The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain. There are some differences in the basal ganglia of primates. Basal ganglia are interconnected with the cerebral cortex and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas; the basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, habit learning, eye movements and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; each of these components has neurochemical organization. The largest component, the striatum, receives input from many brain areas beyond the basal ganglia, but only sends output to other components of the basal ganglia; the pallidum receives input from the striatum, sends inhibitory output to a number of motor-related areas. The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function.
The subthalamic nucleus receives input from the striatum and cerebral cortex, projects to the globus pallidus. Popular theories implicate the basal ganglia in action selection – in helping to decide which of several possible behaviors to execute at any given time. In more specific terms, the basal ganglia's primary function is to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly. Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active; the "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. The basal ganglia are of major importance for normal brain behaviour, their dysfunction results in a wide range of neurological conditions including disorders of behaviour control and movement.
Those of behaviour include Tourette syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder, addiction. Movement disorders include, most notably Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra, Huntington's disease, which involves damage to the striatum and more hemiballismus; the basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, ventral tegmental area. There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning as well as cognition and frontal lobe functioning, via the mesolimbic pathway from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine, the mesocortical pathway. A number of addictive drugs, including cocaine, specific medications that are prescribed by a doctor, nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal. There is evidence implicating overactivity of the VTA dopaminergic projection in schizophrenia.
In terms of development, the human central nervous system is classified based on the original three primitive vesicles from which it develops: These primary vesicles form in the normal development of the neural tube of the embryo and include the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon, in rostral to caudal orientation. In development of the nervous system each section itself turns into smaller components. During development, the cells that migrate tangentially to form the basal ganglia are directed by the lateral and medial ganglionic eminences; the following table demonstrates this developmental classification and traces it to the anatomic structures found in the basal ganglia. The structures relevant to the basal ganglia are shown in bold; the basal ganglia form a fundamental component of the cerebrum. In contrast to the cortical layer that lines the surface of the forebrain, the basal ganglia are a collection of distinct masses of gray matter lying deep in the brain not far from the junction of the thalamus.
They surround the thalamus. Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. In terms of anatomy, the basal ganglia are divided into four distinct structures, depending on how superior or rostral they are: Two of them, the striatum and the pallidum, are large. In the illustration to the right, two coronal sections of the human brain show the location of the basal ganglia components. Of note, not seen in this section, the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra lie farther back in the brain than the striatum and pallidum; the striatum is a subcortical structure divided into the dorsal striatum and ventral striatum, although a medial lateral classification has been suggested to be more relevant behaviorally and is being more used. The striatum is composed of medium spiny neurons; these GABAergic neurons project to the external globus pallidus and internal globus pallidus as well as the substantia nigra pars reticulata.
The projections into the globus pallidus and substantia nigra are prim
The Iberian horse is a title given to a number of horse breeds native to the Iberian peninsula. At present, no fewer than 18 horse breeds are recognizedIberian horses are thought to be among the oldest types of domesticated horses. Modern Iberian breeds tend to be of a Baroque horse type that resemble their most famous member, the Andalusian horse, in conformation; the Lusitano and Garrano are of Portuguese origin, the remaining are of Spanish. These include the Asturcón, Caballo de Monte del País Vasco, Pura Raza Gallega, Pura Raza Española, Hispano-Árabe, Hispano-Bretón, Jaca Navarra, Losino and Pottoka, as well as the Cavall Mallorquí, Mallorquín and Menorquín. Outside the FAO list, but in the Spanish catalog, a spinoff from the Sorraia, the Marismeño, has been identified living in the environs of the Doñana National Park In 2005, a distinctive primitive, feral breed was identified inside the same National Park, the Retuerta horse. Roman writers mention in Hispania war horses, wild horses, and"tieldones" and small"asturcones" in the north.
Procedures have been started to include the Serrano horse. It's a scarce mountain big pony variety. List of Iberian horse breeds Sable Island horse The Origins of Iberian Horses Assessed via Mitochondrial DNA International Andalusian & Lusitano Horse Association Andalusian Horse Link Lusitano Horse Link Report on DNA of Spanish horses Info on Jaca Navarra OSU Losino page
Lauren Zoe "Laurie" Hernandez is an American artistic gymnast. She competed as a member of the U. S. women's gymnastics team dubbed the "Final Five" at the 2016 Summer Olympics, winning gold in the team event and silver on the balance beam. In 2016, Hernandez won season 23 of Dancing with the Stars with partner Val Chmerkovskiy. Hernandez was born in New Jersey, the daughter of Wanda and Anthony Hernandez, she attended Abeka Academy High School in Old Bridge, N. J, she has a sister, a brother, who graduated from Rutgers University in 2018. She is of Puerto Rican descent. Hernandez credits her positive nature to God moulding her every day. On June 25, 2018, Hernandez addressed the commencement exercises of Old Bridge High School and was awarded an honorary high school diploma, although she did not attend that school. Hernandez's elite career started in 2012 at the U. S. Classic, where she placed 11th in the junior division at the age of 12. Through the Classic, she qualified to the National Championships in St. Louis, where she placed 21st after two days of competition.
Hernandez's first meet of the 2013 season was the WOGA Classic, where she placed second in the all-around. In June, she competed at the American Classic in Texas. There, she placed first on floor exercise, second in the all-around behind Ariana Agrapides, third on balance beam and vault. Hernandez won the junior all-around at the 2013 Elite National Qualifier. Following a national training camp, in July 2013 Hernandez was added to the U. S. junior national team. She went to Chicago for the U. S. Classic, where she placed sixth all-around and won the floor exercise title. At the National Championships in August, she won the silver medal in the junior all-around competition with a total score of 116.650, behind Bailie Key. She placed second on uneven bars and floor exercise, tied for third on beam with Alexis Vasquez. In September, Hernandez was selected to represent the U. S. at the Junior Japan International in Yokohama. She scored 56.750 to win the bronze medal in the all-around. She took third on vault, fourth on floor exercise, sixth on balance beam.
In 2013, she competed at the International Junior Mexican Cup in Acapulco and helped the U. S. team—Hernandez, Veronica Hults, Emily Gaskins—win the gold medal. She took second place in the all-around behind Key. In early 2014, Hernandez fractured her wrist, she returned to competition soon after the injury but suffered a torn patellar tendon and dislocated kneecap, resulting in six months out of gymnastics. She resumed training in the fall and attended the final U. S. training camp of the year in November. Hernandez was named to the U. S. team for the 2015 City of Jesolo Trophy, where she was crowned junior all-around champion with a score of 57.650, ahead of teammates Norah Flatley and Jazmyn Foberg. In the junior-division event finals, she earned additional gold medals on the uneven bars, with a score of 14.500, the floor exercise, with a score of 14.650. At the 2015 U. S. Classic in July, Hernandez won the junior all-around title with a score of 58.450, as well as winning vault and uneven bars.
She placed third on balance floor exercise. At the National Championships, she had a score of 57.900 on the first day of competition and 59.550 on the second day, winning the junior all-around title over defending champion Foberg. She won the title on the uneven bars with a combined two-day score of 30.100, silver on the floor exercise, bronze on balance beam and vault. Hernandez was selected to compete at the 2015 International Junior Japan Meet in Yokohama, where she won the all-around, floor exercise, vault and earned silver medals on balance beam and uneven bars, it was during this. Hernandez made her senior debut in 2016. In March, she competed at the City of Jesolo Trophy in Jesolo, earning the bronze medal in the all-around with a score of 58.550, behind two U. S. teammates, fellow first-year senior Ragan Smith and Gabby Douglas, the 2012 Olympic all-around champion. She earned a silver medal on vault and a gold medal on balance beam, ahead of Smith and 2012 Olympian Aly Raisman. In April, Hernandez competed at the Pacific Rim Gymnastics Championships in Everett, Washington along with Raisman, three-time world all-around champion Simone Biles, 2015 World Championships team member Brenna Dowell.
She contributed an all-around score of 59.800 toward the American team's first-place finish and placed third individually behind Biles and Raisman, but did not earn the all-around bronze medal because of a rule limiting medals to two gymnasts per country. Hernandez qualified for the balance beam final, but USA Gymnastics announced that she and Biles would not compete in event finals in order to rest them before the Olympics. In June, Hernandez competed at the U. S. Classic on bars only, scoring 15.400. That month, she competed all four events at the National Championships. At the end of night one, she was tied for second place in the all-around with Raisman, behind Biles, with a score of 60.450. On night two, she scored 14.800 on vault, 15.150 on uneven bars, 15.300 on balance beam, 14.800 on floor exercise. She finished the two-day competition behind Biles and Raisman, she placed third on uneven bars and balance beam, tied for third on floor exercise with MyKayla Skinner. At the Olympic Trials in early July, Hernandez placed second behind Biles.
She was named to the Olympic team alongside Biles, Douglas and Madison Kocian. In 2014, Hernandez commit