In religion, a prophet is an individual, regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy. Claims of prophethood have existed in many cultures throughout history, including Judaism, Islam, in ancient Greek religion, Zoroastrianism and many others; the English word prophet is a compound Greek word, from the verb phesein. In Hebrew, the word נָבִיא, "spokesperson", traditionally translates as "prophet"; the second subdivision of the Hebrew Bible, TaNaKh, is devoted to the Hebrew prophets. The meaning of navi is described in Deuteronomy 18:18, where God said, "...and I will put My words in his mouth, he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." Thus, the navi was thought to be the "mouth" of God. The root nun-bet-alef is based on the two-letter root nun-bet. Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7.
In addition to writing and speaking messages from God, Israelite or Jewish nevi'im acted out prophetic parables in their life. For example, in order to contrast the people’s disobedience with the obedience of the Rechabites, God has Jeremiah invite the Rechabites to drink wine, in disobedience to their ancestor’s command; the Rechabites refuse, wherefore God commends them. Other prophetic parables acted out by Jeremiah include burying a linen belt so that it gets ruined to illustrate how God intends to ruin Judah's pride. Jeremiah buys a clay jar and smashes it in the Valley of Ben Hinnom in front of elders and priests to illustrate that God will smash the nation of Judah and the city of Judah beyond repair. God instructs Jeremiah to make a yoke from wood and leather straps and to put it on his own neck to demonstrate how God will put the nation under the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In a similar way, the prophet Isaiah had to walk stripped and barefoot for three years to illustrate the coming captivity, the prophet Ezekiel had to lie on his side for 390 days and eat measured food to illustrate the coming siege.
The prophetic assignment is not always portrayed as positive in the Hebrew Bible, prophets were the target of persecution and opposition. God’s personal prediction for Jeremiah, "Attack you they will, overcome you they can't," was performed many times in the biblical narrative as Jeremiah warned of destruction of those who continued to refuse repentance and accept more moderate consequences. In return for his adherence to God’s discipline and speaking God’s words, Jeremiah was attacked by his own brothers and put into the stocks by a priest and false prophet, imprisoned by the king, threatened with death, thrown into a cistern by Judah’s officials, opposed by a false prophet. Isaiah was told by his hearers who rejected his message, "Leave the way! Get off the path! Let us hear no more about the Holy One of Israel!" The life of Moses being threatened by Pharaoh is another example. According to I Samuel 9:9, the old name for navi is ro'eh, רֹאֶה, which means "Seer"; that could document an ancient shift, from viewing prophets as seers for hire to viewing them as moral teachers.
Allen comments that in the First Temple Era, there were seer-priests, who formed a guild, performed rituals and sacrifices, were scribes, there were canonical prophets, who did none of these and had instead a message to deliver. The seer-priests were attached to a local shrine or temple, such as Shiloh, initiated others as priests in that priesthood: it was a mystical craft-guild with apprentices and recruitment. Canonical prophets were not organised this way; some examples of prophets in the Tanakh include Abraham, Miriam, Samuel, Ezekiel and Job. In Jewish tradition Daniel is not counted in the list of prophets. A Jewish tradition suggests that there were twice as many prophets as the number which left Egypt, which would make 1,200,000 prophets; the Talmud recognizes the existence of 48 male prophets who bequeathed permanent messages to mankind. According to the Talmud there were seven women who are counted as prophetesses whose message bears relevance for all generations: Sarah, Devorah, Abigail and Esther.
The Talmudic and Biblical commentator Rashi points out that Rebecca and Leah were prophets. Isaiah 8:3-4refers he married "the prophetess", which conceived and gave to him a son, named by God Mahèr-salàl-cash-baz, her name isn't elsewhere specified. Prophets in Tanakh are not always Jews; the story of Balaam in Numbers 22 describes a non-Jewish prophet. According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism; the last nevi'im mentioned in the Jewish Bible are Haggai and Malachi, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. The Talmud states that Haggai and Malachi were the last prophets, nowadays only the "Bath Kol" exists. In Christianity, a prophet is one inspired by God through the Holy Spirit to deliver a message; some Christian denominations limit a prophet's message to words int
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, was the script used in the historic kingdoms of Israel and Judah by Israelites. It is variant of the Phoenician alphabet of 22 letters. P-H was coined by Solomon Birnbaum in 1954. Archeology dates usage of P-H for writing the Hebrew language to the 10th century BCE. By the 5th century BCE P-H was subsumed by the Imperial Aramaic abjad with little remnant -- the Aramaic sharing a common protolanguage with a simpler font; the present Jewish "square-script" Hebrew aleph beit abjad evolved from the Aramaic. Samaritans use a P-H abjad derivative, known as the Samaritan alphabet. Usage of P-H is negligible nowadays; the chart below compares the letters of the Phoenician script with those of the Paleo-Hebrew and the present Hebrew alphabet, with names traditionally used in English. According to contemporary scholars, the Paleo-Hebrew script developed alongside others in the region during the course of the late second and first millennia BCE, it is related to the Phoenician script.
The earliest known inscription in the Paleo-Hebrew script is the Zayit Stone discovered on a wall at Tel Zayit, in the Beth Guvrin Valley in the lowlands of ancient Judea in 2005. The 22 letters were carved on one side of the 38 lb stone; the find is attributed to the mid-10th century BCE. The script of the Gezer calendar, dated to the late 10th century BCE, bears strong resemblance to contemporaneous Phoenician script from inscriptions at Byblos; the script on the Zayit Stone and Gezer Calendar are an earlier form than the classical Paleo-Hebrew of the 8th century and later. By the 8th century these early forms developed into a number of national alphabets including Israelite Paleo-Hebrew in Israel and Judah, Moabite in Moab and Ammon, Edomite and Early Aramaic. Clear Hebrew features are visible in the scripts of the Moabite inscriptions of the Mesha Stele, set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab; the Tel Dan Stele from 810 BCE resembles Hebrew inscriptions although its writing is classified as Old Aramaic and it dates from a period when Dan had fallen into the orbit of Damascus.
The 8th-century Hebrew inscriptions exhibit many specific and exclusive traits, leading modern scholars to conclude that in the 10th century BCE the Paleo-Hebrew script was used by wide scribal circles. Though few 10th-century Hebrew inscriptions have been found, the quantity of the epigraphic material from the 8th century onward shows the gradual spread of literacy among the people of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah. In 1855 a Phoenician inscription in 22 lines was found among the ruins of Sidon; each line contained about 50 characters. A facsimile copy of the writing was published in United States Magazine in July 1855; the inscription was on the lid of a large stone sarcophagus carved in fine Egyptian style. The writing was a genealogical history of a king of Sidon buried in the sarcophagus; the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was in common use in the ancient Israelite kingdoms of Judah. Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE, in the Babylonian exile, Jews began using a form of the Assyrian script, another offshoot of the same family of scripts.
The Samaritans, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. During the 3rd century BCE, Jews began to use a stylized, "square" form of the Aramaic alphabet, used by the Persian Empire, while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the Paleo-Hebrew script, called the Samaritan script. After the fall of the Persian Empire, Jews used both scripts before settling on the Assyrian form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of the Paleo-Hebrew script among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton; the independent Hebrew script evolved by developing numerous cursive features, the lapidary features of the Phoenician alphabet being less pronounced with the passage of time. The aversion of the lapidary script may indicate that the custom of erecting stelae by the kings and offering votive inscriptions to the deity was not widespread in Israel; the engraved inscriptions from the 8th century exhibit elements of the cursive style, such as the shading, a natural feature of pen-and-ink writing.
Examples of such inscriptions include the Siloam inscription, numerous tomb inscriptions from Jerusalem, the Ketef Hinnom amulets, a fragmentary Hebrew inscription on an ivory, taken as war spoils to Nimrud, the hundreds of 8th to 6th-century Hebrew seals from various sites. The most developed cursive script is found on the 18 Lachish ostraca, letters sent by an officer to the governor of Lachish just before the destruction of the First Temple in 586 BCE. A earlier but similar script is found on an ostracon excavated at Mesad Hashavyahu, containing a petition for redress of grievances. After the Babylonian capture of Judea, when most of the nobles were taken into exile, the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet continued to be used by the people who remained
A bulla is an inscribed clay or soft metal or bitumen or wax token used in commercial and legal documentation as a form of authentication and for tamper-proofing whatever is attached to it. In their oldest attested form, as used in the ancient Near and Middle East of the 8th millennium BCE onwards, bullae were hollow ball-like clay envelopes that contained other smaller tokens that identified the quantity and types of goods being recorded. In this form, bullae represent one of the earliest forms of specialization in the ancient world, required skill to create. From about the 4th millennium BCE onwards, as communications on papyrus and parchment became widespread, bullae evolved into simpler tokens that were attached to the documents with cord, impressed with a unique sign to provide the same kind of authoritative identification and for tamper-proofing. Bullae are still attached to documents for these purposes. During the period 8,000–7,500 BCE, the Sumerian agriculturalists needed a way to keep records of their animals and goods.
Small clay tokens were shaped by the palms to represent certain animals and goods. Clay tokens allowed for agriculturalists to keep track of animals and food, traded, and/or sold; because grain production became such a major part of life, they needed to store their extra grain in shared facilities and account for their food. This clay token system went unchanged for about 4,000 years until the tokens started to become more elaborate in appearance; the tokens were similar in size and color but the markings had more of a variety of shapes. As the growth of goods being produced grew and the exchanging of goods became more common, changes to tokens were made to keep up with the growth. Transactions for trading needed to be accounted for efficiently, so the clay tokens were placed in a clay ball, which helped with dishonesty and kept all the tokens together. In order to account for the tokens, the bulla would have to be crushed to reveal their content; this introduced the idea of impressing the token onto the wet bulla before it dried, to insure trust that the tokens hadn't been tampered with and for anyone to know what was in the bulla without having to break it.
Seals were impressed into the clay alongside of the impression of the tokens. Each party had its own unique seal to identify them. Seals would not only identify individuals, but it would identify their office; as the clay tokens and bulla became difficult to store and handle, impressing the tokens on clay tablets became popular. Clay tablets were easier to store, neater to write on, less to be lost. Impressing the tokens on clay tablets was more efficient but using a stylus to inscribe the impression on the clay tablet was shown to be more efficient and much faster for the scribes. Around 3100 BCE signs expressing numerical value began. At this point, clay tokens became obsolete, a thing of the past. During the early Bronze Age, urban economies developed due to urban settlements and the development of trade; the recording of trade became necessary because production, shipments and wage payments had to be noted, merchants needed to preserve records of their transactions. Tokens were replaced by pictographic tablets that could express not only "how many" but "where and how."
This was the beginning of Sumerian cuneiform, the first known writing system, in 3100 BCE. The Sumerians developed a complex system of metrology as early as 3000 BCE. From 2600 BCE onwards, the Sumerians wrote multiplication tables, division problems, geometry on clay tablets; the earliest evidence of the Babylonian numerals date back to this period. This evidence may suggest that the use of bullae led to early forms of accounting. Denise Schmandt-Besserat of the University of Texas at Austin in the early 1970s is noted for her research and theory of the evolution of bullae into mathematics, she suggested that the earliest tokens were simple were comparatively unadorned. They could have a specific shape to represent the quantity of a particular item. For example, two jars of oil would be represented by two ovoids, three jars by three ovoids, so on. With the development of cities came a more complex economy and more complex social structures; this complexity was reflected in the tokens, which begin to appear in a much greater diversity of shapes and are given more complicated designs of incisions and holes.
Tokens were collected and stored in bullae, either for future promised transactions or as a record of past transactions. The practice of storing tokens in clay envelopes was the more significant for the development of mathematics; because these clay envelopes were not transparent, they would have to be broken open to determine the contents. However, by impressing the tokens on the outside of the envelope before sealing them inside, this necessity could be avoided; the outside marks could serve as a reference and the envelope would only need to be broken open to check the actual contents if there was a dispute about the marks. A further development involved impressing tokens to make marks on a solid lump of a tablet. Only the tablet was kept; because of the complicated shapes and designs of the complex tokens, which did not transfer well by impression, an image of the token would be drawn on the clay instead. This practice, in place by about 3000 BCE, afforded greater ease of use and storage, at a price of a certain loss of security.
These impressed or dra
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing. The profession widespread across cultures, lost most of its prominence and status with the advent of the printing press; the work of scribes can involve copying manuscripts and other texts as well as secretarial and administrative duties such as the taking of dictation and keeping of business and historical records for kings, nobles and cities. The profession has developed into public servants, accountants and lawyers. In societies with low literacy rates, street-corner letter-writers may still be found providing scribe service. One of the most important professionals in ancient Egypt was a person educated in the arts of writing and arithmetic. Sons of scribes were brought up in the same scribal tradition, sent to school, inherited their fathers' positions upon entering the civil service. Much of what is known about ancient Egypt is due to the activities of the officials.
Monumental buildings were erected under their supervision and economic activities were documented by them, stories from Egypt's lower classes and foreign lands survive due to scribes putting them in writing. Scribes were considered part of the royal court, were not conscripted into the army, did not have to pay taxes, were exempt from the heavy manual labor required of the lower classes; the scribal profession worked with painters and artisans who decorated reliefs and other building works with scenes, personages, or hieroglyphic text. The demotic scribes used rush pens; the end of the rush was cut obliquely and chewed, so that the fibers became separated. The result was a short, stiff brush, handled in the same manner as that of a calligrapher. Thoth was the god credited with the invention of writing by the ancient Egyptians, he was the scribe of the gods who held knowledge of moral laws. In addition to accountancy and governmental politicking, the scribal professions branched out into literature.
The first stories were creation stories and religious texts. Other genres evolved, such as wisdom literature, which were collections of the philosophical sayings from wise men; these contain the earliest recordings of societal thought and exploration of ideas in some length and detail. In Mesopotamia during the middle to late 3rd millennium BCE, the Sumerians originated some of this literature in the form of a series of debates. Among the list of Sumerian disputations is the Debate between fish. Other Sumerian examples include the Debate between Summer and Winter where Winter wins, disputes between the cattle and grain, the tree and the reed and copper, the pickaxe and the plough, the millstone and the gul-gul stone. An Ancient Egyptian version is The Dispute between a man and his Ba, which comes from the Middle Kingdom period; as early as the 11th century BCE, scribes in Ancient Israel, were distinguished professionals who would exercise functions which today could be associated with lawyers, government ministers, judges, or financiers.
Some scribes copied documents, but this was not part of their job. The Jewish scribes used the following rules and procedures while creating copies of the Torah and other books in the Tanakh, they could only use clean animal skins, both to write on, to bind manuscripts. Each column of writing could have no less than forty-eight, no more than sixty lines; the ink must be black, of a special recipe. They must say each word aloud, they must wipe the pen and wash their entire bodies before writing the most Holy Name of God, YHVH, every time they wrote it. There must be a review within thirty days, if as many as three pages required corrections, the entire manuscript had to be redone; the letters and paragraphs had to be counted, the document became invalid if two letters touched each other. The middle paragraph and letter must correspond to those of the original document; the documents could be stored only in sacred places. As no document containing God's Word could be destroyed, they were buried, in a genizah.
Sofers are among the few scribes that still ply their trade by hand. Renowned calligraphers, they produce other holy texts; until 1948, the oldest known manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible dated back to CE 895. In 1947, a shepherd boy discovered some scrolls dated between 100 BCE and CE 100, inside a cave west of the Dead Sea. Over the next decade, more scrolls were found in caves and the discoveries became known collectively as the Dead Sea Scrolls; every book in the Hebrew Bible was represented except Esther. Numerous copies of each book were discovered, including 25 copies of the book of Deuteronomy. While there are other items found among the Dead Sea Scrolls not in the Hebrew Bible, many variations and errors occurred while they were copied down, the texts on the whole testify to the accuracy of the scribes; the Dead Sea Scrolls are the best route of comparison to the accuracy and consistency of translation for the Hebrew Bible because they are the oldest out of any Biblical text known. Priests who took over the leadership of the Jewish community preserved and edited biblical literature.
Biblical literature became a tool that legitimated and furthered the priests' political and religious authority
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"