Base on balls
A base on balls known as a walk, occurs in baseball when a batter receives four pitches that the umpire calls balls, is in turn awarded first base without the possibility of being called out. The base on balls is defined in Section 2.00 of baseball's Official Rules, further detail is given in 6.08. It is, considered a faux pas for a professional player to walk to first base; the term "base on balls" distinguishes a walk from the other manners in which a batter can be awarded first base without liability to be put out. Though a base on balls, catcher's interference, or a batter hit by a pitched ball all result in the batter being awarded a base, the term "walk" refers only to a base on balls, not the other methods of reaching base without the bat touching the ball. An important difference is that for a hit batter or catcher's interference, the ball is dead and no one may advance unless forced. A batter who draws a base on balls is said to have been "walked" by the pitcher; when the batter is walked, runners advance one base without liability to be put out only if forced to vacate their base to allow the batter to take first base.
If a batter draws a walk with the bases loaded, all preceding runners are forced to advance, including the runner on third base, forced to home plate to score a run. Receiving a base on balls does not count as a hit or an at bat for a batter but does count as a time on base and a plate appearance. Therefore, a base on balls does not affect a player's batting average, but it can increase his on-base percentage. A hit by pitch is not counted statistically as a walk, though the effect is the same, with the batter receiving a free pass to first base. One exception is. On a HBP, any runners attempting to steal on the play must return to their original base unless forced to the next base anyway; when a walk occurs, the ball is still live: any runner not forced to advance may attempt to advance at his own risk, which might occur on a steal play, passed ball, or wild pitch. Because a ball is live when a base on balls occurs, runners on base forced to advance one base may attempt to advance beyond one base, at their own risk.
The batter-runner himself may attempt to advance at his own risk. Rule 6.08 addresses this matter as well. An attempt to advance an additional base beyond the base awarded might occur when ball four is a passed ball or a wild pitch. In 1880, the National League changed the rules so that eight balls instead of nine were required for a walk. In 1884, the National League changed the rules. In 1886, the American Association changed the rules so that six balls instead of seven were required for a walk. In 1887, the National League and American Association agreed to abide by some uniform rule changes and decreased the number of balls required for a walk to five. In 1889, the National League and the American Association decreased the number of balls required for a walk to four. In 2017, Major League Baseball approved a rule change allowing for a batter to be walked intentionally by having the defending bench signal to the Umpire; the move was met with some controversy. A subset of the base on balls, an intentional base on balls or intentional walk is when the pitcher deliberately pitches the ball away from the batter in order to issue a base on balls.
As with any other walk, an intentional walk entitles the batter to first base without liability to be put out, entitles any runners to advance if forced. Intentional walks are a strategic defensive maneuver done to bypass one hitter for one the defensive team believes is less to initiate a run-scoring play. Teams commonly use intentional walks to set up a double play or force out situation for the next batter. Intentional walks do carry risks, however, they carry an obvious, inherent risk: they give the offensive team another runner on base, without any effort on their part, who could score a run. They may carry additional risks. An intentional walk is signaled by the catcher standing and extending one arm to the side away from the batter; the pitcher pitches the ball to that side several feet outside from home plate outside the reach of the batter. A ball pitched in this manner is called an intentional ball and counts as a ball in the pitcher's pitch count. In order to count as an intentional ball, the ball must be pitched, i.e. the pitcher's foot must be on the pitcher's rubber, the catcher must be in the catcher's box, the batter must be in the batter's box appearing ready to take a pitch at the time the ball is thrown.
An intentional walk may be signaled at any time during the batter's turn at the plate. Only walks issued by the catcher signaling as described above are recorded as intentional walks. Another risk taken by the defensive team in issuing a base on balls is that since intentional balls must be pitched in a legal manner, they can become wild pitches or passed balls. A baserunner can attempt
In baseball statistics, a hit called a base hit, is credited to a batter when the batter safely reaches first base after hitting the ball into fair territory, without the benefit of an error or a fielder's choice. To achieve a hit, the batter must reach first base before any fielder can either tag him with the ball, throw to another player protecting the base before the batter reaches it, or tag first base while carrying the ball; the hit is scored the moment. If a batter reaches first base because of offensive interference by a preceding runner, he is credited with a hit. A hit for one base is called a single, for two bases a double, for three bases a triple. A home run is scored as a hit. Doubles and home runs are called extra base hits. An "infield hit" is a hit. Infield hits are uncommon by nature, most earned by speedy runners. A no-hitter is a game. Throwing a no-hitter is rare and considered an extraordinary accomplishment for a pitcher or pitching staff. In most cases in the professional game, no-hitters are accomplished by a single pitcher who throws a complete game.
A pitcher who throws a no-hitter could still allow runners to reach base safely, by way of walks, hit batsmen, or batter reaching base due to interference or obstruction. If the pitcher allows no runners to reach base in any manner whatsoever, the no-hitter is a perfect game. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; the result was skyrocketing batting averages, including some near.500. The experiment was abandoned the following season. There is controversy regarding; the number of legitimate walks and at-bats are known for all players that year, so computing averages using the same method as in other years is straightforward. In 1968, Major League Baseball formed a Special Baseball Records Committee to resolve this issues; the Committee ruled. In 2000, Major League Baseball reversed its decision, ruling that the statistics which were recognized in each year's official records should stand in cases where they were proven incorrect. Most current sources list O'Neill's 1887 average as.435.
He would retain his American Association batting championship. However, the variance between methods results in differing recognition for the 1887 National League batting champion. Cap Anson would be recognized, with his.421 average, if walks are included, but Sam Thompson would be the champion at.372 if they are not. The official rulebook of Major League Baseball states in Rule 10.05: The official scorer shall credit a batter with a base hit when: the batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that settles on the ground, that touches a fence before being touched by a fielder or that clears a fence. The batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that takes an unnatural bounce so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort, or that touches the pitcher's plate or any base before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder cannot handle the ball with ordinary effort. Rule 10.05 Comment: In applying Rule 10.05, the official scorer shall always give the batter the benefit of the doubt.
A safe course for the official scorer to follow is to score a hit when exceptionally good fielding of a ball fails to result in a putout. The official scorer shall not credit a base hit when a: runner is forced out by a batted ball, or would have been forced out except for a fielding error; the official scorer shall charge the batter with an at-bat but not a hit. The official scorer shall charge the batter with an at-bat but not a hit.
In baseball and softball, second baseman is a fielding position in the infield, between second and first base. The second baseman possesses quick hands and feet, needs the ability to get rid of the ball and must be able to make the pivot on a double play. In addition, second basemen are right-handed. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the second baseman is assigned the number 4. Good second basemen need to have good range, since they have to field balls closer to the first baseman, holding runners on, or moving towards the base to cover. On a batted ball to right field, the second baseman goes out towards the ball for the relay. Due to these requirements, second base is sometimes a defensive position in the modern game, but there are hitting stars as well; the second baseman catches line drives or pop flies hit near him, fields ground balls hit near him and throws the ball to a base to force out a runner. In this case, if the runner is to be forced out at second base that base is covered by the shortstop.
With a runner on first base, on a ground ball to the shortstop or third baseman the second baseman will cover second base to force out the runner coming from first. Moreover, if there are fewer than two outs he will attempt to turn the double play: that is, he will receive the throw from the other player with his foot on second base, in one motion pivot toward first base and throw the ball there. If a runner on first base attempts to steal second base, or if the pitcher attempts to pick off a runner at second base either the second baseman or the shortstop will cover second base; the following second basemen have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: Notes Bill Mazeroski: 11 Nellie Fox: 10 Bobby Doerr: 9 Red Schoendienst: 8 Charlie Gehringer: 7 Joe Gordon: 7 Billy Herman: 5 Jackie Robinson: 4 Roberto Alomar: 3 Craig Biggio: 2 Frankie Frisch: 2 Rogers Hornsby: 2 Joe Morgan: 2 Ryne Sandberg: 2 Tony Lazzeri: 1 Bid McPhee: 1Source: baseball-reference.com
Baseball clothing and equipment
Bat A rounded, solid wooden or hollow aluminum bat. Wooden bats are traditionally made from ash wood, though maple and bamboo is sometimes used. Aluminum bats are not permitted in professional leagues, but are used in amateur leagues. Composite bats are available wooden bats with a metal rod inside. Bamboo bats are becoming popular. Ball A cork sphere wound with layers of yarn or string and covered with a stitched leather coat. Base One of four corners of the infield which must be touched by a runner in order to score a run. Glove Leather gloves worn by players in the field. Long fingers and a webbed "KKK" between the thumb and first finger allows the fielder to catch the ball more easily. Catcher's mitt Leather mitt worn by catchers, it is much wider than the four fingers are connected. The mitt is better-padded than the standard fielder's glove. First baseman's mitt Leather mitt worn by first basemen, it is wider than a standard fielder's glove. The four fingers are connected and the glove is rounded like a catcher's mitt.
A first baseman's mitt has a bit more padding than a standard fielder's glove Batting gloves Gloves worn on one or both hands by the batter. They eliminate some of the shock when making contact with the ball. Batting helmet Helmet worn by batter to protect the head and the ear facing the pitcher from the ball. Professional models have only one ear protector and junior helmets have ear protectors on both sides, for better protection from loose balls, to reduce costs to teams. Baseball cap Hat worn by all players. Designed to shade the eyes from the sun, this hat design has become popular with the general public. Catcher's helmet Protective helmet with face mask worn by the catcher. Newer styles feature a integrated helmet and mask, similar to a hockey goalie mask. More traditional versions were a separate mask worn over a helmet similar to a batting helmet, but with no ear protection and worn backwards. Jockstrap with cup pocket called jock or athletic supporter. An undergarment worn by men for support of the testicles and penis during sports.
A jockstrap by itself holds the testicles up and close to the body to help keep them from being squished between the thighs, or from twisting or hangingout. The jockstrap with cup pocket contains a pocket to hold a protective cup. Protective cup Also called a baseball cup, athletic cup - made of hard impact-resistant plastic or light metal with flexible sides for comfort and protection, designed to protect the testicles and groin from impact of a baseball, baseball bat, cleats, or any other moving object. Required for catchers and all infielders. Many leagues require all male players to wear cup for practices and games. Pelvic protector Provides groin protection for females against impact. Uniform Shirt and pants worn by all players and managers; each team has a unique pattern of colors and designs. Traditionally, the home team's uniform is predominantly white with the team's nickname, the visiting team's is predominantly gray with the team's city. Teams have white and colored jerseys. Sliding shorts Padded support shorts sometimes worn to protect the thighs when the player slides into the bases.
Some sliding shorts contain a pocket for a protective cup. This is so the player does not have to wear a jockstrap and sliding shorts at the same time, although many players find the cup is held in place better by wearing it in a jockstrap under sliding shorts. Sunglasses Worn to shade the eyes from the sun. Baseball cleats Baseball specific shoes worn by the player for better traction; the cleats themselves are either metal. Baseball doughnut A weighted ring that fits over the end of a baseball bat, used for warming up during a baseball game. A doughnut can help increase bat speed. Category:Baseball equipment Baseball Baseball field Baseball positions Sports equipment
In baseball, a wild pitch is charged against a pitcher when his pitch is too high, too short, or too wide of home plate for the catcher to control with ordinary effort, thereby allowing a baserunner even the batter-runner on an uncaught third strike, to advance. A wild pitch passes the catcher behind home plate allowing runners on base an easy chance to advance while the catcher chases the ball down. Sometimes the catcher may block a pitch, the ball may be nearby, but the catcher has trouble finding the ball, allowing runners to advance. A related statistic is the passed ball; as with many baseball statistics, whether a pitch that gets away from a catcher is counted as a wild pitch or a passed ball is at the discretion of the official scorer. The benefit of the doubt is given to the catcher if there is uncertainty. If the pitch was so low as to touch the ground, or so high that the catcher has to jump to get to it, or so wide that the catcher has to lunge for it, it is then considered a wild pitch and not a passed ball.
Because the pitcher and catcher handle the ball much more than other fielders, certain misplays on pitched balls are defined in Rule 10.13 as wild pitches and passed balls. No error shall be charged when passed ball is scored. A wild pitch may only be scored. If the bases are empty, or the catcher retrieves the ball and the runner are unable to advance, a wild pitch is not charged. A scored run due to a wild pitch is recorded. A runner who advances on a wild pitch is not credited with a stolen base unless he breaks before the pitcher begins his delivery. Nolan Ryan is the modern-era leader in the category, throwing 277 wild pitches over his 27 years in Major League Baseball, he led his league in the category in six different seasons. However, the all-time record belongs to Tony Mullane, who threw 343 in the early years of the game from 1881 to 1894. After Ryan's 277, the next pitcher on the list is Mickey Welch 274, followed by Tim Keefe's 233. Bill Stemmyer still holds the single-season record, throwing 63 wild pitches in 1886.
Since 1900, the highest total in a season has been 30. The modern record in a single game is 6, held by three different pitchers. R. A. Dickey, Phil Niekro, Walter Johnson, Kevin Gregg all hold the modern-era regular season single inning wild pitch record with four. Rick Ankiel, threw five wild pitches in the 3rd inning of the first game of the 2000 NLDS. Bert Cunningham of the Players' League in 1890 threw five in an inning. Adam Ottavino on June 26, 2017 set the MLB record of five runs scored on four wild pitches; the current active leader is Félix Hernández, with 132 wild pitches. The only other active pitchers with 100+ wild pitches are John Lackey with 114 and Tim Lincecum with 107. Baseball Reference – MLB Career Leaders and Records for Wild Pitches Baseball Rules See section 10.13
Ichiro Suzuki referred to mononymously as Ichiro, is a Japanese former professional baseball outfielder who played 28 seasons combined in top-level professional leagues. He spent the bulk of his career with two teams: nine seasons with the Orix Blue Wave of Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan, where he began his career, 14 with the Seattle Mariners of Major League Baseball in the United States. After playing the first 12 years of his MLB career for the Mariners, Ichiro played two and a half seasons with the New York Yankees before signing with the Miami Marlins. Ichiro played three seasons with the Marlins before returning to the Mariners in 2018. Ichiro established a number of batting records, including MLB's single-season record for hits with 262, he achieved the longest streak by any player in history. Between his major league career in both Japan and the United States, Ichiro has the most hits by any player in top-tier professional leagues, he has recorded the most hits of all Japanese-born players in MLB history.
In his combined playing time in the NPB and MLB, Ichiro received 17 consecutive selections both as an All-Star and Gold Glove winner, won nine league batting titles and was named Most Valuable Player four times. While playing in the NPB, he won seven consecutive batting titles and three consecutive Pacific League MVP Awards. In 2001, Ichiro became the first Japanese-born position player to be posted and signed to an MLB club, he led the American League in batting average and stolen bases en route to being named AL Rookie of the Year and AL MVP. Ichiro was the first MLB player to enter the Japanese Baseball Hall of Fame, he was a ten-time MLB All-Star and won the 2007 All-Star Game MVP Award for a three-hit performance that included the event's first-ever inside-the-park home run. Ichiro won a Rawlings Gold Glove Award in each of his first 10 years in the majors, had an American League–record seven hitting streaks of 20 or more games, with a high of 27, he is noted for his longevity, continuing to produce at a high level with batting, on-base percentages above.300 in 2016, while approaching 43 years of age.
In 2016, Ichiro notched the 3,000th hit of his MLB career, against Chris Rusin of the Colorado Rockies at Coors Field, becoming only the 30th player to do so. In total, he finished with 4,367 hits in his professional career across the United States. Ichiro grew up in the town of Toyoyama, a small town just outside Nagoya. At the age of seven, Ichiro joined his first baseball team and asked his father, Nobuyuki Suzuki, to teach him to be a better player; the two began a daily routine, which included throwing 50 pitches, fielding 50 infield balls and 50 outfield balls, hitting 500 pitches, 250 from a pitching machine and 250 from his father. As a little leaguer in Toyoyama, Ichiro had the word "concentration" written on his glove. By age 12, he had dedicated himself to pursuing a career in professional baseball, their training sessions were no longer for leisure, less enjoyable; the elder Suzuki claimed, "Baseball was fun for both of us," but Ichiro said, "It might have been fun for him, but for me it was a lot like Star of the Giants," a popular Japanese manga and anime series about a young baseball prospect's difficult road to success, with rigorous training demanded by the father.
According to Ichiro, "It bordered on hazing and I suffered a lot."When Ichiro joined his high-school baseball team, his father told the coach, "No matter how good Ichiro is, don't praise him. We have to make him spiritually strong." When he was ready to enter high school, Ichiro was selected by a school with a prestigious baseball program, Nagoya's Aikodai Meiden High School. Ichiro was used as a pitcher instead of as an outfielder, owing to his exceptionally strong arm, his cumulative high-school batting average was.505, with 19 home runs. He built strength and stamina by hurling car tires and hitting Wiffle balls with a heavy shovel, among other regimens; these exercises helped adding power and endurance to his thin frame. Despite his outstanding numbers in high school, Ichiro was not drafted until the fourth and final round of the professional draft in November 1991, because many teams were discouraged by his small size of 5 ft 9 1⁄2 in and 124 pounds. Years Ichiro told an interviewer, "I'm not a big guy, kids could look at me and see that I'm not muscular and not physically imposing, that I'm just a regular guy.
So if somebody with a regular body can get into the record books, kids can look at that. That would make me happy." Ichiro made his Pacific League debut in 1992 at the age of 18, but he spent most of his first two seasons in the farm system because his then-manager, Shōzō Doi, refused to accept Ichiro's unorthodox swing. The swing was nicknamed'pendulum' because of the pendulum-like motion of his leg, which shifts his weight forward as he swings the bat, goes against conventional hitting theory. Though he hit a home run against Hideo Nomo, who won an MLB National League Rookie of the Year Award while a Los Angeles Dodger, Ichiro was sent back to the farm system on that day. In his second career game, he recorded his first ichi-gun hit in the Pacific League against Hawks pitcher Keiji Kimura. In 1994 he benefited from the arrival of a new manager, Akira Ōgi, who played him every day in the second spot of the lineup, he was moved to the leadoff spot for the Orix BlueWave, where his immediate productivity dissolved any misgivings about his unconventional swing
A baseball is a ball used in the sport of the same name. The ball features a rubber or cork center, wrapped in yarn, covered, in the words of the Official Baseball Rules "with two strips of white horsehide or cowhide stitched together." It is 9–91⁄4 inches in circumference, masses from 5 to 51⁄4 oz.. The yarn or string used to wrap the baseball can be up to one mile in length; some are wrapped in a plastic-like covering. A significant quality of the baseball is the stitching. After a ball has been pitched, these raised stitches catch the air and cause the ball to swerve on its way to the catcher. Whether the ball swerves to the right, to the left, downward, or a combination thereof, whether it swerves or depends on which direction, how fast, the stitches have been made to spin by the pitcher. See, for example, slider, two-seam fastball, four-seam fastball, cutter. In the early, mid-1800s days of baseball, there was a great variety in the size, shape and manufacturing of baseballs. Early baseballs were made from a rubber core from melted shoes, wrapped in yarn and leather.
Fish eyes were used as cores in some places. Pitchers made their own balls, which were used throughout the game and coming unraveled as the game went on. One of the more popular earlier ball designs was the "lemon peel ball," named after its distinct four lines of stitching design. Lemon peel balls were darker and weighed less than other baseballs, prompting them to travel further and bounce higher, causing high-scoring games. In the mid-1850s, teams in New York met in attempt to standardize the baseball, they decided to regulate baseballs to weighing between 5.5–6 oz and having a circumference of 8–11 inches. There were still many variations of baseballs since they were handmade. Balls with more rubber and a tighter winding went further and faster, balls with less rubber and a looser winding did not travel as far or fast; this is true for all baseballs. Teams used this knowledge to their advantage, as players from the team manufactured their own baseballs to use in games. There is no agreement on.
Some historians say that it was invented by Ellis Drake, a shoemaker's son, to make the cover stronger and more durable. Others say it was invented by Colonel William A. Cutler and sold to William Harwood in 1858. Harwood built a factory in Natick and was the first to popularize and mass-produce baseballs with the figure-8 design. In 1876, the National League was created, standard rules and regulations were put in place. A. G. Spalding, a well-known baseball pitcher who made his own balls, convinced the NL to adopt his ball as the official baseball for the NL, it remained that way for 100 years. In 1910, the cork-core ball was introduced, they outlasted rubber core baseballs. It went back to normal. Pitchers adapted with the use of the spitball, now illegal, an emphasis on changing the ball. In 1920, a couple of important changes were made to baseballs, they began to be made using a higher grade of yarn from Australia. Although there was no evidence that these balls impacted the game, offensive statistics rose throughout the 1920s, both players and fans believed that the new balls helped batters hit the ball farther.
In 1925, Milton Reach patented his "cushion cork" center. It was a cork core surrounded by black rubber another layer of red rubber. In 1934, The National League and American League came to a compromise and standardized the baseball, they agreed on a cushion cork center. Baseballs have gone through only a few small changes since the compromise. During World War II, the US banned the use of rubber for non war-related goods, including for baseballs. So in 1943, instead of using rubber, baseballs were made with rubberlike shells of balata. Hitting declined in 1943; the introduction of synthetic rubber in 1944 resulted in baseballs returning to normal. Offense would return to normal after the change back to the regular ball and return of players from active duty. In 1974, baseballs covers were switched from horsehide to cowhide. In 1976, MLB started using Rawlings. Cushioned wood cores were patented in the late 19th century by sports equipment manufacturer Spalding, the company founded by former baseball star A.
G. Spalding. In recent years, various synthetic materials have been used to create baseballs. Using different types of materials affects the performance of the baseball. A tighter-wound baseball will leave the bat faster, fly farther. Since the baseballs used today are wound tighter than in previous years, notably the dead-ball era that prevailed through 1920, people say that the ball is "juiced"; the height of the seams affects how well a pitcher can pitch. In Little League through college leagues, the seams are markedly higher than balls used in professional leagues. In the early years of the sport, only one ball was used in each game, unless it was too damaged to be usable.