Interstate 5 is the main Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U. S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels through the states of California and Washington, serving several large cities on the U. S. West Coast, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Sacramento and Seattle, it is the only continuous Interstate highway to touch both the Mexican border and the Canadian border. Upon crossing the Mexican border at its southern terminus, Interstate 5 continues to Tijuana, Baja California as Mexico Federal Highway 1. Upon crossing the Canadian border at its northern terminus, it continues to Vancouver as British Columbia Highway 99. Interstate 5 was created in 1956 as part of the Interstate Highway System, but was predated by several auto trails and highways built in the early 20th century; the Pacific Highway auto trail was built in the 1910s and 1920s by the states of California and Washington, was incorporated into U. S. Route 99 in 1926.
Interstate 5 follows the route of US 99, with the exception of a portion in the Central Valley of California. The freeway was built in segments between 1956 and 1979, including expressway sections of US 99 that were built earlier to bypass various towns along the route; the southernmost point of I-5 is at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro border crossing, one of the busiest in the world. Beginning at the border in San Ysidro, part of the city of San Diego, as the John J. Montgomery Freeway, I-5 goes through the suburbs of Chula Vista and National City before reaching downtown San Diego, it parallels the Pacific coastline, going through the northern suburbs of San Diego, bisecting the University of California, San Diego campus, passing the I-805 merge, before passing through the 28 miles of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in northern San Diego County. Here I-5 is known as the San Diego Freeway. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland and heads due north through Mission Viejo to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine.
I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest, passing through major cities and suburbs in Orange and Southern Los Angeles counties. Southern Californians refer as the Santa Ana Freeway in the Los Angeles area. From this point, the San Diego Freeway continues northward as I-405; when the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east of downtown Los Angeles, I-5 becomes the Golden State Freeway. The route continues through the San Fernando Valley and crosses the Newhall Pass through the Santa Susana Mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley; the interchange with State Route 14 is unusual in that truck traffic is separated into its own lanes for both the mainline of the freeway and the transition ramps to and from SR 14. For about a four-mile stretch between Santa Clarita Valley and the Pyramid Lake, the northbound and southbound lanes separate and cross sides, with the southbound lanes running to the east of the northbound ones. At that point, the Golden State Freeway rises to the north through the Grapevine to reach the second-highest point of its entire length, the Tejon Pass.
Through the Tehachapi Mountains. Path 26 power lines follow the freeway along this stretch; the freeway descends for 12 miles at Tejon Pass to around 1,600 feet at Grapevine near the southernmost point of the San Joaquin Valley 30 miles south of Bakersfield and 4 mi south from where SR 99 splits away from it in Wheeler Ridge. From SR 99 to south of Tracy, I-5 skirts along the far more remote western edge of the great Central Valley, thus here is removed from population centers such as Bakersfield and Fresno; this part of I-5 is known as the West Side Freeway, is a major connector between the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California. I-580 splits from I-5 at a point south of Tracy as the West Side Freeway Scenic Byway, the last stretch of the West Side Freeway—providing a loop-route connection to the San Francisco Bay Area. East of Tracy, I-5 intersects with I-205, another freeway that links I-5 to the Bay Area and passes through Tracy. After passing Tracy, I-5 heads north through Stockton and Sacramento before turning west to Woodland.
At Woodland, the Interstate heads northwest again towards Dunnigan, where it converges with I-505. From Dunnigan, I-5 skirts north along the western edge of the Sacramento Valley to Red Bluff. I-5 enters the Shasta Cascade region, passing through Redding and Shasta Lake before climbing up to near the foot of Mount Shasta; the interstate travels to Weed and Yreka before reaching the Oregon border. About three miles north of the California border, the highway crosses 4,310 feet Siskiyou Summit, the highest point on I-5, drops down into the Rogue Valley through Oregon's southern mountains and towns such as Ashland and Grants Pass. Turning north across three passes to the Umpqua Valley and through Roseburg, the mountains tend to turn into hills, as it reaches Cottage Grove, the road enters the Willamette River Valley. At Eugene the highway intersects a short spur route into Downtown Eugene; some city highways intersect on I-5 in the Eugene Metro. The Interstate heads due north, skirting Albany and Corvallis, passing through Salem, crossing through Woodburn.
There were plans to build a spur, called I-305, into Salem. I-5 covers 308 miles in Oregon. Just north of Salem, between mile markers 259 and 260 just short of mile marker 26
Mission Beach, San Diego
Mission Beach is a community built on a sandbar between the Pacific Ocean and Mission Bay. It is part of the city of California. Mission Beach spans nearly two miles of ocean front, it is bounded by the San Diego River estuary on the south, Mission Bay Park on the east, the community of Pacific Beach on the north. A boardwalk runs along bay sides of the community; the main artery through Mission Beach is Mission Boulevard. The community is divided into South Mission, a peninsula, North Mission. At the south end of the beach a jetty, with grass, parking and a walk, extends into the ocean. Many residential structures in Mission Beach were built in the 1930s and'40s as summer cottages and some date as early as the 1920s; the rare airplane bungalow on Manhattan Court was built in 1924. Because of problems to work out with developing on sand, Mission Beach developed than the neighboring communities of Ocean Beach to the south and Pacific Beach to the north; as a result of a new official subdivision in 1914, encouraged by land sales in those next-door communities and a new wooden bridge linking Mission Beach with Ocean Beach, John D. Spreckels offered small lots for sale.
As a result, Mission Beach is the most densely developed residential community in San Diego with a land use designation across the majority of its land area of 36 dwelling units per acre. It has the smallest lots in the city, ranging from 1,250 square feet to 2,400 square feet. Few have been consolidated to form larger lots. Many of the structures within the community have been redeveloped into two-story homes; the wooden bridge to Ocean Beach was closed to traffic in 1950 and demolished in 1951. Attractions near Mission Beach include SeaWorld in Mission Bay Park and the historic amusement park Belmont Park in South Mission Beach. Belmont Park was built as the Mission Beach Amusement Center by John D. Spreckels in 1925 to stimulate real estate sales and to promote his electric railway. Belmont Park now features the original wooden Giant Dipper Roller Coaster as well as newer rides such as the FlowRider at Wave House, Vertical Plunge, Krazy Kars, Tilt-a-Whirl, Liberty Carousel, Crazy Submarine, The Beach Blaster, The Chaos.
Designed by architect Frank Walter Stevenson, The Mission Beach Plunge in Belmont Park, a 60-foot -by-175-foot saltwater swimming pool, opened in May 1925 as the Natatorium. The Plunge building enclosing the pool was styled after the Spanish Renaissance architecture of San Diego's Balboa Park structures; the changing rooms appear in the Tom Cruise film Top Gun. Celebrities who once swam at the Plunge include Johnny Weissmuller; the roof of the building rolled open to make it both an outdoor pool. The Mission Beach Plunge and the Giant Dipper are the only remaining attractions left from Spreckels' original park; the Plunge has been closed since 2014 due to disrepair. Plans to demolish and rebuild the Plunge were approved in January 2016, with work to be completed in 2018. Nearby east of SeaWorld, is an unlined landfill. From 1957 to 1962 large amounts of industrial waste, including millions of gallons of chromic, nitric and hydrochloric acids, dichromate and carbon tetrachloride, were deposited into this landfill.
No remediation efforts have occurred. Mission Beach offers opportunities to participate in sunbathing, surfing, skateboarding, Frisbee tossing, other outdoor activities. A local skating club, "Skate This!," performs for free on weekends, executing trick skating and dancing on both rollerblades and traditional skates. It is a well known, popular location for engaging in sports, including beach volleyball and basketball, with courts available for both. There is a public recreation center on Santa Clara Place on the bay side of Mission Beach. At the south end of Belmont Park is the Wave House Athletic Club, a full-service beachside fitness center, complete with cardio equipment, fitness classes, aquatic classes in the Plunge, beach Bootcamps. Mission Beach includes Mariner's Point, the original site of the over-the-line softball-on-the-beach tournament. Thong bikinis are technically illegal on Mission Beach, but lifeguards and local police do not enforce the ban on such swimwear; the consumption of alcoholic beverages on the beach is illegal as of April 2008.
Nudity is not allowed. Many beachgoers are local college and university students, but both tourists and permanent residents of the beach and other areas are frequent visitors to the beach. Weekly and monthly rentals are available during the summer months. Mission Beach has many well-known bars. Most bars in the neighborhood are relaxed, beach-style gathering places; some of the more popular venues are Guava Beach, The Sandbar Sports Grill, The Beachcomber, The Pennant in South Mission, The Coaster Saloon and the Wave House. David C. Copley, former publisher of San Diego Union-Tribune newspaper Mike Gotch, former San Diego City Councilman and California state assemblyman Jeanne Lenhart, California Senior Olympian, amateur volleyball player, senior pageant winner Cathy Scott, true crime author List of beaches in San Diego County City of San Diego Beaches Department Mission Beach Volleyball Belmont Park Wave House
David Alvarez (politician)
David Alvarez is an American politician in San Diego, California. He served as a San Diego City Councilmember representing City Council District 8. District 8 includes the neighborhoods of Barrio Logan, Egger Highlands, Grant Hill, Logan Heights, Nestor, Ocean View Hills, San Diego, Otay Mesa East, Otay Mesa West, San Ysidro, Sherman Heights and the Tijuana River Valley. Alvarez has four brothers and one sister, he grew up in Barrio Logan. He attended local public schools: Perkins Elementary, Memorial Junior High, San Diego High School, he was the first in his family to graduate from high college. He graduated with honors from San Diego State University. Alvarez, his wife Xochitl, their daughter Izel reside in Logan Heights He began his career as a social services worker and after-school teacher. In 2003, he was selected to the Capitol Fellows Program where he served under the Secretary of State. After his return to San Diego, he worked with a company that develops new opportunities for affordable housing.
He represented State Senator Denise Moreno Ducheny as a community liaison. Alvarez was elected to the City Council in November 2010, defeating Felipe Hueso with 60% of the vote. During his first term, he served as Chair of the Natural Resources & Culture Committee, Vice Chair of the Land Use & Housing Committee, a member of the Budget & Finance and Rules & Economic Development Committees. Additionally, he served on the San Diego Regional County Airport Authority, San Diego Metropolitan Transit System Board, SANDAG Borders Committee, Otay Valley Regional Park Policy Committee, Bayshore Bikeway Working Group, the San Diego Consortium Policy Board, he served on the Board of Directors for Local Progress, a national municipal policy network. In September 2013 he declared his candidacy for Mayor of San Diego, he was the endorsed Democratic candidate in the special election to replace Bob Filner. In the primary election held November 19, 2013, he came in second with 25.59 percent of the vote. A runoff election against fellow city councilmember Kevin Faulconer was held February 11, 2014, Faulconer defeated Alvarez.
In 2014 he ran for re-election to represent District 8, won outright in the June primary, drawing 75% of the vote. His second term started in December 2014. In January 2017, Alvarez announced his intention to run for the San Diego County Board of Supervisors representing District 1 in 2020 when incumbent Greg Cox is termed out of office. However, since he would be termed out of office from the City Council prior to 2020, Alvarez chose to run for the San Diego Community College District Board in 2018. Alvarez was unsuccessful in the election, finishing second to Sean Elo. Official website of David Alvarez
La Jolla is a hilly, seaside community within the city of San Diego, occupying 7 miles of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean within the northern city limits. The population reported in the 2010 census was 46,781. La Jolla is surrounded on three sides by ocean bluffs and beaches and is located 12 miles north of Downtown San Diego and 40 miles south of Orange County; the climate is mild, with an average daily temperature of 70.5 °F. La Jolla is home to many educational institutions and a variety of businesses in the areas of lodging, shopping, finance, real estate, medical practice and scientific research; the University of California San Diego is located in La Jolla, as are the Salk Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Scripps Research Institute, the headquarters of National University. Local Native Americans, the Kumeyaay, called this location mat kulaaxuuy, lit. "land of holes". The topographic feature that gave rise to the name "holes" is uncertain, it is suggested that the Kumeyaay name for the area was transcribed by the Spanish settlers as La Jolla.
An alternative, pseudo-etymological suggestion for the origin of the name is that it is an alternate spelling of the Spanish word la joya, which means "the jewel". Despite being disputed by scholars, this derivation of the name has been cited in popular culture; this supposed origin gave rise to the nickname "Jewel City". During the Mexican period of San Diego's history, La Jolla was mapped as pueblo land and contained about 60 lots; when California became a state in 1850, the La Jolla area was incorporated as part of the chartered City of San Diego. In 1870, Charles Dean acquired several of the pueblo lots and subdivided them into an area that became known as La Jolla Park. Dean was unable to develop the land and left San Diego in 1881. A real estate boom in the 1880s led speculators Frank T. Botsford and George W. Heald to further develop the sparsely settled area. In the 1890s, the San Diego, Pacific Beach, La Jolla Railway was built, connecting La Jolla to the rest of San Diego. La Jolla became known as a resort area.
To attract visitors to the beach, the railway built facilities such as a bath house and a dance pavilion. Visitors were housed in small cottages and bungalows above La Jolla Cove, as well as a temporary tent city erected every summer. Two of the cottages that were built in 1894 still exist: the "Red Roost" and the "Red Rest" known as the "Neptune and Cove Tea Room"; the La Jolla Park Hotel opened in 1893. The Hotel Cabrillo was built in 1908 by "Squire" James A. Wilson and was incorporated into the La Valencia Hotel. By 1900, La Jolla comprised 350 residents; the first reading room was built in 1898. A volunteer fire brigade was organized in 1907. Livery stable owner Nathan Rannells served successively as La Jolla's volunteer fire captain, first police officer, first postmaster. La Jolla Elementary School began educating local children in 1896; the Bishop's School opened in 1909. La Jolla High School was established in 1922. Between 1951 and 1963, other elementary schools were established in the area to ease overcrowding.
The La Jolla Beach and Yacht Club was built in 1927. In 1896 journalist and publisher Ellen Browning Scripps settled in La Jolla, where she lived for the last 35 years of her life, she was wealthy in her own right from her investments and writing, she inherited a large sum from her brother George H. Scripps in 1900. Unmarried and childless, she devoted herself to philanthropic endeavors those benefiting her adopted home of La Jolla, she commissioned many of La Jolla's most notable buildings designed by Irving Gill or his nephew and partner Louis John Gill. Many of these buildings are now on the National Register of Historic Places or are listed as historic by the city of San Diego, her donations launched the Scripps Memorial Hospital in 1924, the Scripps Metabolic Clinic, the Children's Pool. Ellen Browning Scripps founded Scripps College, a women's college, in 1926. Scripps College is located in Claremont in Los Angeles County; the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the nation's oldest oceanographic institutes, was founded in 1903 by William Emerson Ritter, chair of the zoology department at the University of California, with financial support from Scripps and her brother E. W. Scripps.
At first the institution operated out of a boathouse in Coronado. In 1905 they purchased a 170-acre site in La Jolla; the first laboratory buildings there opened in 1907. The institution became part of the University of California in 1912, it became the nucleus for the establishment of the University of California San Diego
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Shelltown, San Diego
Shelltown is a neighborhood located within Southeast San Diego 5 minutes from downtown San Diego by car and 25 minutes by bicycle. It is bordered by National City on the south, Interstate 5 and Barrio Logan on the west, 43rd Avenue on the east, Gamma Court and the neighborhood of Southcrest on the north. Prior to the 1980s the northern border of Shelltown was National Ave and many residents still consider that the northern border. Due to the predominance of shells in the sandy soil, the neighborhood became known as "Shelltown." Located on a plateau just north and east of the 32nd Street Naval Station, Shelltown was a favorite location of housing for many of the early naval officers. Their ships were visible from their homes and were only moments away in the event they were called to duty The majority of Shelltown consists of residential homes built between 1920 and 1969; the Naval Base San Diego, an industrial park, some commercial buildings are located just outside the western border of Shelltown along Main Street.
Mexican Americans have a long history in the area and began living in the area as early as the 1910s. Shelltown/Southcrest contains a large mural, one of three by several artists that were done near three Southeast San Diego neighborhood entrances. Local activist and muralist Mario Torero was the lead artist for the Alpha Street piece. San Diego’s Southcrest Trails Park is located just north of the Shelltown neighborhood within the Chollas Creek floodplain, part of the smallest watershed in San Diego and containing the highest population density; the Park itself is located south of west of South 38th Street. The park was scheduled to be completed in December 2012 An upgrade to the park was started in March 2017 and was completed on Spring of 2018. Balboa Elementary SchoolBalboa Elementary School was recognized as one of six nationwide winners of the 2007 Intel Schools of Distinction awards, for excellence in math education in an elementary school program; the area is served by the San Diego Trolley Blue Line at the Pacific Fleet station and the Route 929 bus via Main Street.
The neighborhood has quick access to Interstate 5, Interstate 15, Interstate 805
Chicano Park is a 32,000 square meter park located beneath the San Diego-Coronado Bridge in Barrio Logan, a predominantly Mexican American and Mexican-immigrant community in central San Diego, California. The park is home to the country's largest collection of outdoor murals, as well as various sculptures, an architectural piece dedicated to the cultural heritage of the community; because of the magnitude and historical significance of the murals, the park was designated an official historic site by the San Diego Historical Site Board in 1980, its murals were recognized as public art by the San Diego Public Advisory Board in 1987. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013 owing to its association with the Chicano Movement, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2016. Chicano Park, like Berkeley's People's Park, was the result of a militant people's land takeover; every year on April 22, the community celebrates the anniversary of the park's takeover with a celebration called Chicano Park Day.
The area was known as the East End, but was renamed Logan Heights in 1905. The first Mexican settlers there arrived in the 1890s, followed soon after by refugees fleeing the violence of the Mexican Revolution, which began in 1910. So many Mexican immigrants and Mexican-Americans settled there that the southern portion of Logan Heights became known as Barrio Logan; the original neighborhood reached all the way to San Diego Bay, with waterfront access for the residents. This access was denied beginning with World War II, when Naval installations blocked local access to the beach; the denial of beachfront access was the initial source of the community's resentment of the government and its agencies. This resentment grew in the 1950s, when the area was rezoned as mixed industrial. Junk dealers and repair shops moved into the barrio, creating air pollution, loud noise, aesthetic conditions unsuitable for a residential area. Resentment continued to grow as the barrio was cleaved in two by Interstate 5 in 1963 and was further divided in 1969 by the elevated onramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bridge.
At this time, Mexicans were accustomed to not being included in discussions concerning their communities and to not being represented by their officials, so no formal complaint was lodged. This attitude began to change as the Civil Rights Movement unfolded in parallel with park development efforts; as various community campaigns coalesced under the banner of the Chicano Movement so too did the political awareness and sense of empowerment grow in Barrio Logan. Community residents had long been demanding a park; the City Council had promised to build a park to compensate for the loss of over 5,000 homes and businesses removed for the construction of the freeway and bridge, as well as for the aesthetic degradation created by the overhead freeways supported by a forest of gray concrete piers. In June 1969, the park was approved and a site was designated, but no action was taken to implement the decision; the final straw came on April 22, 1970. On his way to school, a community member, San Diego City College student, Brown Beret member named Mario Solis noticed bulldozers next to the area designated for the park.
When he inquired about the nature of the work being undertaken, he was shocked to discover that, rather than a park, the crew was preparing to build a parking lot next to a building that would be converted into a California Highway Patrol station. Solis went door-to-door to spread the news of the construction. At school, he alerted the students of Professor Gil Robledo's Chicano studies class, who printed fliers to bring more attention to the affair. At noon that day, Mexican-American high school students walked out of their classes to join other neighbors who had congregated at the site; some protesters formed human chains around the bulldozers, while others planted trees and cactus. Solis is reported to have commandeered a bulldozer to flatten the land for planting. Notably, the flag of Aztlán was raised on an old telephone pole, marking a symbolic "reclamation" of land, once Mexico by people of Mexican descent. There were many young families at the protest; when the crowd grew to 250, construction was called off.
The occupation of Chicano Park lasted for twelve days while community members and city officials held meetings to negotiate the creation of a park. During that time, groups of people came from Los Angeles and Santa Barbara to join the occupation and express solidarity; the Chicano Park Steering Committee was founded by Josephine Talamantez, Victor Ochoa, Jose Gomez, others. Not trusting the city and fearing that abandoning the land would be tantamount to conceding defeat, an agreement was reached and the Steering Committee called for an end to the occupation of the land while stationing informal picketers on the public sidewalks around the disputed terrain to provide residents with information regarding the project, they maintained. At a meeting on April 23, a young artist named Salvador Torres returned to t