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Barrie

Barrie is a city, manifesting regional centre in Central Ontario, positioned on the shores of Kempenfelt Bay, the western arm of Lake Simcoe. The city is located geographically within Simcoe County, however, it is a politically independent single-tier municipality, it is part of the significant Huronia region of Central Ontario and is within the northern part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe, a densely populated and industrialized region of Ontario. As of the 2016 census, the city's population was 141,434 making it the 34th largest in Canada in terms of population proper; the Barrie census metropolitan area as of the same census had a population of 197,059 residents, making the city the 21st largest CMA in Canada. The city itself has seen significant growth in recent decades due to its emergence as a bedroom community, its close proximity to the city of Toronto. Barrie is situated 86.6 kilometres from the Toronto Pearson International Airport and 109 kilometres from Downtown Toronto, representing the city's centralized and strategic geographical orientation and its ease of access to major centres and airports across the region.

The Barrie area was first settled during the War of 1812 as a key supply depot for British forces. It would be named twenty years for Sir Robert Barrie, who commanded forces through the region. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Barrie's emergence as a bedroom community for the city of Toronto grew in prominence, its economy would be wrapped around the education, information technology and service sectors. Being located in the climatically deterrent snowbelt region of southern Ontario, Barrie is notorious for its deluging snow squalls in the winter. In the summer, its position within a convergence of breezes originating from the surrounding Great Lakes can provoke intense thunderstorms. Barrie's climate is seasonal, with average January minimums of −12.4 °C and average July highs of 26.3 °C. Barrie is a tourist destination, with shops, restaurants and access to Kempenfelt Bay. At its inception, Barrie was an establishment of houses and warehouses at the foot of the Nine Mile Portage from Kempenfelt Bay to Fort Willow, an aboriginal transportation route that existed centuries before Europeans arrived in Simcoe County.

The portage linked Kempenfelt Bay through Willow Creek, connecting Lake Simcoe to the Nottawasaga River which flows into Georgian Bay off Lake Huron. Barrie played an integral role in the War of 1812. During the war, the city became a supply depot for British forces, in addition, the Nine Mile Portage was adopted by the British military as a key piece of their supply line which provided a strategic path for communication and vital supplies and equipment to and from Fort Willow and Georgian Bay/Lake Huron. Today, the Nine Mile Portage is marked in Springwater Township; the scenic path from Memorial Square to Fort Willow is accessible to visitors year-round. The city was named in 1833 after Sir Robert Barrie, in charge of the naval forces in Canada and commanded forces through the city and along the Nine Mile Portage. Barrie was the final destination for a branch of the Underground Railroad. In the mid-19th century, this network of secret routes allowed many American slaves to enter Barrie and the surrounding area.

This contributed to the development of nearby Shanty Bay. In 1846, the population of Barrie was 500 from England and Scotland. A private school, three churches, a brick courthouse and a limestone jail, were in operation. Local businesses included three taverns, six stores, three tanneries, a wagon maker, a bakery, a cabinet maker and six shoemakers, as well as a bank. In 1869, Barrie became the county seat of Simcoe County, flourishing with a population of over 3,000 people, it was a station of the Northern Railway, was situated on Lake Simcoe's western arm, known as Kempenfelt Bay. Throughout the latter of the 19th century, Steamships ran from Barrie to the Muskoka Territory and other communities, stages were taking passengers to Penetanguishene; the period of 1870 to 1890 defined Barrie's downtown development with a series of raging fires that sequentially destroyed multiple landmarks, giving rise to the moniker that Barrie was "among the best burning towns in Canada." Many local businesses like breweries and sawmills depended on fire to operate, endangering the ramshackle assortment of wooden homes and buildings that made up the city centre.

One of the most destructive fires came in mid-1875, when the entire section north of Dunlop to Collier, bounded by Clapperton and Owen Streets, was reduced to ash, destroying around 20 local businesses. After this period, the modern streets and buildings of Barrie began to take form in a massive rebuilding process. Other landmarks to burn down over the years include the Barrie Opera House, The Queen's Hotel and two of Barrie's largest and most prominent companies. In the midst of World War I, dedicated residents of Barrie helped to hastily construct Canadian Forces Base Borden as a means of additional support, to serve as a major training centre of Canadian Expeditionary Force battalions; the base would open on July 11, 1916, since has become the largest Canadian Forces Base in the country, playing a paramount role through the remainder of the war, throughout history. During World War II, the Royal Canadian Navy named a Flower-class corvette HMCS Barrie. On September 7, 1977, a private aircraft dropped to an altitude of 500 feet in dense fog, struck the 1,000-foo

Lower Mainland Ecoregion

The Lower Mainland Ecoregion is the biogeoclimatic region that surrounds Vancouver, British Columbia, comprising the eastern edge of the Georgia Depression and extending from Powell River, British Columbia on the Sunshine Coast to Hope at the eastern end of the Fraser Valley. It thus corresponds, for the most part, with the popular usage of the term "Lower Mainland." The Lower Mainland Ecoregion is a part of the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. The ecoregion is traversed by the Fraser River, it has a unique climate and fauna, geology and land use. The following description is adapted from Environment Canada's Ecological Framework of Canada; the ecoregion extends west from the Skagit Range of the Cascade Mountains at Chilliwack to the Fraser river delta at Richmond and north to include a portion of the Georgia Lowland along the Sunshine Coast. The mean annual temperature in the Lower Mainland is 9°C with a summer mean of 15 °C and a winter mean of 3.5 °C. Annual precipitation ranges from an annual mean of 850 mm in the west end to 2000 mm in the eastern end of the Fraser Valley and at higher elevations.

Maximum precipitation occurs as rain in winter. Less than ten percent falls as snow at sea level but the amount of snowfall increases with elevation. Forests of Coast Douglas-fir, with an understory of salal, Oregon-grape and moss, are typical of the mature native vegetation found throughout the ecoregion. Mixed stands of Coast Douglas-fir and Western Hemlock are common, with some dogwood and arbutus occurring on drier sites. Red alder is a common pioneer species. Wet sites support Coast Douglas-fir, Western Hemlock, Western Redcedar. Wildlife includes black-tailed deer, raccoon and waterfowl; the ecoregion is underlain by unconsolidated glaciofluvial deposits, silty alluvium and clayey marine sediments and glacial till. Bedrock outcrops of Mesozoic and Palaeozoic origin form rolling hills up to about 310 metres above sea level; the Fraser River dominates this lowland. Gleysols and Humisols are the dominant wetland soils in the region, while Eutric and Dystric Brunisols and some Podzols have developed on sandy to loamy outwash and glacial till in the uplands.

The region includes a mix of urban settlement and agricultural land, comprising both the largest population centre and some of the most fertile farmland in British Columbia. Intensive agriculture occurs on the rich bottomland of the Fraser Valley where it competes with urban development. Forestry takes place on the slopes of the mountains. Coastal salt marshes provide important wildlife habitat in Boundary Bay. There are about 870 square kilometres of productive farmland in the ecoregion. There is rapid urban and suburban growth in the Vancouver area and communities in the Fraser Valley and Sunshine Coast; the main population centre in this ecoregion is Greater Vancouver. Other centres include North Vancouver, Chilliwack and Mission. Agricultural land area remained stable between 1971 and 2006, declining by less than 3%. While the number of cattle declined by 12% during this period, poultry inventories increased rising by 129%; the region accounted for 13% of Canada’s poultry production in 2006.

The ecoregion's population increased 102% between 1971 and 2006 as compared to Canada's population growth of 47%. With 473 persons per square kilometre in 2006, the ecoregion was Canada’s most densely populated; the population of the ecoregion in 2006 was 2.4 million people, which represents 7.6% of Canada’s population. "Ecoregion Unit Descriptions". BC Ministry of Environment. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2008-06-19. "Ecological Framework of Canada". Environment Canada. "Georgia Basin Action Plan". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. "Puget Sound Georgia Basin Ecosystem". U. S. Environmental Protection Agency

2003 FIFA Confederations Cup Final

The 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup Final was a football match to determine the winners of the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. The match was held at Stade de France, Saint-Denis, France, on 29 June 2003 and was contested by Cameroon and France. France won the match 1–0, with a golden goal in the 97th minute. For the final the Cameroonian team wore shirts embroidered with Marc-Vivien Foé's name and dates of birth and death as a tribute to their midfielder who had suffered cardiac arrest and died on the pitch during their semi-final game against Colombia. At the presentation of medals and trophies, two Cameroon players held a large photo of Foé, on which a runner-up medal was hung; when France captain Marcel Desailly was presented with the trophy, he held it in unison with Cameroon captain Rigobert Song. Match report

Sultan Mahmud Bridge

Sultan Mahmud Bridge or Jambatan Sultan Mahmud is a bridge in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, which crosses Terengganu River. Constructed in 1988, the bridge was opened by the late of Sultan of Terengganu, Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah on 11 March 1990. Toll collection for the bridge was abolished in 1999 by the PAS state government following an election promise; the Sultan Mahmud International Bridge Run is the annual bridge run, held on September every year. It is organised by the Terengganu State Government, the Terengganu Amateur Athletic Association and the Terengganu State Tourism Action Council. Jalan Tengku Mizan Federal Route 65

The Executed Renaissance

The Executed Renaissance: Anthology from 1917–1933: Poetry—prose—drama—essay is an anthology of works from Ukrainian poets and prosaists from 1920-1930. The term's origin is attributed to the Ukrainian emigre and literary critic Yurii Lavrinenko, who published the anthology in 1959 in Paris with the support of Jerzy Giedroyc, a Polish writer and activist; the anthology itself is based on the concept of the "Executed Renaissance," which Giedroyc coined to describe hundreds of writers - both Ukrainian literati and intellectuals - who were executed under Joseph Stalin. This cultural elite became the target of the Soviet purges because they were in a position to expose oppression and betrayal and could become targets of treason themselves. During the revolution, the works of the poets were popular features and rallying chants; the body of literature was recognized for its contribution to the emergence of the modern Ukrainian national idea. Lavrinenko had been recommended to Jerzy Giedroyc by Yurii Shevelov for compilation of an anthology of Ukrainian literature of 1920-1930.

A book appeared in the library of Parisian magazine Kultura in 1959. The term'Executed Renaissance' is accredited to Giedroyc; this wording as a suggestion for the name of a book first appeared in Giedroyc's letter to Shevelov from August 13, 1958: "And what about name. It would be better to give as a common name “The Executed Renaissance: Anthology from 1917–1933” etc. Name would sound effectly. On the other hand, humble name “Anthology” only can take the sting out of propagation through the Iron Curtain. What do you think about it?" After the book's publication, Giedroyc sent, at the editorial staff's own expense, copies to the Writers' Union in Kyiv and magazines of Ukrainian SSR. Moreover, he used their ability to send books through the Iron Curtain. After publishing the anthology, the term "Executed Renaissance" garnered widespread notoriety in Ukrainian public language. Materials for anthology were found in contemporary periodicals and archives, such as the Archive-museum of Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences, the Department of Slavic Studies of New York Public Library, the private collections of Sviatoslav Hordynsky, Hryhorii Kostiuk, Volodymyr Miakovsky, Yosyp Hirniak, Oksana Burevii and others), in handwritten copy, etc.

Additionally, Leonid Lyman, Ivan Koshelivets, Vasyl Barka, Vasyl Hryshko, Yar Slavutych and others aided with seeking materials and offering advice. Ina preface to the edition, its editor, wrote about principium and the technique of choosing: In this collected edition appeared only material, publishing in Ukraine — in USSR — for period 1917—1933 and which had banned and destroyed after 1933 due to new Moscow's course and turning Ukraine into colonial province. Lavrinenko noted that part of the banned works had been printed during the occupation of Eastern Ukraine—between 1939-1946 and between 1956-1958—but it contained some corrections; the main principum was "to give only works, which had withdrew after Moscow's terroristic and famine crack-downs on Ukraine." Works that were written in emigration were not represented because "this is anthology of works, in UkrSSR before 1933." The anthology consists of four chapters: poetry, prose and essay. Poetry was represented most fully: Firstly. Authors were placed «"n order of appearance of their first book after 1917."

Pavlo Tychyna — poems from collections «Sun Clarnets», «Instead of Sonnets and Octaves», «Plough», «A Wind from Ukraine», «In the Cosmic Orchestra», poems «To the Memory of Thirty», «From the Crimean Cycle», «Mother peeled potato...» Maksym Rylsky — poems from collections «Under Autumn Stars», «A Blue Distance», «Poems», «Through the Windstorm and Snow», «Thirteenth Spring», «Where Roads Cross», «The Sound and the Echo». Mykhayl Semenko — poems «Bronze Body», «Conductor», «Ocean», «Unavoidable Days» Oleksa Slisarenko — poems «Walt Whitman», «In the Apiary», «To the Memory of Hnat Mykhailychenko», «A Rime» (

Second Hughes Ministry

The Second Hughes Ministry was the 12th ministry of the Government of Australia. It was led by Billy Hughes; the Second Hughes Ministry succeeded the First Hughes Ministry, which dissolved on 14 November 1916 following the split that took place within the governing Labor Party over the issue of conscription. This led to Hughes and his supporters leaving the party to form the National Labor Party, which swiftly received parliamentary support from Joseph Cook and the Commonwealth Liberal Party; the ministry was replaced by the Third Hughes Ministry on 17 February 1917 after National Labor and Commonwealth Liberal merged into the Nationalist Party. Billy Hughes, who died in 1952, was the last surviving member of the Second Hughes Ministry. First Hughes Ministry Third Hughes Ministry Fourth Hughes Ministry Fifth Hughes Ministry