Barrow-in-Furness is a town in Cumbria, North-West England. Part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. At the tip of the Furness peninsula, close to the Lake District, it is bordered by Morecambe Bay, the Duddon Estuary and the Irish Sea. In 2011, Barrow's population was 57,000, making it the second largest urban area in Cumbria after Carlisle, although it is geographically closer to the whole of Lancashire and most of Merseyside. Natives of Barrow, as well as the local dialect, are known as Barrovian. In the Middle Ages, Barrow was a small hamlet within the parish of Dalton-in-Furness with Furness Abbey, now on the outskirts of the modern-day town, controlling the local economy before its dissolution in 1537; the iron prospector Henry Schneider arrived in Furness in 1839 and, with other investors, opened the Furness Railway in 1846 to transport iron ore and slate from local mines to the coast.
Further hematite deposits were discovered, of sufficient size to develop factories for smelting and exporting steel. For a period of the late 19th century, the Barrow Hematite Steel Company-owned steelworks was the world's largest. Barrow's location and the availability of steel allowed the town to develop into a significant producer of naval vessels, a shift, accelerated during World War I and the local yard's specialisation in submarines; the original iron- and steel-making enterprises closed down after World War II, leaving Vickers shipyard as Barrow's main industry and employer. Several Royal Navy flagships, the vast majority of its nuclear submarines as well as numerous other naval vessels, ocean liners and oil tankers have been manufactured at the facility; the end of the Cold War and subsequent decrease in military spending saw high unemployment in the town through lack of contracts. Today Barrow is a hub for energy handling. Offshore wind farms form one of the highest concentrations of turbines in the world, including the single largest with multiple operating bases in Barrow.
The name was that of an island, which can be traced back to 1190. This was renamed Old Barrow, recorded as Oldebarrey in 1537, Old Barrow Insula and Barrohead in 1577; the island was joined to the mainland and the town took its name. The name itself seems to mean "island with promontory", combining British barro- and Old Norse ey, but it is more that Scandinavian settlers accepted barro- as a meaningless name, so added an explanatory Old Norse second element. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Barrow was nicknamed "the English Chicago" because of the sudden and rapid growth in its industry, economic stature and overall size. More the town has been dubbed the "capital of blue-collar Britain" by the Daily Telegraph, reflecting its strong working class identity. Barrow is often jokingly referred to as being at the end of the longest cul-de-sac in the country because of its isolated location at the tip of the Furness peninsula. Barrow and the surrounding area has been settled non-continuously for several millennia with evidence of Neolithic inhabitants on Walney Island.
Despite a rich history of Roman settlement across Cumbria and the discovery of related artefacts in the Barrow area, no buildings or structures have been found to support the idea of a functioning Roman community on the Furness peninsula. The Furness Hoard discovery of Viking silver coins and other artefacts in 2011 provided significant archaeological evidence of Norse settlement in the early 9th century. Several areas of Barrow including Yarlside and Ormsgill, as well as "Barrow" and "Furness", have names of Old Norse origin; the Domesday Book of 1086 recorded the settlements of Hietun and Hougenai, which are now the districts of Hawcoat and Walney respectively. In the Middle Ages the Furness peninsula was controlled by the Cistercian monks of the Abbey of St Mary of Furness, known as Furness Abbey; this was located in the "Vale of Nightshade", now on the outskirts of the town. Founded for the Savigniac order, it was built on the orders of King Stephen in 1123. Soon after the abbey's foundation the monks discovered iron ore deposits to provide the basis for the Furness economy.
These thin strata, close to the surface, were extracted through open cut workings, which were smelted by the monks. The proceeds from mining, along with agriculture and fisheries, meant that by the 15th century the abbey had become the second richest and most powerful Cistercian abbey in England, after Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire; the monks of Furness Abbey constructed a wooden tower on nearby Piel Island in 1212 which acted as their main trading point. In 1327 King Edward III gave Furness Abbey a licence to crenellate the tower, a motte-and-bailey castle was built; however Barrow itself was just a hamlet in the parish of Dalton-in-Furness, reliant on the land and sea for survival. Small quantities of iron and ore were exported from jetties on the channel separating the village from Walney Island. Amongst the oldest buildings in Barrow are several cottages and farmhouses in Newbarns which date back to the early 17th century; as late as 1843 there were still only 32 dwellings, including two pubs.
The Sud-Ouest SO.6000 Triton was an early experimental French jet aircraft. It has the distinction of being the first indigenously-designed jet-powered aircraft to be flown by the nation, having been designed and manufactured during the 1940s by the French aircraft construction consortium SNCASO. Work on the French jet aircraft initiative had begun in secret during the Second World War, harnessed research retrieved from Nazi Germany. After the end of the conflict, the French government issued a requirement for a batch of five prototype jet aircraft to be developed by French industry. To avoid delaying the overall project, it was decided to use the German-designed Junkers Jumo 004-B2 engine after severe development issues were encountered with the indigenously-developed Rateau-Anxionnaz GTS-65 turbojet engine; the British Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine was adopted for multiple of the prototypes. On 11 November 1946, the first prototype performed its maiden flight, flown by test pilot Daniel Rastel.
This feat was viewed by the government as being an important, public, advancement in the capabilities of French industry and military capability. A total of five aircraft were produced for the test programme, including one for static testing only. Despite multiple aircraft been built and flown, further development of the SO.6000 was abandoned following the rapid emergence of more advanced jet-powered fighter aircraft. According to aviation author Peter Caygill, France's aviation industry was in dire straights having been more damaged than any other nation, as a consequence of events in the Second World War. Regardless, French industrialists and government officials alike were keen to make rapid advances in aviation technology to not only revive the nation's aviation capabilities, but to utilise the newest advances and produce a new generation of competitive indigenously-built aircraft. France, akin to the other Allied nations in the war, had benefitted from captured Germany high speed research.
Amongst the first new aviation projects to be launched in post-war France was the SO.6000. According to aviation author John W. R. Taylor, the origins of the SO.6000 can be found during 1943. Shortly after the end of the conflict, the new French government issued a requirement, calling for a total of five prototype aircraft to be constructed for testing purposes; the development of indigenously designed jet aircraft was seen as of national importance to the government, being intended to symbolise and embody the speedy recovery of France's industrial and military strength. The SO.6000 was, despite the use of an otherwise conventional aircraft. It was a compact and unarmed two-seater, having a deep-set fuselage and furnished with a mid-mounted straight wing; the spacious fuselage provided sufficient space for multiple engine models to be accommodated. Caygill observed that while SNCASO had to start from scratch on the fuselage's design, by pursuing a clean-sheet approach and the originality which that entailed, the SO.6000 lacked much of the conservatism present in the contemporary designs of several British aircraft manufacturers.
While having been envisioned from the onset to be powered by a jet engine, the availability of such a powerplant to install upon the aircraft was no straightforward issue. At one stage, it had been planned for the type to receive a French-designed Rateau-Anxionnaz GTS-65 turbojet engine. However, as a result of the delays encountered in the development of this engine, it was decided to instead adopt the German-designed Junkers Jumo 004-B2 engine for use upon the first prototype; the choice of a German engine was opted for as a means of preventing any unnecessary delay in the project. On 11 November 1946, the first prototype performed its maiden flight, conducted by test pilot Daniel Rastel amid unfavourable weather conditions; the timing of the flight was deliberate, being only four days before the opening of an international aviation exhibition held at the Grand Palais. According to Caygill, the Junkers engine was only capable of producing up to 1,980 lb of thrust and was quite underpowered for the SO.6000, being capable of achieving sustained flight and therefore lacked practicality.
Accordingly, further prototypes were not powered by the Junkers engine. The second prototype was used for static testing only, while the three other aircraft were powered by a license-built model of the British Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine, the last of these performing its first flight in November 1950. None of the aircraft would be powered by the intended GTS-65 engine, the development of which would be terminated without any production examples being completed; when flown with the Nene engine, the SO.6000 was capable of achieving speeds of up to 593 mph, but was beset by several vibration and stability issues when flown near these speeds. The SO.6000's lead designer, Lucien Servanty worked on another aircraft during the late 1940s, the Sud-Ouest Espadon, which became France's first post-war jet fighter. Further development of the SO.6000 was abandoned during the early 1950s without any direct follow-on. The type had been rendered obsolete by the rapid pace of advancements, both in terms o
Shindo Renmei was a terrorist organization composed of Japanese immigrants. It was active in the state of Brazil during the 1940s. Refusing to believe the news of Japan's surrender at the end of World War II, some of its most fanatic members used violence against those who did surrender. Shindo Renmei killed at least 23 people, all of whom were Japanese-Brazilians, wounded 147 others; the first Japanese emigrated to Brazil in 1908 with the intention of amassing wealth and returning to Japan. They found themselves in a different country, with different languages, climate and customs, they lived in relative isolation from the culture around them and few learned Portuguese. They were viewed with suspicion by the populace as a result. By the 1930s, Brazil had the largest community of Japanese immigrants in the world; the Estado Novo regime established by Getúlio Vargas, aiming to promote Brazilian nationalism, repressed the Japanese Brazilians, Italian Brazilians and German Brazilians. The decree 383 of April 18, 1938 mandated that foreigners were not allowed to take part in political activities or speak foreign languages in public.
Additionally, the first language taught to children had to be Portuguese. Radio broadcast in foreign languages was forbidden. Publishing in foreign languages was only allowed in bilingual editions. At the time 90% of the Japanese immigrants were subscribers of Japanese language newspapers, which indicates a much higher literacy rate than the general populace at the time. Decree 383, which made bilingual editions obligatory, in effect required such newspapers to stop printing due to the resulting high costs; as a significant number of Japanese immigrants could not understand Portuguese, it became exceedingly difficult for them to obtain any extra-communal information. When Brazil sided with the Allies in 1942, all communication with Japan was cut off and the entry of new Japanese immigrants was forbidden. Letters from Japan would no longer arrive to their recipients. Japanese-Brazilians were unable to travel or live in certain regions, such as coastal areas, without safe conduct from the authorities.
Radio receivers were confiscated, making it impossible for Japanese-Brazilians to listen to shortwave transmissions from Japan. Bilingual newspapers were prohibited during this period. Shindo Renmei was not the only, nor the first, political organization founded by Japanese-Brazilians. Most of these organizations provided mutual support for the community. None of them, except for Shindo Renmei, was involved in terrorism; the Japanese Catholics, Keizo Ishihara, Margarida Watanabe, Massaru Takahashi founded the Pia, a charity created with the approval of the church and the Brazilian government to help the poorer members of the diaspora. A former Japanese army colonel, Junji Kikawa, was active in the Pia. In 1942, after a violent altercation between Japanese and Brazilians in Marília, Kikawa founded Shindo Renmei, campaigned for the Japanese community to commit acts of sabotage, he distributed pamphlets urging Japanese-Brazilian farmers to cease producing peppermint. As Pia's directors opposed this campaign, Kikawa left Pia in 1944.
Shindo Renmei had its headquarters in São Paulo, with 64 local offices in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. It was sponsored by donations from its affiliates. With the end of World War II, Shindo Renmei refused to believe the official news of Japan's defeat. Believing it to be nothing but American propaganda, Shindo Renmei's members established new goals: to punish the defeatists, to declare that Japan had won or was winning the war, defend the emperor's honor. In Shindo Renmei's eyes, the Japanese-Brazilian community was divided in two groups: Kachigumi, or "the victorious", who believed the war was still going on, or that Japan had won, they were the majority from the poorer members of the community and those who still intended to return to Japan. Makegumi, or "the defeated" pejoratively called "dirty hearts", who had accepted the news of Japan's defeat, they were the wealthier members of the community who were more informed and better adapted to Brazilian society. Compounding the confusion, a number of deceivers produced fake Japanese newspapers and magazines with news stories about the "great victory" and started selling land in the "conquered territories".
Others sold yen, the Japanese currency nearly worthless at the time, to those who intended to return to Japan. This drove many Kachigumis into bankruptcy and to suicide in some cases. Shindo Renmei's members believed that the news regarding Japan's defeat was false, they created a communication system to spread to declare that Japan had won. Underground Japanese-language newspapers and magazines were published and secret radio stations were established to push this view; the group wrote lists with the names of makegumis who should die for betraying the emperor. Kamegoro Ogasawara, owner of a dry cleaner in São Paulo, coordinated the punitive actions. Many Japanese-owned boarding houses served as hideouts for the killers after their actions. Shindo Renmei's killers, or tokkotai, were always young people, they sent letters to their intended targets before a murder, urging them to commit seppuku – ritual suicide by sword – so that they could "regain their lost honor". The letters started by saying: "You have a dirty heart, so you must have the throat washed", this means to be cut by a katana.
Not one of those who received such a letter complied with the request. Thus, they were killed with katanas. From 1946 to early 1947, Shindo Renmei killed 23 an
Yase Dōji is the term used for the people of Yase, in Sakyō district, Japan who by tradition bore the sōkaren or portable bier upon which the imperial coffin was placed. In 2010, 741 historical materials relating to the Yase Dōji were designated as Important Cultural Properties; as a prince, the Emperor Tenmu was once wounded with an arrow, went to the steam baths at Yase after which his wound healed. However, this story may be only legend, it is considered more that "Yase" derives from the eight rapids of the river. The term dōji means "children"; this derives from the local hairstyle, which appeared peculiar to the officials from the bakumatsu. By tradition, neither men nor women of Yase cut their bangs, similar in appearance to the designated hairstyle of children in feudal Japan. Since antiquity, people living at Yase worked as handymen or palanquin-bearers for people of the temple complex of Enryaku-ji, in Ōtsu; the guild of palanquin bearers was started in the earliest guild in Japan. In 1336, Emperor Go-Daigo used their palanquin in his escape from Kyoto and afterward exempted them from land taxation.
They served as palanquin bearers of all retired emperors. In 1569, Oda Nobunaga and in 1603 Emperor Go-Yōzei reaffirmed their tax exemptions; the people of Yase had the right to go into the mountains of Enryaku-ji for food and firewood, they were proud of their tax exempt status given by the emperor. However, in the Edo era, their privileges were curtailed by the Buddhist prince Kobenhosshin-no who denied the right to go into the mountains of Yase; the people of Yase and asked the Edo Shogunate for the restoration of their rights. The sixth shōgun Tokugawa Ienobu himself wrote the letters of judgement in favor of the Yase people, using simple kana letters so the people of Yase, as commoners with limited education, could understand. For this restoration, Akimoto Tajimanokami worked for the people of Yase, such that after his death, he was enshrined and honored for his efforts. In addition, they started a folk dance in his honor, called the pardoned land dance. Arai Hakuseki wrote. Documents of Yase village recorded that they served as bearers of palanquins in Tokyo in the Meiji era.
Citing the book Meiji no Gyoko, Inose wrote that about 100 Yase people joined in Emperor Meiji's first trip to Tokyo in 1868 as bearers of the palanquin. It was an important point when the Meiji Imperial Household Agency recognized that the Yase people would serve as bearers of Imperial palanquins; the Imperial Household Agency solved the problem of Yase's rescinded tax exemptions by paying their taxes to the shogunate. In addition, 16 villagers were employed by the agency; each member worked for three years. The funeral of the mother of Emperor Meiji, Empress Eishō was the largest funeral, in which 70 Yase people served as bearers of the palanquin. On September 14, 1912, the Sōukaren was carried by Yase people from Momoyama Station in the suburbs of Kyoto to the Tomb of Emperor Meiji in the classical fashion, which took one hour. There was a thin rain and the road was 1 km long up a considerable slope. After the funeral ceremony of Emperor Taisho, the coffin was transferred to the Sōkaren, at the ceremony hall late at night, on February 7, 1927.
They went under the east gate of Shinjuku Gyoen to the Shinjuku Gyoen Special Station. There were eight coaches, the coffin was inside the fourth coach and Yase people rode in the last coach; the special train reached Asakawa Station, now Takao Station at 1:35 am, the next day. The Sōkaren arrived at 2:45 am, they were given 2950 yen as a special bonus. In 1989, the coffin of Emperor Hirohito was carried in a motor hearse. People of Yase had asked the Imperial Household Agency to participate, but their request was rejected. Six people from Yase attended the funeral procession as observers. Keiichirō Ryū Hanato Hi no Mikado Kodansha, joukan ISBN 406185495X gekan ISBN 4061854968 Mikio Nanbara Tennoke no Ninja Keizai Shinposha,ISBN 410110025X Tomoaki Hayashi Reisen Kadokawa Sneaker Bunko, ISBN 978-4-04-426625-7 Naoki Inose, Tennō no Kageboshi 1983, Asahi Shimbun ISBN 978-4-02-255068-2 Takeshi Osatake, Meiji no Gyoko cited in Tennō no Kageboshi, pp89–90
Louis Blaylock was a publisher, civil leader of Dallas and its mayor from 1923 to 1927. Blaylock was born in Arkansas to Willis and Irene Blaylock. Three years after his birth, the family relocated. Blaylock's career began as a type-setter in 1866 for the Texas Christian Advocate, a Methodist newspaper. In 1871 he married Georgia Darton, they had five children. After several years of working there and William A. Shaw took over the paper, thus meaning he was in control of its workings. By 1876, the paper had a circulation rate of 13,000 civilians, considered by many during that time to be the largest circulation of a contemporary newspaper in Texas. By 1887, the paper claimed a circulation of 18,000; that same year Blaylock formed the Blaylock Publishing Company, after moving the Advocate to Dallas, Texas. As well as working for the newspaper, Blaylock was the commissioner of Police for the Dallas Police Department between 1901 and 1904, as well as serving as both police and fire commissioner between 1913 and 1915.
He was publisher of the daily paper for the Methodist General Conference when it met in Dallas in 1902. He served as city administration and finance commissioner from 1919 until 1923, when he was elected mayor. For an unspecified reason, Blaylock left the newspaper company in 1922, after working and managing it for fifty-six years of his life. In 1923, Blaylock was elected the position of Mayor of Dallas, after working as the city finance and administration commissioner from 1913 until his election as mayor. Since he was seventy-four at the time of his election, he was soon nicknamed "Daddy" Blaylock. While in office he was noted for kissing every gorgeous movie star, festival queen, or other prominent female who visited Dallas, as an official welcome to the city. Blaylock was known as one of the most able and conservative mayors in the city's history. Blaylock was the president of the board of trustees of the First Methodist Church in Dallas, as well as a building committee member for the church.
He was a prominent Mason. He was a founding member of, ` a group of 47 Dallas business leaders. Blaylock died on December 4, 1932, was buried in Oakland Cemetery, Dallas. Blaylock, Lewis; the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved on 2007-12-02
Jonas Dassler is a German stage and film actor. Dassler was born in 1996 in Germany. Beginning in the eight grade he participated in the theatre club at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt high school. After graduating in 2014, he started studying acting at the Academy of Dramatic Arts "Ernst Busch" Berlin. During the 2016 season he performed the lead role in Georg Büchner's Danton's Death at the Schaubühne in Berlin. Since the 2017/18 season he has been a permanent cast member at the Maxim Gorki Theatre and appeared in several productions. Reviewing his film performance in LOMO–The Language of Many Others, Variety wrote that Dassler "show strong heartthrob potential". In June 2018, it was announced that Dassler will star in Fatih Akin's Der goldene Handschuh portraying the lead character, serial killer Fritz Honka, his work earned him a German Film Awards nomination for Best Actor. 2016: Dantons Tod from Georg Büchner, Direction: Peter Kleinert 2017: Nach uns das All – Das innere Team kennt keine Pause from Sibylle Berg, Direction: Sebastian Nübling 2017: Alles Schwindel from Mischa Spoliansky, Marcellus Schiffer, Direction: Christian Weise 2018: A Walk on the Dark Side from Yael Ronen, Direction: Yael Ronen 2018: Die Gerechten from Albert Camus, Direction: Sebastian Baumgarten 2015: Uns geht es gut 2017: LOMO – The Language of Many Others 2017: Das schweigende Klassenzimmer 2018: Never Look Away "Werk ohne Autor" 2018: Die Protokollantin 2019: The Golden Glove Jonas Dassler on IMDb