Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues. The term gained popularity during the graffiti art boom of the early 1980s, stencil graffiti, wheatpasted poster art or sticker art, and street installation or sculpture are common forms of modern street art. Video projection, yarn bombing and Lock On sculpture became popularized at the turn of the 21st century, the terms urban art, guerrilla art, post-graffiti and neo-graffiti are sometimes used when referring to artwork created in these contexts. Traditional spray-painted graffiti artwork itself is included in this category. Street art is often motivated by a preference on the part of the artist to communicate directly with the public at large, Street artists sometimes present socially relevant content infused with esthetic value, to attract attention to a cause or as a form of art provocation. Street artists often travel between countries to spread their designs, some artists have gained cult-followings and art world attention, and have gone on to work commercially in the styles which made their work known on the streets.
Street art is a form of artwork that is displayed in a community on its buildings, streets. Many pieces of art come in the form of guerrilla art. The work of artists has moved from the beginnings of graffiti. Street art can come in forms as in recent years. Included within this term, are works of graffiti that have been decidedly labeled as works of art rather than works of vandalism. Due to the subtle difference between street art and graffiti, it has come into debate for many whether certain works quality as art or not. While the difference between the two may be subtle, it is used as a differentiator for those who review and analyze the works everyday, artists have challenged art by situating it in non-art contexts. Street artists do not aspire to change the definition of an artwork, the motivations and objectives that drive street artists are as varied as the artists themselves. ‘Street’ artists attempt to have their work communicate with people about socially relevant themes in ways that are informed by esthetic values without being imprisoned by them.
There is a current of activism and subversion in urban art. Street art can be a platform for reaching the public. Common variants include adbusting and other culture jamming, the abolishment of private property, some street artists use smart vandalism as a way to raise awareness of social and political issues
San Francisco Chronicle
It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a fall in circulation in the early 21st century. The newspaper publishes two web sites, SFGate, which has a mixture of news and web features. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Josephine Newhall took a bold, the newspaper grew in circulation to become the citys largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner. The demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner, from 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation. This arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle, beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco.
The Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper, the sections covered San Francisco, and four different suburban areas. They each featured a unique columnist, enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community, the newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27,2000, following the sale, the Hearst Corporation transferred the Examiner to the Fang family, publisher of the San Francisco Independent and AsianWeek, along with a $66-million subsidy. Under the new owners, the Examiner became a free tabloid, in 1949, the de Young family founded KRON-TV, the Bay Areas third television station. Until the mid-1960s, the station, operated from the basement of the Chronicle Building, KRON moved to studios at 1001 Van Ness Avenue. The frequent bold-faced, all-capital-letter headlines typical of the Chronicles front page were eliminated, editor Ward Bushees note heralded the issue as the start of a new era for the Chronicle.
On July 6,2009, the paper unveiled some alterations to the new design that included yet newer section fronts and wider use of color photographs and graphics. In a special section publisher Frank J. Vega described new, the newer look was accompanied by a reduction in size of the broadsheet. On November 9,2009, the Chronicle became the first newspaper in the nation to print on high-quality glossy paper, the high-gloss paper is used for some section fronts and inside pages. As of 2013 the publisher of the Chronicle is Jeffrey Johnson, audrey Cooper was named editor-in-chief in January 2015 and is the first woman to hold the position
Adidas AG is a German multinational corporation, headquartered in Herzogenaurach, that designs and manufactures shoes and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, and the second biggest in the world, Adidas revenue for 2016 was listed at €19.29 billion. Adidas was registered on 18 August 1949 by Adolf Dassler, following a feud at the Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik company between him and his older brother Rudolf. Rudolf had earlier established Puma, which became the business rival of Adidas. The companys clothing and shoe designs typically feature three parallel bars, and the motif is incorporated into Adidass current official logo. The brand name is uncapitalized and is stylized with a case a. Christoph Von Wilhelm Dassler was a worker in a shoe factory, after leaving school, their son, Rudolf Rudi Dassler, joined his father at the shoe factory. When he returned from fighting in World War I, Rudolf received a management position at a porcelain factory, Adolf Adi Dassler started to produce his own sports shoes in his mothers wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach after his return from World War I.
In July 1924, his brother Rudolf returned to Herzogenaurach to join his brothers business. Following Owens haul of four medals, his success cemented the good reputation of Dassler shoes among the worlds most famous sportsmen. Letters from around the world landed on the desks. Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of every year before World War II. After Rudolf was picked up by American soldiers and accused of being a member of the Waffen SS, American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers shoes. Although it is a urban myth that the name is an acronym for All Day I Dream About Sports. Puma and Adidas entered into a fierce and bitter rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, even the towns two football clubs were divided, ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolfs footwear. When handymen were called to Rudolfs home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes, Rudolf would tell them to go to the basement and pick out a pair of free Pumas.
The two brothers were never reconciled and although both are now buried in the cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible
The Brooklyn Rail
The Brooklyn Rail is a journal of arts and politics published monthly in Brooklyn, NY. The journal features in-depth interviews with artists and curators, as well as essays and poetry, and coverage of music, film. Started as a broadsheet in 1998, with founders, the Rail became a full-format publication in 2000, with Phong Bui. It was originally to be read on the L train between Manhattan and Brooklyn, but quickly expanded to its current form. Bui comments that its largely the support of the art community and funding from art foundations that makes it possible for each section to offer their equal and indispensable voices to the journal. Hamm notes that the Rails non-profit funding, largely provided by donors, has preserved the magazines original aspiration to publish a crucible of slanted opinions. The Rail, organized as a 501 non-profit, is unusual for a periodical in that the editor of each section has editorial autonomy. Sections include, Field Notes, Artseen, Art Books, Music, Film, Theater and Poetry.
Each issue, from February 2012 onwards, includes a Critics Page section directed by a guest editor that focuses on a particular theme or issue. The Rails Co-Founder and Artistic Director, Phong Bui, is an artist, curator, laila Pedro is the Rails managing editor and Sara D. Christoph is the managing director. Maggie Barrett is the Art Director, David Giglio is the web developer. Vanessa Thill is the advertising associate, zack Garlitos is the staff photographer. The current production assistants are Kang Kang, Michela Moscufo, the Rails Consulting Editorial Director is Amy Ontiveros. The Copy Coordinator is Sarah Mendehlsohn, the Art Books Editors are Phillip Griffith and Ben Gottlieb. The Books editor is Joseph Salvatore, the Music editor is George Grella. The assistant Music editor is Marshall Yarborough, the Dance editor is Gillian Jakab. The Theater editor is Emily DeVoti and the associate Theater editors are Mark Armstrong, the Field Notes editor is Paul Mattick. Film editors include Rachel A.
Rakes and Leo Goldsmith, the Fiction editor is Donald Breckenridge
San Francisco Bay Guardian
The San Francisco Bay Guardian was a free alternative newspaper published weekly in San Francisco, California. It was founded in 1966 by Bruce B, Brugmann and his wife, Jean Dibble. The paper was shut down on October 14,2014 and it was relaunched in February 2016 as an online publication. The Bay Guardian was known for reporting and promoting left-wing and progressive issues within San Francisco and this usually included muckraking, legislation to control and limit gentrification, and endorsement of political candidates and other laws and policies that fall within its political views. It printed movie and music reviews, an annual nude beaches issue, the Bay Guardian claimed that its Best Of issue was the first annual guide of its kind and was copied by other publications. The Bay Guardian handed out Goldie Awards annually for excellence in the arts, in 1971, it published The Ultimate Highrise, on the costs of development to the city. In 1975, it published San Francisco Free & Easy, The Natives Guidebook with an edition in 1980.
The Bay Guardian put down an attempt by its employees to unionize in the 1970s, in 1975, Bay Guardian staffers, with the aid of Newspaper Guild Local 52 and International Typographical Union Local 21, signed union cards to seek higher wages and benefits. The paper had won a legal settlement and moved to a new building. Nevertheless, publisher Bruce Brugmann claimed there were not enough funds to pay or benefits. The day after Thanksgiving, he fired five senior staffers who had helped organize the union effort, Newspaper staffers voted to join the Newspaper Guild and, on June 15,1976, they called a strike to force Brugmann to offer a labor contract. Brugmann retained a few management staff and hired scab replacements, in August, César Chávez offered to mediate the strike, but Brugmann refused. Finally, in 1977, another election was called, but this time votes by replacement workers carried the day and the new staff voted not to join a union. On April 19,2012, the East Bay Express reported that the Canadian owners of The San Francisco Examiner were in negotiations with the Bay Guardian to buy the newspaper.
These rumors were denied by its executive editor Tim Redmond. On January 15,2013, their longstanding rival SF Weekly was sold to the San Francisco Newspaper Group, in mid-June 2013, San Francisco Business Times and other publications reported that Tim Redmond had been ousted as publisher and editor. The Bay Guardian issued a statement quoting new publisher Stephen Buel as saying, The Guardian has been losing money, Tim decided to resign rather than follow through with what we were discussing. On October 14,2014, publisher Glenn Zuehls announced that the San Francisco Media Co. which owns SF Weekly, had decided to close the publication, the 40th annual Best of the Bay issue, published on the same day, was the weekly publications final issue
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving using one or more of typography and illustration. The field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, Graphic designers create and combine symbols and text to form visual representations of ideas and messages. They use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to create visual compositions, common uses of graphic design include corporate design, editorial design, wayfinding or environmental design, web design, communication design, product packaging and signage. The term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922, graphic design-like activities span human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Romes Trajans Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction, the bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder, or some other dignitary.
This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governor of a state or mayor of the city, the Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as 136 B. C. found on the Rosetta Stone. During the Dark Ages, from 500 AD to 1450 AD, monks created elaborate and they share many elements, principles, practices and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising, the objective is the sale of goods. In graphic design, the essence is to order to information, form to ideas, expression. Graphic design in the United States began with Benjamin Franklin who used his newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette, to master the art of publicity to promote his own books and his invention is still sold today and is known as the Franklin stove. American advertising initially imitated British newspapers and magazines, advertisements were printed in scrambled type and uneven lines that made it difficult to read. Franklin better organized this by adding 14-point type for the first line of the advertisement, although shortened and centered it, Franklin added illustrations, something that London printers had not attempted.
Franklin was the first to utilize logos, which were early symbols that announced such services as opticians by displaying golden spectacles, Franklin taught advertisers that the use of detail was important in marketing their products. Some advertisements ran for 10-20 lines, including color, varieties, during the Tang Dynasty wood blocks were cut to print on textiles and to reproduce Buddhist texts. A Buddhist scripture printed in 868 is the earliest known printed book, beginning in the 11th century, longer scrolls and books were produced using movable type printing, making books widely available during the Song dynasty. During the 17th-18th century movable type was used for handbills or trade cards which were printed from wood or copper engravings and these documents announced a business and its location. English painter William Hogarth used his skill in engraving was one of the first to design for business trade, in Mainz Germany, in 1448, Johann Gutenberg introduced movable type using a new metal alloy for use in a printing press and opened a new era of commerce.
Previously, most advertising was word of mouth, in France and England, for example, criers announced products for sale just as ancient Romans had done
Kadist is an interdisciplinary contemporary arts organization with an international contemporary art collection. In addition to being a body, Kadist hosts artists residencies and produces exhibitions, publications. The first location was opened in Paris in 2006 by Vincent Worms and Sandra Terdjman, With a gallery space both in Paris and San Francisco, Kadist hosts exhibitions by international artists and curators, often in coordination with their residency program. Artists they have worked with include Ryan Gander, Danh Vo, Francis Alÿs, additionally they have co-produced large scale artist projects, including Klau Mich by Dora García and Muster by Clemens von Wedemeyer at DOCUMENTA. Residencies, Kadist provides residencies for a range of creative activities including and not limited to new artistic productions, publications. Recent residents include artists Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries, bookstore Ooga Booga and publications White Fungus, events, Kadist San Francisco hosts an ongoing series of events, frequently on Wednesdays, which have involved screenings, performances and game shows.
The Kadist collection includes video, painting, sculpture and it is subdivided into multiple, sometimes overlapping collections. The Paris Collection, established in 2001, is not bound by geography or media and its particularity is to support artists through commissioned productions. In 2008, Kadist confonded the Réseau Nord of contemporary art with Galerie Paul Frèches, Galerie Chappe, Isabelle Le Normand, artists in the Paris Collection include Akram Zaatari, Carlos Amorales, Charles Avery, Eleanor Antin. Francis Alÿs, Eric Baudelaire, Olaf Breuning, Yto Barrada, Yael Bartana, Guy Ben-Ner, Abraham Cruzvillegas and Maeda, Martin Creed, Tacita Dean, and Claire Fontaine. A3 embraces global perspectives on contemporary art across Asia and the Asia-Pacific region as a way to develop a relationship with Kadists local venues in San Francisco. The name A3 suggests a multi-dimensional understanding of what it means to be Asian, the A3 collection is directed by Kadist advisor Hou Hanru. Artists in the A3 collection include Shilpa Gupta, Dinh Q, lê, Shahzia Sikander, Apichatpong Weerasethakul, Adrian Wong, Yan Xing, Haegue Yang, and Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries.
The Video Americas collection is a survey of contemporary art produced by artists living and working in North America, Central America, South America. The collection is directed by Kadist advisor Tony Labat, the 101 Collection takes its name from the iconic Highway 101 that runs along the West Coast of United States, from the Canada–US border in the north, to the Mexico–US border in the south. The Collection focuses on art made after 1970, with an emphasis on works made since the year 2000, following the spirit of the region, the 101 Collection is open and liberal, transgenerational, interdisciplinary, and polyethnic. It is concerned with such as politics, place, popular culture. The 101 Collection is directed by Kadist advisor Jens Hoffmann, the El Sur collection was established in 2010 with an emphasis on young and emerging artists from South and Central America, as well as the Caribbean
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits, LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States. It attracts nearly a million visitors annually and it holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features film and concert series, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a similar to Lincoln Center. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million, at the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles. When the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, in the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new partially roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museums four buildings. The museums Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001, Nouvel, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind.
However, the project stalled after the museum failed to secure funding. In 2004 LACMAs Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008, the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Pianos plan to unify LACMAs sprawling, the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign
Margaret Leisha Kilgallen was a San Francisco Bay Area artist. Though a contemporary artist, her work showed an influence from folk art. She was considered a figure in the Bay Area Mission School art movement. Kilgallen was born in Washington, D. C. and grew up nearby in Kensington and she received a BFA in printmaking from Colorado College in 1989 and an MFA from Stanford University in 2001. Though diagnosed with breast cancer, Kilgallen opted to forgo chemotherapy so that she might carry a pregnancy to term and she died in 2001, at age 33, three weeks after the birth of Asha, her daughter with her husband and collaborator Barry McGee. Kilgallen has since been the subject of posthumous retrospectives. In 2000, she and Barry McGee had an exhibition at the UCLA Hammer Museum. A number of major exhibitions took place after her death, in 2002, her work was chosen for that years Whitney Biennial. In 2005, a survey of her work was shown at the Gallery at REDCAT and her work was an important part of the 2004–2006 touring exhibit, Beautiful Losers, Contemporary Art and Street Culture.
At an early age, she was impressed by examples of works by Southwest and Mexican artists, in addition to her commissioned mural work, Kilgallen was a graffiti artist under the tag names Meta and Matokie Slaughter. The latter name, a homage to folk musician Matokie Slaughter, was used for freight train graffiti. Kilgallen was a banjo player and became an avid surfer after moving to California. Kilgallen was a reader, looking to Appalachian music, letterpress printing, freight train vandal art. Her work demonstrates her respect for and engagement with craftsmanship and the stories of peoples lives. She was especially interested in the evidence of the makers hand, as she explained, I like things that are handmade and I like to see peoples hand in the world, anywhere in the world, it doesnt matter to me where it is. And in my own work, I do everything by hand and feet. I dont project or use anything mechanical most of the time, because even though I do spend a lot of time trying to perfect my line work and my hand, my hand will always be imperfect because Im human.
From a distance it might look straight, but when you get close up, and I think thats where the beauty is