Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is divided into 7 provinces and 75 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises,13 sub-metropolises,246 municipal councils and 481 village and it has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China in the north and India in the south, Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between, Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the worlds ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and largest city. It is a nation with Nepali as the official language. The territory of Nepal has a history since the Neolithic age. The name Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, in the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet, the Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex urban civilization. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala, the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valleys traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture, by the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, the country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and Colonial India. In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged ties with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was suspended by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War resulted in the proclamation of a republic in 2008, modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic.
Nepal is a nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index in 2016. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic and it suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022
The Seti River is an important tributary of the Karnali system that drains western Nepal. The Seti originates from the fields and glaciers around the twin peaks of Api. The area is near the trijunction of the borders of Nepal, the river first flows in a south-easterly direction and flows in a south-westerly and finally south-easterly again before joining the Karnali or Ghagra River. It has cut a spectacular gorge across the Mahabharat Range and appears to be lost amongst caves and tunnels for a short distance
Makalu Barun National Park
The Makalu Barun National Park is the eighth national park in the Himalayas of Nepal and was established in 1992 as eastern extension of the Sagarmatha National Park. The bufferzone adjacent to the southern and southeastern border covers an area of 830 km2. The rugged summits of Makalu, with 8,463 m the fifth highest mountain of the world, Baruntse, the protected area extends to about 66 km from west to east and to about 44 km from north to south. From the Arun river valley in the southeast, located at altitudes of 344–377 m, the national park shares the international border with the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the north. The protected area is part of the Sacred Himalayan Landscape, in the early- and mid-1980s, personnel of The Mountain Institute conducted surveys in the Barun Valley to study the biological richness. The results of surveys led to interest in creating a new protected area. A respective proposal was formulated in 1985, in 1988, the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area Project was initiated as a joint endeavor of the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and TMI.
The MBNPCA was officially gazetted in 1991, an innovative community-based conservation approach emphasized management of biodiversity together with local communities. Community Forest User Groups were created with legal rights to use designated forested areas on a sustainable basis, ecotourism was promoted as a way of expanding off-farm employment opportunities for local people while at the same time minimizing negative environmental impact. Hunting and trapping of rare and endangered wild animals is prohibited in the MBNPCA. There was a provision for compensating farmers for crop and livestock depredation caused by endangered species, in 1999, the conservation area was converted into a buffer zone. The inaccessible valleys of the Barun River, the tributary to the Arun River, treasure some of the last remaining pristine forests. The park is located in the climatic zone of the Himalayas. During these months about 70% of the precipitation of 4,000 mm falls. The first monsoon clouds reach the area in April, temperatures vary greatly due to the extreme difference in altitude in the entire area.
Lower elevations are temperate throughout winter and hot during April and May, forests below 2,000 m are strongly affected by subsistence agriculture, so that only some ecologically significant stands remain there. Above 2,000 m forests are usually extensive since the cool, on alpine pastures at altitudes above 4,000 m the religiously important dwarf rhododendron and juniper, aromatic herbs and delicate wildflowers prosper. The region above 5,000 m comprises mainly rock and ice with little vegetation, the protected area is habitat for a wide diversity of faunal species
Phoksundo Lake, is an alpine fresh water oligotrophic lake in Nepals Shey Phoksundo National Park, located at an elevation of 3,611.5 m above sea level in the Dolpa District. Phoksundo Lake is 494 ha in size with a volume of 409,000,000 m3. In 2004, a survey by the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology measured the depth of the lake at 145 m. In September 2007, Phoksundo Lake has been designated a Ramsar site, on the lake southern end, the village of Ringmo sits on the 30, 000- to 40, 000-year-old landslide dam that formed the lake. Past the dam, the waters of the lake plunge over a 167 m tall waterfall, there are more than 20 stupas in the southern belt, and one gompa in the eastern side of the lake, where annual prayers and worship are carried out. Traditional Tibetan culture prevails in upper Dolpo and Bon are prevalent in lower Dolpo, including Ringmo village
The Kankai River (Nepali, कन्काई नदी, is a trans-boundary river flowing through Ilam and Jhapa in north to south direction of Nepal. Holy river of millions of Hindu Devotees living throughout Nepal, passes through the hills of Ilam and plains of Jhapa District. Kotihom river Bank is the centre for Death rituals of millions of Hindus living in Jhapa, Kankai Irrigation Project launched by Nepal government irrigates the southern Jhapa like Shivganj, Mahavara etc. Kanki Mai or Mai khola has the points of tourism like Domukha, Chuli, Chepti. The river overfloods during the monsoon and has possibility to overflow through the thousands of hector of fertile plains of Jhapa and it is really beautiful to view the local fisherman fishing in the river and the children taking bath in heat of sun. Kankai Aryaghat for death rituals in Kotihom bank of the river built recently by the investment is used for death rituals each day by the people. This river name Kankai is taken from Sanskrit language word ‘KANAKA’, one saying is such about Kankai name.
So many year ago when some saint used to live in hill region beside Kankai river for meditation, so they called to Kankai river as ‘Kanakawati Mai’ or ‘Goddess with gold’. Gradually, People start to call ‘Kankai’ to this river, the Kankai originates in the Mahabharat Range in Nepal. It flows through Nepal and flows through the Indian state of Bihar to join the Mahananda in Kishanganj district, the Kankai is a rainfed perennial river of eastern Nepal. The area has warm temperate climates with mild winters. Upper part of the basin consists of granitic gneiss of Cambro-Ordovician age. The Kankai is gravelly river with more than 60% gravel of gneiss and remaining other are of different metamorphic, the sediment yield of the river is estimated to be 0.148 million ton/year. The Kankai has an area of 1,148 square kilometres. The Kankai irrigation system was developed for the purpose of irrigating 8,000 hectares of land in Jhapa. Its command area is flanked by the Kankai in the east, the Khrisna River in the west, the Mahendra Highway in the north, a detailed feasibility study of the project was completed in 1970 with the technical assistance of ADB.
The construction was carried out in two phases, the first phase was initiated in 1973 and completed in 1981 with substantial delays and cost overruns. The second phase, to irrigate an additional 3000 ha, started in 1980 and was completed in 1991, thus irrigation infrastructure has been developed for a total of 7,000 hectares of land
West Rapti River
The Rapti rises south of a prominent E-W ridgeline midway between the western Dhaulagiri Himalaya and the Mahabharat Range. A3,500 metres summit on this ridgeline marks a triple divide, north of the triple divide the Karnali and Gandaki basins are adjacent, south of it the Rapti and similar but smaller Babai River separate the two larger basins. After crossing into India, the Babai and Rapti separately join the Karnalis continuation called Ghaghara, the Ghaghara ultimately joins the Ganges, as does the Gandaki. The Raptis headwaters descend south from rugged highlands populated by Kham Magar, the western tributary Mādī Kholā rises in northwestern Rolpa and is joined by Lungrī Kholā draining northeastern Rolpa. The Mardi crosses into Pyuthan and it is joined by east-flowing Arun Kholā at Devithān where it enters a gorge through the Mahabharat Range. Jhimruk Kholā -- east of the Mardi—mainly drains Pyuthan, below the upper highlands, an alluvial valley opens where Bahun and Chhetri rice farmers irrigate paddy fields.
At Cherneta, Pyuthan the Jhimruk approaches within 1.5 km of the Mardi, below Cherneta the Jhimruk loops east, becoming the border between Pyuthan and Arghakhanchi District. Its valley narrows and steepens as it enters the Mahabharat Range, partway through it joins the Mardi and the combined flow is named the Rapti. The main river emerges from its gorge into the lower Siwalik Hills, at Bhalubang Bazaar Nepals east-west Mahendra Highway bridges the river. Below Bhalubang, Inner Terai Deukhuri Valley opens between the Dang and Dudhwa Ranges, both subranges of the Siwaliks, following the WNW trend of the Siwalik hills for 100 km. Although the land is fertile, before DDT came into use in the 1950s Deukhuri was so malarial that only the Tharu people who had genetic resistance could be confident of surviving the warmer months, the river crosses from Dang into Banke District. Just west of the city it is joined by the smaller Rohini rising further east in Nepals Nawalparasi and Rupandehi Districts,60 km beyond Gorakhpur the Rapti joins the Ghaghara at Rajpur.
About 120 km further on at Chhapra, the Ghaghara reaches the Ganges, aciravati, an ancient river has been identified with the modern Rapti. House of Tulsipur The Raptis flow has seasonal variation because the river lacks sources in high elevation glaciers. Average monthly flows at Jalkundi in Deukhuri Valley vary from 17.6 m3/s in pre-monsoon April to 451 m3/s at the peak of the monsoon in August, maximum recorded flood was 7,390 m3/s on 10 September 1981. 100-year flood flows are predicted at 10,100 m3/s, over 700,000 acres in Uttar Pradesh are at risk of floods every year. Flood control projects under study include a dam at Jalkundi that would inundate 71,000 acres of farmland in Deukhuri Valley, an alternative dam site is upstream at Naumure on the Pyuthan-Dang district border. Impoundment would mainly be in gorges through the Mahabharat Range, inundating less farmland than the Jalkundi alternative
A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the covered by the basin. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks, in a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.
Drainage basins of the oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans, the following is a list of the major ocean basins, About 48. 7% of the worlds land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. The two major mediterranean seas of the world flow to the Atlantic, The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U. S. The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe and the areas of Israel, Lebanon. Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Oceans drainage basin comprises about 13% of Earths land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earths land. The five largest river basins, from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon, the Río de la Plata, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean.
Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks, the largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, in endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea, drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important
The Koshi or Kosi River drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in the Tibet Autonomous Region and the southern slopes in Nepal. From a major confluence of tributaries north of the Chatra Gorge onwards and these include the Tamur Koshi originating from the Kanchenjunga area in the east, Arun River and Sun Koshi from Tibet. The Sun Koshis tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamba Koshi, the Saptakoshi crosses into northern Bihar where it branches into distributaries before joining the Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district. The Koshi is 720 km long and drains an area of about 74,500 km2 in Tibet, Nepal, in the past, several authors proposed that the river has shifted its course for more than 133 km from east to west during the last 200 years. But a review of 28 historical maps dating 1760 to 1960 revealed a slight shift for a long duration. The river basin is surrounded by ridges which separate it from the Yarlung Tsangpo River in the north, the Gandaki in the west, the river is joined by major tributaries in the Mahabharat Range approximately 48 km north of the Indo-Nepal border.
Below the Siwaliks, the river has built up a megafan some 15,000 km2 in extent, breaking more than twelve distinct channels. Kamalā, Bāgmati and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India and its unstable nature has been attributed to the heavy silt it carries during the monsoon season and flooding in India has extreme effects. Fishing is an important enterprise on the river but fishing resources are being depleted, the Dudh-Kosi sub-basin alone consists of 36 glaciers and 296 glacier lakes. The Kosi River basin borders the Tsangpo River basin in the north, the Mahananda River basin in the east, the Ganges Basin in the south, the three major tributaries meet at Triveni, from where they are called Sapta Kosi meaning Seven Rivers. After flowing through the Chatra Gorge the Sapta Kosi is controlled by the Koshi Barrage before it drains into the Gangetic plain, peaks located in the basin include Mount Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu and Shishapangma. The Bagmati river sub-basin forms the south-western portion of the overall Koshi basin, the Dudh Kosi joins the Sun Kosi near the Nepalese village of Harkapur.
At Barāhkṣetra in Nepal it emerges from the mountains and becomes the Koshi, after flowing another 58 km it crosses into Bihar, near Bhimnagar and after another 260 km joins the Ganges near Kursela. It shows evidence of lateral channel shifting exceeding 120 km during the past 250 years, the river, which flowed near Purnea in the 18th century, now flows west of Saharsa. A satellite image shows old channels with a confluence before 1731 with the Mahananda River north of Lava, the Kosi River is known as the Sorrow of Bihar as the annual floods affect about 21,000 km2 of fertile agricultural lands thereby disturbing the rural economy. The Koshi has a water flow of 2,166 cubic metres per second. During floods, it increases to as much as 18 times the average, the greatest recorded flood was 24,200 m3/s on 24 August 1954. The Kosi Barrage has been designed for a flood of 27,014 m3/s
The Kamala River originates from Nepal and flows through Indian state of Bihar. The Kamala originates from Churia Range near Maithan which is near Sindhuliagarhi in Sindhuli District of Nepal at an elevation of 1,200 metres. It flows in a southerly direction crossing Kamala Khoj area and after passing through a gorge above Chauphat it flows into the area of Nepal at Chisapani. The Kamala forms the border between Siraha and Dhanusa districts in the terai, during the monsoon the river swells up and thus causes devastating river bank erosion. Tao River and Baijnath Khola River merges with Kamala at Maini It enters Indian territory in Madhubani district in Bihar,3.5 kilometres upstream of Jainagar, a barrage known as Kamala barrage has been constructed by the State Government near Jainagar. It joins the river Kareh at Badlaghat in Khagaria district and the stream flows into the Koshi nearby. While one of its branches leads to the Bagmati another leads to the Kosi, in the lower reaches it follows the course of the Balan and is therefore known as Kamala-Balan.
The main tributaries of the Kamala River are the Tao, Baijnath Khola, Dhauri, Balan, the total length of the Kamala is 328 kilometres of which 208 kilometres is in Nepal and the remaining 120 kilometres is in India. The river drains a catchment area of 7,232 square kilometres out of which 4,488 square kilometres lies in Bihar in India. Average annual rainfall is 1,260 millimetres, cropped area in Bihar is 2,744 square kilometres. Population of the Kamala basin in Bihar is 3.9 million, the extent of flood impact can be gauged from the fact that about one million people were affected by floods in the Kamala and other rivers in the region in 2003. While 16.5 per cent of the flood affected area in India is in Bihar,57 per cent of India’s flood affected population live in Bihar. About 68,800 square kilometres out of area of 94,160 square kilometres or about 73.06 percent of the total area of Bihar is flood affected. Over 70 per cent of the population of North Bihar lives under recurring threat of floods, the plains of Bihar, adjoining Nepal, are drained by a number of rivers that have their catchments in the steep and geologically nascent Himalayas.
Bihar witnessed high magnitudes of flood in 1978,1987,1998,2004 and 2007, three dams have been proposed as solutions to north Bihar’s flood problems. Among the three one is across the Kamala at Chisapani, but a report claims that there is no flood cushion in the proposed Chisapani reservoir, the project would provide year round irrigation facilities and generate hydropower with an installed capacity of 30 MW. This scheme forms part of the Sunkosi Storage-cum-Diversion Scheme which involves diverting water from the Sunkosi River to the Kamala River to augment lean season flow, there is a cause for worry. North Bihar is an earthquake prone area, in 1998, earthquake zone was Darbhanga that is only 60 kilometres from the borders of Nepal where big dams are being proposed
The Bagmati River runs through the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal and separates Kathmandu from Patan. It is considered holy by both Hindus and Buddhists, a number of Hindu temples are located on its banks. The importance of Bagmati lies in the fact that Hindus are cremated on the banks of holy river. According to the Nepalese Hindu tradition, the body must be dipped three times into the Bagmati River before cremation, so that the reincarnation cycle may be ended. The chief mourner who lights the funeral pyre must take a holy river-water bath immediately after cremation, many relatives who join the funeral procession take a bath in the Bagmati River or sprinkle the holy water on their bodies at the end of cremation. The Bagmati River purifies the people spiritually, the Bagmati River is considered the source of Nepalese civilization and urbanization. The river has been mentioned as Vaggumuda in Vinaya Pitaka and Nandabagga and it has been mentioned as Bahumati in Battha Suttanta of Majjhima Nikaya.
An inscription dated AD477 describes the river as Bagvati parpradeshe, the Chobar gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range, called the Lesser Himalaya. The basin of the Bagmati River, including the Kathmandu Valley and these adjacent basins extend north of the main Himalayan range and cross it in tremendous gorges, in fact, the Arun tributary of the Kosi extends far into Tibet. The smaller Bagmati rises some distance south of the Himalaya, without glacial sources, its flow is more dependent on rainfall, becoming very low during the hot season, peaking during the monsoon season. In these respects, the Bagmati system resembles the Rapti system lying between the Gandaki basin and the Karnali basin in the far west of Nepal, the Bagmati originates where three headwater streams converge at Bāghdwār, where the water flows out through a gargoyle shaped like a tigers mouth. This lies above the edge of the Shivapuri Hills about 15 kilometers northeast of Kathmandu. Here the Bagmati is wide and swift with a load of suspended solids.
The river flows southwest about 10 km through terraced rice fields in the Kathmandu Valley, resistant rock strata interrupt the flow in places, including at Pashupatinath Temple. Beyond the temple, the river flows south until joined by the larger west-flowing Monahara River, after entering Kathmandus urban area more tributaries enter, relatively unpolluted Dhobī Kholā and sewage-laden Tukucha Khola. Then the river bends south and the Vishnumati enters from the right at Teku Dovan, the Vishnumati rises in the Shivapuri Hills, some 6 kilometers west of the Bagmatis source. It flows south past Nagarjun Hill and Forest Reserve, Swayambhu Stupa, as it passes the centre of Kathmandu, this tributary becomes heavily polluted and choked with trash. Flowing generally south although with many curves, the Bagmati reaches the edge of the Kathmandu Valley, the gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range or Lesser Himalaya
The eight-thousanders are the 14 independent mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres high above sea level. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia and their summits are in the death zone. The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery, the attempt was unsuccessful when Mummery and two Gurkhas and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche. The first recorded ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal. The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was the Italian Reinhold Messner, in 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Messner summitted each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen and this feat was not repeated until nine years by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011.
The alpinists with the highest number of winter ascents are Jerzy Kukuczka, the first woman who summited all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing was the Spanish Edurne Pasaban, in 2010. In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen. The countries with the highest number of climbers that have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders are Italy and South Korea, with five each, followed by Spain. Kazakhstan and Poland have three each that completed the Crown of the Himalaya. Field O2 lists people who have climbed all 14 without bottled oxygen, claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of all 14 peaks. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses