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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/. Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met; these criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state. In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate is used, it follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit of time that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest.

Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth and nerve function, contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate affects the rate that a person burns calories and whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight; the basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR declines by 1–2% per decade after age 20 due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high; the body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR decreases with age, with the decrease in lean body mass. Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass, but anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption.

Illness consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate. BMR may be measured by gas analysis through either direct or indirect calorimetry, though a rough estimation can be acquired through an equation using age, sex and weight. Studies of energy metabolism using both methods provide convincing evidence for the validity of the respiratory quotient, which measures the inherent composition and utilization of carbohydrates and proteins as they are converted to energy substrate units that can be used by the body as energy. BMR is a flexible trait, for example, lower temperatures resulting in higher basal metabolic rates for both birds and rodents.

There are two models to explain how BMR changes in response to temperature: the variable maximum model and variable fraction model. The VMM states that the summit metabolism increases during the winter, that the sustained metabolism remains a constant fraction of the former; the VFM says that the summit metabolism does not change, but that the sustained metabolism is a larger fraction of it. The VMM is supported in mammals, when using whole-body rates, passerine birds; the VFM is supported in studies of passerine birds using mass-specific metabolic rates. This latter measurement has been criticized by Eric Liknes, Sarah Scott, David Swanson, who say that mass-specific metabolic rates are inconsistent seasonally. In addition to adjusting to temperature, BMR may adjust before annual migration cycles; the red knot increases its BMR by about 40% before migrating northward. This is because of the energetic demand of long-distance flights; the increase is primarily due to increased mass in organs related to flight.

The end destination of migrants affects their BMR: yellow-rumped warblers migrating northward were found to have a 31% higher BMR than those migrating southward. In humans, BMR is directly proportional to a person's lean body mass. In other words, the more lean body mass a person has, the higher their BMR. In menstruating females, BMR varies to some extent with the phases of their menstrual cycle. Due to the increase in progesterone, BMR rises at the start of the luteal phase and stays at its highest until this phase ends. There are different findings in research how much of an increase occurs. Small sample, early studies, found various figures, such as. A study by the American Society of Clinical Nutrition found that an experimental group of female volunteers had an 11.5% average increase in 24 hour energy expenditure in the two weeks following ovulation, with a range of 8% to 16%. This group was measured via direct and indirect calorimetry and had standardized daily meals and s

Nocardiopsis alba

Nocardiopsis alba is a bacterium from the genus of Nocardiopsis, isolated from a patient. Qiao, J.. "Whole-Genome Sequence of Nocardiopsis alba Strain ATCC BAA-2165, Associated with Honeybees". Journal of Bacteriology. 194: 6358–6359. Doi:10.1128/JB.01522-12. PMC 3486387. PMID 23105086. Paściak, Mariola. "An airborne actinobacteria Nocardiopsis alba isolated from bioaerosol of a mushroom compost facility". Aerobiologia. 30: 413–422. Doi:10.1007/s10453-014-9336-4. PMC 4218971. PMID 25382928. Pim de, Voogt. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Band 236. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-20013-2. Editors, Ian W. M. Smith, Charles S. Cockell, Sydney Leach. Astrochemistry and astrobiology. Hedielberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-31730-9. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Thomashow, edited by Sudhir Chincholkar, Linda. Microbial phenazines: biosynthesis and health. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-40573-0. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Kim, edited by Se-Kwon. Marine microbiology bioactive biotechnological applications.

Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-66527-3. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Type strain of Nocardiopsis alba at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

Al Hilal (film)

Al Hilal is a 1935 Urdu/Hindi costume drama film. It was the debut directorial venture of Mehboob Khan, he went on to become "one of the pioneer directors of Indian Cinema". The film is thought to be inspired by Cecil B. DeMille's The Sign of the Cross; the film was produced by Sagar Movietone. The director of photography was Faredoon Irani; the music composer was Pransukh Nayak with lyrics by Munshi Ehsan Lucknavi. It starred Kumar, Yakub, Sitara Devi, Kayam Ali and Mehboob Khan; the film depicted fictionalised history in the form of a Roman-Arab conflict, with the son of the Ottoman Empire being captured by the Roman army and his escape from them. Set in the Ottoman Empire it deals with the Caesar's army and their skirmishes with the local Muslim rulers; the Sultan's son Ziyad is arrested by the Roman army. The Roman princess Rahil falls in love with him. A Muslim maid Leela and the princess help him escape. What follows are long chase scenes and fights which lead to success for Ziyad and his people.

Kumar Indira Yakub Sitara Devi Pande Mehboob Khan Wallace Asooji Razak Kayam Ali Azurie Sets were lavish and extensive use of variations made in camera technique like "tight close-ups" and skilfully captured battle scenes. Through the film Mehboob Khan showed his expertise in the field of editing; the film was a "commercial success" and Mehboob Khan earned "critical acclaim" as a director. According to Rauf Ahmed Baburao Patel of Filmindia declared after watching the debut direction that "He will go far". Al Hilal/Judgement of Allah on IMDb


Bukeerere, sometimes wrongly spelled as Bukerere, is a township in the Central Region of Uganda. The correct phonetic spelling is with two'e's after the'k'. Bukeerere is in Mukono District, 11 kilometres, by road, northwest of Mukono, the headquarters of the district; this is 19 kilometres, by road, northeast of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. The coordinates of Bukeerere are 0°24'27.0"N, 32°42'07.0"E. The average elevation of Bukeerere is 1,121 metres above sea level; the town of Bukeerere is the headquarters of Bukeerere parish, in Goma Kyaggwe county. The Bukerere Road leads from Seeta on the Kampala–Jinja Highway through Bukeerere to join the Mukono- Kalagi Road at Kasaayi. All the land in Bukerere 1 square mile, is mailo land, owned by the descendants of Stanslaus Mugwanya, one of the three regents during the reign of Daudi Cwa II of Buganda. Settlers on this land are sitting tenants without land titles, they are expected to pay annual lease payments to owners. Know Uganda: Stanislaus Mugwanya: the father of formal education in Uganda

New Mexico Bootheel

New Mexico's Bootheel comprises the southwestern corner of New Mexico. As part of the Gadsden Purchase it is bounded on the east by the Mexican state of Chihuahua along a line at 31°47′0″N 108°12′30″W extending south to latitude 31°20′0″N at 31°20′0″N 108°12′30″W; the bootheel's southern border is shared between the Mexican States of Chihuahua and Sonora along latitude 31°20′0″N, while the western border with Arizona is along meridian 109°03′0″W at 31°20′0″N 109°03′0″W, bounding an area of 50 by 30 miles and comprising 1,500 square miles. It is characterized by basin and range topography with three north south trending mountain ranges, the Peloncillo Mountains, the Animas Mountains, the Big Hatchet Mountains, separated by four valleys, the San Simon, Animas and Hachita Valleys. A single road traverses just north of the bootheel, New Mexico State Road 9, while New Mexico State Road 80 skirts the western edge running south through the San Simon Valley; the other two roads in the bootheel are State Road 338 running down Animas Valley and State Road 81 running from Hachita to Antelope Wells, a border crossing.

The bootheel is a sparsely populated region known as a cattle-ranching area, with the best-known ranch being the 500-square-mile Diamond A Ranch in the Animas Valley, although mining played a part in the development of the bootheel with the abandoned mining town of old Hachita. Land ownership is divided between publicly owned state and federal lands covering much of the mountain ranges and private lands in the valleys; the Bootheel's only settlement is Antelope Wells, while the towns of Rodeo and Hachita lie just to the northwest and northeast respectively. The former Phelps Dodge mining town of Playas is now a training facility for the United States Department of Homeland Security

Eckerd College

Eckerd College is a private Presbyterian liberal arts college in St. Petersburg, Florida; the college is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. Eckerd was founded as Florida Presbyterian College in 1958 as part of national growth in post-secondary education driven by GIs entering college after returning from World War II and by the baby boom of children; the United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. and the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. worked together to start the college, receiving a charter from the Florida legislature in 1958 and opening in 1960. The college opened in temporary quarters at Bayboro Harbor with a liberal arts focus and 154 freshmen. In 1971, Jack Eckerd donated $10 million to the college and the following year the institution's name was changed to Eckerd College. A covenant relationship is still maintained with the Presbyterian Church. In the 1980s, college President Peter Armacost decided to spend much of the college's endowment on real estate development — building waterfront homes and a retirement center on college-owned land next to the main campus.

In 2000, the Board of Trustees discovered. Armacost retired, the vice president for finance resigned, the college lost the developed land. In February 2004, the college announced. In May 2006, Miles Collier, the chairman of the Board of Trustees, his wife, Parker Collier, announced a $25 million challenge gift to the college. In November 2008, alumnus Grover Wrenn, a member of the founding class in 1960, gave the college a $1 million gift, the largest from an alumnus. William Kadel Billy Wireman Jack Eckerd Peter Armacost Eugene Hotchkiss Donald R. Eastman III Damian J. Fernandez Eckerd College awards Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees; some 39 majors are offered, including Marine Science, Environmental Studies, International Business, Creative Writing. Students can design their own majors. Eckerd College originated the 4-1-4 academic calendar, with the "1" representing the Winter Term during the month of January, in which each student concentrates on a single class. Before graduation, students in nearly all majors are required to either pass a senior-year comprehensive examination or to complete a senior thesis project.

All students must complete a senior seminar course in their final year. Among undergraduate research opportunities are available to students is D. A. R. W. I. N. A computer science project to automate dolphin dorsal fin recognition. Another is the Eckerd College Dolphin Project, the longest running undergraduate-centered dolphin research program in the world. A United States Geological Survey center in St. Petersburg provides further research opportunities. Eckerd students have won more NOAA Hollings Scholarships than students at any other school. Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi are among the nationally recognized academic societies at Eckerd College. Eckerd's Ethics Bowl teams have captured awards in intercollegiate competition, winning the competition for seven straight years. Supporting the academic program is the Peter H. Armacost library, a $15 million facility opened in January 2005; the 55,000 sq ft. It houses book and periodical collections and features seating for about 400, including 17 group-study rooms and 58 computer stations.

Both high-speed cable and wireless connectivity are available throughout the library. Students can study abroad, including at the Eckerd College Study Centre on London's Gower Street. Foreign students attend Eckerd, which offers short-term English-immersion courses in a dedicated campus facility. Since 1980, Eckerd College has been the home of the Leadership Development Institute for managers and executives. Eckerd College is one of 40 liberal arts schools profiled in Loren Pope's Colleges That Change Lives, was ranked tied for 140th of 223 national liberal arts colleges in the United States by U. S. News & World Report for 2020. Eckerd College has a suburban 188-acre campus on Frenchman's Creek and Boca Ciega Bay, about 3 miles from Gulf of Mexico beaches; the campus is near commercial neighborhoods of St. Petersburg; the college has various sustainability efforts, including bikesharing systems and efforts to reduce plastic waste. The school is ranked on the Princeton Review's list of Green Colleges for its sustainability efforts.

The college has several architectural styles, but a common feature is the use of glass and external views to emphasize a connection with the environment. Recent campus additions include the Peter H. Armacost Library, Iota residential housing complex, sports facilities, a renovated student center and the renovated Miller Auditorium. Other campus buildings include those designed and used for classrooms, offices, theatrical productions, musical instruction, art exhibits, athletic events, student services; the James Center For Molecular and Life Sciences, a 51,000-square-foot, US$25 million laboratory facility, opened in February 2013. In Summer 2015, the college was to break ground on a $15 million arts building, bringing together visual and digital a