In physics, energy is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on – or to heat – the object, and can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Mass and energy are closely related, for example, with a sensitive enough scale, one could measure an increase in mass after heating an object. Living organisms require available energy to stay alive, such as the humans get from food. Civilisation gets the energy it needs from energy resources such as fuels, nuclear fuel. The processes of Earths climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun, the total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified in various ways. It may be convenient to distinguish gravitational energy, thermal energy, several types of energy, electric energy. Many of these overlap, for instance, thermal energy usually consists partly of kinetic.
Some types of energy are a mix of both potential and kinetic energy. An example is energy which is the sum of kinetic. Whenever physical scientists discover that a phenomenon appears to violate the law of energy conservation. Heat and work are special cases in that they are not properties of systems, in general we cannot measure how much heat or work are present in an object, but rather only how much energy is transferred among objects in certain ways during the occurrence of a given process. Heat and work are measured as positive or negative depending on which side of the transfer we view them from, the distinctions between different kinds of energy is not always clear-cut. In contrast to the definition, energeia was a qualitative philosophical concept, broad enough to include ideas such as happiness. The modern analog of this property, kinetic energy, differs from vis viva only by a factor of two, in 1807, Thomas Young was possibly the first to use the term energy instead of vis viva, in its modern sense.
Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described kinetic energy in 1829 in its modern sense, the law of conservation of energy was first postulated in the early 19th century, and applies to any isolated system. It was argued for years whether heat was a physical substance, dubbed the caloric, or merely a physical quantity. In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the link between mechanical work and the generation of heat and these developments led to the theory of conservation of energy, formalized largely by William Thomson as the field of thermodynamics
Renfrew is a town 6 miles west of Glasgow, and the historical county town of Renfrewshire. Called the Cradle of the Royal Stewarts for its link with Scotlands former royal house. As the county town, Renfrew once was a centre of government for the surrounding area. Whilst the county remained known as Renfrewshire, the focus of local government gradually shifted from Renfrew to its larger neighbour Paisley, the boundaries of the historic County of Renfrew remain for a number of ceremonial and administrative purposes. The name Renfrew comes from the Old British rhyn frwd meaning point at the current, Renfrews recorded history began with the granting of land in the area to Walter fitz Alan, the High Steward of Scotland by King David I in the 12th century. The strategic location of this castle was to prevent the expansion of the lordship belonging to Somerled, the Lord of the Isles. Eventually the hereditary title of High Steward came to form the surname Stewart, the castle was situated in what is now part of the well-known Braehead shopping complex.
It was located on the Kings inch or Kings island and this location both added to the castles defences but added to its strategic positioning on the Clyde. Many street names close to this area demonstrate the survival of knowledge of this citadel, orchard Street is a reference to the royal orchards for example. Later in the 12th century, King Malcolm IV, grandson of David, in 1164, Somerled sailed to Renfrew and attacked an assembling Scottish army in a conflict known as the Battle of Renfrew. The outcome was a defeat of the Lordship of the Isles, the Lords of the Isles were eventually stripped of their lands and titles in 1493, as a consequence of conspiring with an earlier King of England to overthrow the Scottish monarchy. Since that time, Lord of the Isles - as with Baron of Renfrew - has been a title of the heir to the throne. The role of the Stewarts continued to grow and in 1315 Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward married Marjorie and their son succeeded to the throne as Robert II of Scotland.
The Argyle Stones in the mark the site where his capture took place. During the night of 13 March 1941, three Polish airmen saved Renfrews Roman Catholic church of Saint James, lance Corporal Pawel Radke, Aircraftman Antoni Ptaszkowski and Aircraftman Zygmunt Sokolowski were at the church and at great risk were extinguishing incendiaries. These had caused a number of fires in the church, two of the airmen were killed by a bomb and the third died in Alexandria Hospital the following day. When 309 Squadron transferred to Dunino in Fife in May 1941, the plaque was crafted by a local Polish jeweller, Eugeniusz Waclawski. Renfrew has two Masonic Lodges, Prince of Wales and Lodge Moorpark, numbers 426 and 1263 respectively, the early origins of Renfrewshire lie in the expanding influence of the Stewarts of Renfrew, the family holding the hereditary High Stewardship of Scotland
A truss bridge is a bridge whose load-bearing superstructure is composed of a truss, a structure of connected elements usually forming triangular units. The connected elements may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads, Truss bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges. The basic types of truss bridges shown in this article have simple designs which could be analyzed by 19th-. A truss bridge is economical to construct because it uses materials efficiently, the nature of a truss allows the analysis of the structure using a few assumptions and the application of Newtons laws of motion according to the branch of physics known as statics. For purposes of analysis, trusses are assumed to be pin jointed where the components meet. This assumption means that members of the truss will act only in tension or compression, a more complex analysis is required where rigid joints impose significant bending loads upon the elements, as in a Vierendeel truss.
The central vertical member stabilizes the upper member, preventing it from buckling. If the top member is sufficiently stiff this element may be eliminated. If the lower chord is sufficiently resistant to bending and shear, the vertical elements may be eliminated. The ability to distribute the forces in various ways has led to a variety of truss bridge types. In other cases the appearance of the structure may take on greater importance, a pure truss can be represented as a pin-jointed structure, one where the only forces on the truss members are tension or compression, not bending. This is used in the teaching of statics, by the building of bridges from spaghetti. Spaghetti is brittle and although it can carry a modest tension force, a model spaghetti bridge thus demonstrates the use of a truss structure to produce a usefully strong complete structure from individually weak elements. In 1820 a simple form of truss, Towns lattice truss, was patented, few iron truss bridges were built in the United States before 1850.
Truss bridges became a type of bridge built from the 1870s through the 1930s. Examples of these still remain across the US, but their numbers are dropping rapidly. As metal slowly started to replace timber, wrought iron bridges in the US started being built on a scale in the 1870s. Bowstring truss bridges were a common truss design during this time, companies like the Massillon Bridge Company of Massillon and the King Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio became well-known, as they marketed their designs to cities and townships
Cherry Street Strauss Trunnion Bascule Bridge
The Cherry Street Strauss Trunnion Bascule Bridge is a bascule bridge and Warren truss in Toronto, Canada. Located in the industrial Port Lands area, it carries Cherry Street over the Toronto Harbour Ship Channel and opens to allow ships to access the channel, there are two bascule bridges on Cherry Street. The other, smaller bridge, crosses the Keating Channel, while this bridge crosses the Ship Channel, the bridge was built in 1930 by the company of Joseph Strauss and the Dominion Bridge Company. The north side of the bridge has 750-ton concrete counterweights that allow the bridge to pivot to open, the bridge uses 500 tons of steel in its construction. The bridge is designed to carry two lanes of traffic and it was officially opened on June 29,1931 by Toronto Mayor William Stewart. The bridge was listed under the Ontario Heritage Act by the City of Toronto in 1992 as architecturally historical, the city spent CA$2.5 million to refurbish the bridge in 2007. The Toronto Port Authority made further repairs on the bridge from December 2012 to September 2013 at a cost of CA$2 million, Cherry Street lift bridge List of bascule bridges Bibliography
Port Adelaide is the name of a region of Adelaide, approximately 14 kilometres northwest of the Adelaide CBD. It is the namesake of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield council, a suburb, Port Adelaide played an important role in the formative decades of Adelaide and South Australia, with the port being early Adelaides main supply and information link to the rest of the world. Prior to European settlement Port Adelaide was covered with swamps and tidal mud flats. The entrance to this creek, the Port River, was first reported in 1831 and it was explored by Europeans when Captain Henry Jones entered in 1834. The creeks main channel was fed by numerous smaller creeks, the navigable channel was narrow and the creek soon faded into swamps and sandhills. At low tide the channel was surrounded by mudbanks and solid land ended near present-day Alberton. Colonel William Light began closely exploring the area in late 1836 while deciding on a site for the colony of South Australias port, after initial trepidation, he reported to the Colonisation Commissioners that the location was a suitable harbour.
By this time it had acquired the name the port creek, Lights choice of separating the port and Adelaide was strongly opposed by a few merchants, a newspaper and Governor John Hindmarsh. This opposition was based on the distance between them. The division of power in the colony meant that the decision was Lights alone. He kept Adelaide and the port separate principally due to the lack of water at the port. The effective foundation day of Port Adelaide was 6 January 1837, on this day the first harbourmaster, Captain Thomas Lipson, took up residence with his family on the edge of Port Creek. The new port was used for shipping that month, at this point the site was known as The Port Creek Settlement. When founded, the land was just higher than the surrounding tidal flats. The port had a significant problem—reported in letters from Light and complaints to the Governor from ship owners—of a lack of a water supply. At first the river was not used for larger ships and they had to land at Holdfast Bay until the port was charted.
This early port was plagued by mosquitoes, was a long distance from Adelaide, had few amenities and had a risk of inundation when the tide was very high. By 1840 it had acquired the name Port Misery, the name was used in news reports
A moveable bridge, or movable bridge, is a bridge that moves to allow passage for boats or barges. An advantage of making bridges moveable is the lower cost, due to the absence of high piers, the principal disadvantage is that the traffic on the bridge must be halted when it is opened for passages. For seldom-used railroad bridges over busy channels, the bridge may be open and closed for train passages. For small bridges, bridge movement may be enabled without the need for an engine, some bridges are operated by the users, especially those with a boat, others by a bridgeman, a few remotely using video-cameras and loudspeakers. Generally, the bridges are powered by motors, whether operating winches, gearing. While moveable bridges in their entirety may be long, the length of the moveable portion is restricted by engineering. There are often traffic lights for the road and water traffic, ninety-nine were killed and 100 were injured. Four crewmen, including the engineer and fireman, and 44 passengers died by drowning, september 22,1993 – Mobile, Alabama, US, In heavy fog and low visibility, a disoriented towboat pilot made a wrong turn and entered an un-navigable waterway.
The rails kinked but did not break, so no fault was indicated for approaching trains, approximately 8 minutes later, an Amtrak train carrying 220 passengers derailed at the kinked portion of the rails, killing 47 and injuring 103 more. November 23,1996 – Kearny, New Jersey, US, An Amtrak passenger and mail train derailed crossing the Portal Bridge over the Hackensack River. Moveable Bridges in the British Isles NSW moveable bridges
Pamban Bridge is a railway bridge which connects the town of Rameswaram on Pamban Island to mainland India. Opened on 24 February 1914, it was Indias first sea bridge, the rail bridge is, for the most part, a conventional bridge resting on concrete piers, but has a double-leaf bascule section midway, which can be raised to let ships and barges pass through. The bridge spans a 2 km strait between the Indian mainland and Pamban island, the mainland end of the bridge is located at 9°16′56. 70″N 79°11′20. 12″E. The bridge is located in the second most corrosive environment after Florida. The location is a high wind velocity zone. The railway bridge is located 12.5 metres above sea level and is 6,776 ft long, the bridge consists of 143 piers and has a double-leaf bascule section with a Scherzer rolling type lift span that can be raised to let ships pass. Each half of the lifting span weighs 415 tonnes, the two leaves of the bridge are opened manually using levers. Plans for a bridge to connect to mainland was suggested in 1870 as the British Administration sought ways to trade with Ceylon.
The construction began in August 1911 and was opened on 24 February 1914, the adjacent road bridge was opened in 1988. The bridge was damaged during the 1964 Rameswaram cyclone and required repair work, strengthening work was carried out on the bridge under the supervision of E. Sreedharan in 2009 to enable it to carry goods trains. On 13 January 2013, the bridge required repair work to the piers after suffering damage from a naval barge. In 2016, the Ministry of Railways sanctioned ₹25 crore to replace the existing 65.23 metres long rolling type span with a 66 metres long single span which could be opened automatically. The railway bridge carried metre gauge trains connecting Mandapam on mainland India to Pamban, Indian Railways upgraded the bridge to carry broad gauge trains as part of Project Unigauge and the work was completed on 12 August 2007. From Pamban, the railway line bifurcated, one line towards Rameshwaram about 6.25 miles up, boat mail express runs from Chennai Egmore to Rameswaram.
The train ran upto Dhanushkodi till 1964 when the branch line from Pamban to Dhanushkodi was destroyed during the 1964 Dhanushkodi cyclone. On 23 December 1964, an estimated 7.6 m storm surge struck the island, on 13 January 2013, the bridge suffered minor damage when a naval barge drifted into it. Vikhroli Koparkhairane Link Road Bandra–Worli Sea Link List of longest bridges in the world List of longest bridges above water in India
A drawbridge or draw-bridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle and a number of towers, surrounded by a moat. Medieval castles were usually defended by a ditch or moat, crossed by wooden bridge, in early castles the bridge might be designed to be destroyed or removed in the event of an attack, but drawbridges became very common. It would be backed by one or more portcullises and gates, access to the bridge could be resisted with missiles from machicolations above or arrow slits in flanking towers. The bridge would be raised or lowered using ropes or chains attached to a windlass in a chamber in the gatehouse above the gate-passage, only a very light bridge could be raised in this way without any form of counterweight, so some form of bascule arrangement is normally found. The raising chains could themselves be attached to counterweights, in some cases, a portcullis provides the weight, as at Alnwick. In France, working drawbridges survive at a number of châteaux, in England, two working drawbridges remain in regular use at Helmingham Hall, which dates from the early sixteenth century. A bridge pivoted on central trunnions is called a turning bridge, the inner end carried counterweights enabling it to sink into a pit in the gate-passage, and when horizontal the bridge would often be supported by stout pegs inserted through the side walls.
This was an arrangement, and many turning bridges were replaced with more advanced drawbridges. Bascule bridge Drawbridge mentality Portcullis Linkspan
Palace Bridge, a road- and foot-traffic bascule bridge, spans the Neva River in Saint Petersburg between Palace Square and Vasilievsky Island. Like every other Neva bridge, it is drawn by night and it was built by the French firm Société de Construction des Batignolles between 1912 and 1916. The total length of Palace Bridge is 260.1 metres and it is actually composed of five spans, the southernmost joining Palace Embankment between the Winter Palace and the Admiralty and leading to Palace Square. After Emperor Nicholas I lifted Peter the Greats prohibition to construct bridges across the Neva, a temporary pontoon bridge was set up about 50 metres downstream from the current structure. Construction of the bridge was started in 1912 to designs by Andrey Pshenitsky, but the work was delayed by World War I. The history leading up to the construction of bridge was tortuous with 54 proposed designs rejected between 1901 and 1911. A year after its inauguration, the bridge was renamed Republican Bridge, various improvements and embellishments of the structure continued well into the Soviet times.
In 1967, the bridge was repaired, the tramway tracks were removed in 1998. The engine which opens up 700 ton of each bridge flights consists of motors, huge gears, the mechanism works reliably, but sometimes small incidents occur. In October 2002 one of the gear teeth broke off, consequently the drawing was halted in the middle, and ship passage was delayed
Wabash Avenue Bridge
The Wabash Avenue Bridge over the Chicago River was built in 1930. Standing west of the Michigan Avenue Bridge and east of Marina City, the single-deck, double-leaf bascule bridge was designed by Thomas Pihlfeldt and built by the Ketler and Elliot Company. The American Institute of Steel Construction awarded it the Most Beautiful bridge in 1930, the control houses for controlling bridge operations are on the northwest and southwest corners of the bridge. The control houses are identical in design, in 1961 the control houses were upgraded to allow single man operation. Electrical modernization accompanied this upgrade, while the northern control house is no longer in use, it still stands. The bridge was used in the opening credits of Siskel & Ebert. A glimpse of the bridge was featured in the sequence to the first three seasons of The Bob Newhart Show. The bridge was used in Dhoom 3. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Illinois Historic American Engineering Record No, iL-48, Bascule Bridge, Wabash Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Wabash Avenue, Cook County, IL Google Earth Model
A trunnion is a cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting or pivoting point. First associated with cannon, they are an important military development, alternatively, a trunnion is a shaft that positions and supports a tilting plate. This is a misnomer, as in reality it is a cradle for the true trunnion, in mechanical engineering, it is one part of a rotating joint where a shaft is inserted into a full or partial cylinder. In a cannon, the trunnions are two projections cast just forward of the center of mass of the cannon and fixed to a two-wheeled movable gun carriage. As they allowed the muzzle to be raised and lowered easily, with the creation of larger and more powerful siege guns in the early 15th century, a new way of mounting them had to be specially designed. Stouter gun carriages were created with reinforced wheels, guns would be up to eight feet in length and shoot iron projectiles weighing from twenty-five to fifty pounds. These wrought iron balls when discharged were comparable in range and accuracy with stone-firing bombards, trunnions were mounted near the center of mass to allow the barrel to be elevated to any desired angle, without having to dismount it from the carriage upon which it rested.
Some guns had a set of trunnions placed several feet back from the first pair. The gun would recoil causing the carriage to move backwards several feet and it became easier to rapidly transport these large siege guns, maneuver them from transportation mode to firing position, and they could go wherever a team of men or horses could pull them. Due to its capabilities, the French- and Burgundy-designed siege gun, equipped with its trunnions, king Charles VIII and the French army used this new gun in the 1494 invasion of Italy. Although deemed masters of war and artillery at that time, Italians had not anticipated the innovations in French siege weaponry. Prior to this, field guns were huge, large-caliber bombards, superguns that. Cities that had proudly withstood sieges for up to seven years fell swiftly with the advent of new weapons. Defensive tactics and fortifications had to be altered since these new weapons could be transported so speedily and these towers would be deemed trace Italienne.
Whoever could afford these new weapons had the advantage over their neighbors and smaller sovereignties. Smaller states, such as the principalities of Italy, began to conglomerate, preexisting stronger entities, such as France or the Habsburg emperors, were able to expand their territories and maintain tighter control. With the threat of their land and castles being seized, the nobility began to pay their taxes, on firearms, the barrel is sometimes mounted in a trunnion, which in turn is mounted to the receiver. This usage is common for tubular or pressed metal frame guns, such as the AK-47, PPSh-41, Uzi and others
A vertical-lift bridge or just lift bridge is a type of movable bridge in which a span rises vertically while remaining parallel with the deck. The vertical lift offers several benefits over other movable bridges such as the bascule, generally speaking they cost less to build for longer moveable spans. The counterweights in a lift are only required to be equal to the weight of the deck. As a result, heavier materials can be used in the deck, although most vertical-lift bridges use towers, each equipped with counterweights, some use hydraulic jacks located below the deck. An example is the 52-foot span bridge at St Paul Avenue in Milwaukee, another design used balance beams to lift the deck, with pivoting bascules located on the top of the lift towers. An example of this kind was built at La Salle in Illinois, the biggest disadvantage to the vertical-lift bridge is the height restriction for vessels passing under it. This is a result of the deck remaining suspended above the passageway, Ryde Bridge – road – Ryde, New South Wales – opened 1935, now permanently lowered Hexham Bridge – road – Hexham, New South Wales – opened 1952.
In addition, there are Bridges 13,17 and 18 on the Welland Recreational Waterway, these bridges have not been operational since 1973. Bridges 13 and 18 have had their counterweights removed while the machinery for Bridge 17 has been dismantled, in addition, Bridge 18 no longer possesses its towers, they were removed for ease of maintenance. Burlington Canal Lift Bridge, over the Burlington Canal, information is available from Built 1962. Second Narrows Bridge Vancouver, BC over Burrard Inlet, Okanagan Lake Bridge in Kelowna, BC across Okanagan Lake – replaced in 2008. Shippagan Bridge Shippagan, NB over Shippagan Bay, sir Ambrose Shea Bridge, Placentia, NL. Pont Gustave-Flaubert – crossing the Seine at Rouen, this bridge is the highest vertical-lift bridge in Europe. It is 670 m long, with a span of 116 metres, a striking design feature, the two road sections are mounted outside the central towers. The bridge was designed by François Gillard and Aymeric Zublena and opened to traffic on 25 September 2008.
It is named after the author Gustave Flaubert who was born in Rouen, the central lift span is 117m long and can be lifted vertically up to 53m to let tall ships pass underneath. The bridge is 575m long with the lift span weighing around 2,600 tonnes. Its width varies from 32 to 45m and it will be used by cars, cyclists and it can handle 43,000 vehicles a day and will reduce traffic congestion in Bordeaux