letters, but Ruskin countered the attack and published the four articles in a book in May 1862; the book influenced the nonviolent activist Mohandas Gandhi. The title is a quotation from the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard: I will give unto this last as unto thee. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, the first last: for many be called, but few chosen; the "last" are the eleventh hour labourers. Rather than discuss the contemporary religious interpretation of the parable, whereby the eleventh hour labourers would be death-bed converts, or the peoples of the world who come late to religion, Ruskin looks at the social and economic implications, discussing issues such as who should receive a living wage.

This essay is critical of capitalist economists of the 18th and 19th centuries. In this sense, Ruskin is a precursor of social economy; because the essay attacks the destructive effects of industrialism upon the natural world, some historians have seen it as anticipating the Green movement. The essay begins with the following verses, taken from Matthew 20:13 and Zechariah 11:12 respectively: Unto This Last had a important impact on Gandhi's philosophy, he discovered the book in March 1904 through Henry Polak, whom he had met in a vegetarian restaurant in South Africa. Polak was sub-editor of the Johannesburg paper The Critic. Gandhi decided not only to change his own life according to Ruskin's teaching, but to publish his own newspaper, Indian Opinion, from a farm where everybody would get the same salary, without distinction of function, race, or nationality. This, for that time, was quite revolutionary, thus Gandhi created Phoenix Settlement. Mohandas Gandhi translated Unto This Last into Gujarati in 1908 under the title of Sarvodaya.

Valji Govindji Desai translated it back to English in 1951 under the title of Unto This Last: A Paraphrase. This last essay can be considered his program on economics, as in Unto This Last, Gandhi found an important part of his social and economic ideas. Illth Full text from Wikisource