Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, United States. The population was 22,639 at the 2010 census. Barstow is located 67 miles north of San Bernardino. Barstow is a major transportation hub for the Inland Empire. Several major highways including Interstate 15, Interstate 40, California State Route 58 converge in the city, it is the site of a large rail classification yard, belonging to the BNSF Railway. The Union Pacific Railroad runs through town using trackage rights on BNSF's main line to Daggett 10 miles east, from where it heads to Salt Lake City and the BNSF heads to Chicago. Barstow is about 15 miles from Yermo, 30 miles from Victorville, 62 miles from Baker, California and 114 miles from Primm, Nevada. Barstow serves as a midway point for drivers traveling between Los Angeles and Las Vegas, Nevada. Barstow is home to Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow and is the closest city to the Fort Irwin National Training Center; the settlement of Barstow began in the late 1830s in the Mormon Corridor.
Every fall and winter, as the weather cooled, the rain produced new grass growth and replenished the water sources in the Mojave Desert. People and animal herds would move from New Mexico and Utah to Los Angeles, along the Old Spanish Trail from Santa Fe, or after 1848, on the Mormon Road from Salt Lake City. Trains of freight wagons traveled back to other points in the interior; these travelers followed the course of the Mojave River and camping at Fish Ponds on its south bank or 3.625 miles up river on the north bank, at a riverside grove of willows and cottonwoods, festooned with wild grapes, called Grapevines. In 1859, the Mojave Road followed a route was established from Los Angeles to Fort Mojave through Grapevines that linked eastward with the Beale Wagon Road across northern New Mexico Territory to Santa Fe. Indian troubles with the Paiute and Chemehuevi tribes followed and from 1860 Camp Cady, a U. S. Army post 20 miles east of Barstow, was occupied sporadically until 1864 permanently, by soldiers occupying other posts on the Mojave Road or patrolling in the region until 1871.
Trading posts were established at Grapevines and Fish Ponds that supplied travelers on the roads and the miners that came into the Mojave Desert after the end of hostilities with the native people. Barstow's roots lie in the rich mining history of the Mojave Desert following the discovery of gold and silver in the Owens Valley and in mountains to the east in the 1860s and 1870s. Due to the influx of miners arriving in Calico and Daggett, railroads were constructed to transport goods and people; the Southern Pacific built a line from Mojave, California through Barstow to Needles in 1883. In 1884, ownership of the line from Needles to Mojave was transferred to the Santa Fe Railroad. Paving the major highways through Barstow led to further development of the city. Much of its economy depends on transportation. Before the advent of the interstate highway system, Barstow was an important stop on both Routes 66 and 91; the two routes continued west together to Los Angeles. Barstow is named after William Barstow Strong, former president of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway.
Some early Barstow names were Camp Sugarloaf and Waterman Junction. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 107.2 km2, 99.98% land and 0.02% water. Barstow experiences four seasons. Summer days are hot, with highs exceeding 100 °F. Winter, in contrast, is characterized by cold mornings, with lows near 30 °F. Daily temperature ranges are large as a result of the low atmospheric moisture between 30 and 35 F difference. In January, the normal high temperature is 61 °F with a low of 37 °F. In July, the normal high temperature is 105 °F with a low of 74 °F. There are an average of 140 days with highs of 90 °F or higher, an average of 82 days with highs of 100F degrees or higher, an average of 25 days with lows of 32 °F or lower; the average annual precipitation is 4.12 inches, with nearly 70% of rain falling during the cooler months. Snowfall is uncommon in winter, occurring two. There are an average of 24 days annually with measurable precipitation; the record high was 118 °F on July 5, 2007, the record low was 5 °F on December 25, 1985.
The wettest year was 1918 with 10.99 inches and the driest year was 1904 with 0.80 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 4.22 inches in February 1998. The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours was 2.28 inches on September 10, 1976. The most snowfall in one month was 25.0 inches in January 1949, including 7.0 inches January 12. The native vegetation is dominated by low desert shrubs such as creosote bush. City residents have introduced many non-native plants, prominent among which are trees such as Aleppo pine, Italian cypress, fan palm, ash, palo verde and redbud; the 2010 United States Census reported that Barstow had a population of 22,639. The population density was 546.9 people per square mile. The makeup of Barstow was 11,840 White, 3,313 African American, 477 Native American, 723 Asian, 278 Pacific Islander, 4,242 from other races, 1,766 from two or more ethnicities/cultures. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9,700 persons (4
Penelope "Penny" Jeggo is a noted British molecular biologist, best known for her work in understanding damage to DNA. She is known for her work with DNA gene mutations, her interest in DNA damage has inspired her to research radiation biology and radiation therapy and how radiation affects DNA. Jeggo has 170 publication that pertain to DNA damage and cancer research and has received 3 top science awards/medals for her research. Jeggo has been a member of several organizations that pertain to radiation biology. Not only is Jeggo a member of these prestigious organizations, but she is an editor for several publication journals that are related to cancer and radiation biology. Jeggo is passionate towards all her research and in an interview with Fiona Watt claimed that “Although my results contributed only the tiniest smidgeon to scientific knowledge, I gained immense satisfaction from it”. Penny Jeggo was born in England, she earned a bachelor's degree in microbiology at Queen Elizabeth College, University of London in 1970.
She went on to earn a PhD in genetics at the National Institute for Medical Research, London, in the lab of Robin Holliday. She held postdoctoral positions with John Cairns, whom she cites as one of her biggest mentors, at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Mill Hill Laboratory, with Miroslav Radman at the Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. After working for Radman, Jeggo returned in 1980 to Robin Holliday's lab where she began her research on DNA damage and the cells response to the damage. After more work in Radman's lab, Jeggo, in 1989, moved to the Cell Mutation Unit at Sussex; when Jeggo reached her thirties and her husband decided to start a family. She gave birth to a son, Matthew, her husband and Matthew's father passed away from colon cancer. The death of Jeggo's husband discouraged her from continuing her research in cancer and radiation biology. Jeggo returned to her research and further researched cancer and DNA a few years after her husband's death. Jeggo's primary legacy is DNA repair of double strand breaks.
Much of her early worked involved Chinese hamster ovary cells, a studied cell line known as CHO. Using standard techniques of microbial genetics, she tested more than 9,000 colonies before isolating six X-ray-sensitive mutants; this was the first step in understanding the mechanisms involved in the repair of X-irradiation-induced DNA damage. Jeggo is well known for identifying two components of an enzyme called DNA-dependent protein kinase as being important in DNA non-homologous end joining, a pathway by which mammalian cells repair themselves; this discovery was a major breakthrough in understanding the double strand break repair pathway in mammals. In addition, Jeggo showed, she studied LIG4-mutant mice and how exposure to oxygen increases the number of double-stranded breaks due to the failure to repair DNA breaks. Penelope Jeggo has been active in various symposiums and conventions where she has discussed her research and given talks on cell biology in relation to radiation biology. In 2001, Jeggo became a founding member of the Genome Damage and Stability Center, a research center established at the University of Sussex.
In 2002, Jeggo was a lecturer for the 6th Cancer/Genome Priority Seminar at the Nagasaki University. She discussed the importance of molecular cell biology. In 2003, Jeggo was given the title of Professorial Fellow of the University Sussex, she attended the 2003 Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology as the conference chair. In 2012, Jeggo was elected into the Academy of Medical Science Fellows along with 46 other British researchers for their dedication to research and for their contributions to the medical sciences. In 2014, Jeggo was the chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Society. Jeggo was an invited speakers for the symposium on DNA damage response to radiation in 2015 at the International Congress of Radiation Research. Jeggo will be representing the United Kingdom as one of the keynote speakers at the World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering in Prague 2018. In her career so far, Jeggo has won the 2011 Penelope Jeggo Bacq and Alexander Award for her research with radiation biology and cancer.
She was the 2013 recipient of the United Kingdom Genome Stability Network medal for her research in DNA damage of the cell. Penelope Jeggo won her third award in 2013 for the Silvanus Thompson Medal from the British Institute of Radiology, her third award was for her research in radiation and DNA damage. One of Jeggo's first publication was on her research with double stranded DNA break repair mutants and the effect it has on VJ recombination. Jeggo and her fellow researchers discovered that two mutants, xrs-6 and XR-1, play a role in restoring VJ recombination and were able to identify which genes are affected by DNA breakage. In her most recent publication, Jeggo worked with other researchers on the Ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related protein and how mutation in ATR can damage DNA which prevents cilia signaling; the team used zebrafish as a model organism in order to test the protein defect and its effects on cilia. Jeggo had researched this subject in 2003 when she and fellow scientists concluded that when ATR is exposed to UV radiation, caused a splice mutation in DNA which led
Hans Brandner is a German former luger who competed for West Germany from the early 1970s to the early 1980s. Competing in three Winter Olympics, He won the silver medal in the men's doubles event at Innsbruck in 1976. Brandner won two medals at the men's doubles event at the FIL World Luge Championships with a gold in 1979 and a bronze in 1977, he won four medals in the men's doubles event at the FIL European Luge Championships with one gold, one silver, two bronzes. Brandner's best overall finish in the men's doubles Luge World Cup was second in the inaugural 1977-8 season, he managed with his wife the "Hochkalter" hotel in Ramsau near Berchtesgaden. Fuzilogik Sports - Winter Olympic results - Men's luge at the Wayback Machine DatabaseOlympics.com profile on Brandner at the Wayback Machine Hickoksports.com results on Olympic champions in luge and skeleton. At the Wayback Machine Hickok sports information on World champions in skeleton. At Archive.today List of men's doubles luge World Cup champions since 1978.
At the Wayback Machine Hotel Hochkalter
The 9th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics were held in the National Indoor Arena in Birmingham, UK from 14 to 16 March 2003. It was the first time the Championships had been held in the UK. There were a total number of 589 participating athletes from 133 countries. 1999 | 2001 | 2003 | 2004 | 2006 1 The United States won the gold medal in 3:04.09, but were disqualified after Young tested positive for drugs in 2004. 1999 | 2001 | 2003 | 2004 | 2006 1 Zhanna Block of Ukraine won the 60 m in 7.04, but was disqualified in 2011 for doping offences.2 Michelle Collins of the USA won the 200 m in 22.18, but was disqualified in 2005 due to the BALCO scandal. 2003 in athletics IAAF Official Website Athletics Australia
The main campus of Brigham Young University sits on 560 acres nestled at the base of the Wasatch Mountains and includes 311 buildings. The buildings feature a wide variety of architectural styles, each building being built in the style of its time; the grounds and landscaping of the campus won first place in 2005 in America in Bloom's campus division. Furthermore, views of the Wasatch Mountains, can be seen from the campus. BYU's Harold B. Lee Library, which The Princeton Review ranked as the #1 "Great College Library" in 2004, has 8½ million items in its collections, contains 98 miles of shelving, can seat 4,600 people; the Spencer W. Kimball Tower is home to several of the university's departments and programs and is the tallest building in Provo, Utah. Furthermore, BYU's Marriott Center, used as a basketball arena, can seat over 22,000 and is one of the largest on-campus arenas in the nation; the campus is home to several museums containing exhibits from many different fields of study. BYU's Museum of Art, for example, is one of the largest and most attended art museums in the Mountain West.
This Museum aids in academic pursuits of students at BYU via research and study of the artworks in its collection. The Museum is open to the general public and provides educational programming; the Museum of Peoples and Cultures is a museum of ethnology. It focuses on native cultures and artifacts of the Great Basin, American Southwest, Mesoamerica and Polynesia. Home to more than 40,000 artifacts and 50,000 photographs, it documents BYU's archaeological research; the Museum of Paleontology was built in 1976 to display the many fossils found by BYU's Dr. James A. Jensen, it holds many artifacts from the Jurassic Period, is one of the top five collections in the world of fossils from that time period. It has been featured in magazines, on television internationally; the museum receives about 25,000 visitors every year. The Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum was formed in 1978, it features several forms of plant and animal life on display and available for research by students and scholars. The campus houses several performing arts facilities, several of which are found in the Franklin S. Harris Fine Arts Center.
The de Jong Concert Hall is named for Gerrit de Jong Jr.. The Pardoe Theatre is named for Kathryn Pardoe. Students use its stage in a variety of theatre experiments, as well as for Pardoe Series performances, it seats 500 people, has quite a large stage with a proscenium opening of 19 by 55 feet. The Margetts Theatre was named for a prominent Utah theatre figure. A smaller, black box theater, it allows a variety of staging formats, it seats 125, measures 30 by 50 feet. The Nelke Theatre, named for one of BYU's first drama teachers, is used for instruction in experimental theater, it seats 280. Single students have four options for on-campus housing: Heritage Halls, Helaman Halls, Wyview Park, the FLSR. Married students can live in Wymount Terrace. Heritage Halls is a twenty-four building housing complex on campus which offers apartment-style living; the halls house both male and female students, divided by gender into separate buildings. Each building has ten to fourteen units capable of housing six people each.
Helaman Halls is a newer complex which has undergone a 12-year renovation spanning 1991 and through 2004. Helaman Halls is a dormitory style living area. Residents share a room with one other resident, but do not have their own kitchen and use shared bathrooms. Residents are required to have a meal plan, eat at the newly remodeled Commons at the Cannon Center. Wyview Park was built for families in 1996, but this changed in 2006 when the complex began housing single students in order to counteract loss of singles' housing in other areas. Wyview Park has 30 buildings that offer apartment-style living for students, along with the option for shared or single rooms; the Foreign Language Student Residence complex has twenty-five apartments where students speak in a selected foreign language. The immersion experience is available in nine languages, students are accompanied by a native resident throughout the year to enhance the experience. Married students can house in Wymount Terrace, which contains a total of 898 apartments in 72 buildings.
Branches of the BYU Creamery provide basic food and general grocery products for students living in Heritage Halls, Wymount and the FLSR. Helaman Halls is served by a central cafeteria called the Cannon Center; the creamery, begun in 1949, has become a BYU tradition and is frequented by visitors to the university and members of the community. It was the first on-campus full-service grocery store in the country. BYU has an extension campus, the BYU Salt Lake Center in Salt Lake City, which began in 1959. On 20 August 2007, the Salt Lake Center moved to a new Campus located on Salt Lake's North Temple street; the campus now occupies three floors of the Triad Center, has a total of 28 classrooms. Admitted BYU students may register for classes the same way as with any class on the main Provo campus. With proper clearance, non-admitted students may register for classes. However, while these credits can be applied at BYU or transferred to other universities, registration does not constitute admittance to BYU.
The Salt Lake Center has some advantages over the Provo Campus, with its tendency toward smaller class sizes. Previous to the move, most classes were held in the evening, the curriculum was limited in size. Changes are underway to expand class times. Phy
Clyde Lee Conrad was a U. S. Army non-commissioned officer who, from 1974 until his arrest on August 23, 1988, sold top secret classified information to the People's Republic of Hungary, including top secret NATO war plans, he was convicted of espionage and high treason in a German court in 1990, was sentenced to life imprisonment. According to court records, Conrad was introduced to the Hungarian secret service in 1975 by his supervisor in the 8th Infantry Division, former U. S. Army Sergeant First Class Zoltan Szabo. Szabo, convicted of espionage in Austria in 1989, received a 10-month suspended sentence in exchange for assisting in the investigation by identifying some of the documents Conrad sold to the Hungarians. Among the documents sold by Conrad were the wartime general defense plans of many units, containing the precise description of where every unit was to go in case of war, how they would defend. Conrad was recruited by Szabo, a Hungarian émigré who served in the U. S. Army as both an NCO and an officer before becoming a colonel in the Hungarian Military Intelligence Service, shortly before Szabo retired from the U.
S. military. It is still unknown today how many people participated in the Szabo-Conrad spy ring, but it is known that their espionage activities lasted for several decades. Four others were convicted on espionage charges in Florida for involvement with Conrad’s spy ring: Roderick James Ramsay, sentenced in August 1992 to 36 years imprisonment. Jeffrey Rondeau and Jeffrey Gregory, who were sentenced in June 1994 to 18 years imprisonment each. Kelly Therese Warren, sentenced on February 12, 1999 to 25 years imprisonment. Conrad's method of recruitment was attempts to appeal to enlisted Army personnel, promising them large amounts of money for supplying him with intelligence reports. Ramsay alleged to the FBI that Conrad had recruited dozens of personnel, including at least one member of the Army's counter-espionage branch, at least one officer who became a general. Conrad was arrested in 1988 by West German authorities and tried for high teason and espionage on behalf of the Hungarian and Czechoslovakian intelligence services.
Conrad was convicted by the Koblenz State Appellate Court on June 6, 1990 of all charges and was sentenced to life imprisonment, fined 2 million marks, ordered to forfeit all proceeds from his activities. German prosecutors said that the documents Conrad leaked - dealing with troop movements, NATO strategy, nuclear weapons sites - made their way to the Soviet KGB, while Chief Judge Ferdinand Schuth, who presided over the case, concluded in the verdict that because of Conrad's treason: If war had broken out between NATO and the Warsaw Pact, the West would have faced certain defeat. NATO would have been forced to choose between capitulation or the use of nuclear weapons on German territory. Conrad's treason had doomed the Federal Republic to become a nuclear battlefield. Conrad died of a heart attack at the age of 50 in Diez prison on January 8, 1998. Of all Americans convicted of espionage, Conrad is one of only five spies to have been considered to have made "big money", alongside Aldrich Ames, Larry Wu-Tai Chin, Robert Hanssen, John Walker.
Defence Security Service article on Clyde Conrad Neth, Mary. "Spy Conrad sentenced to life in prison". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on November 18, 2004