A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough and sometimes rigid, it provides the cell with both structural support and protection, acts as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes, in algae and fungi but in other eukaryotes including animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters; the composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose and pectin. Other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls. Algae possess cell walls made of glycoproteins and polysaccharides such as carrageenan and agar that are absent from land plants. In bacteria, the cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan; the cell walls of archaea have various compositions, may be formed of glycoprotein S-layers, pseudopeptidoglycan, or polysaccharides.
Fungi possess cell walls made of the N-acetylglucosamine polymer chitin. Unusually, diatoms have a cell wall composed of biogenic silica. A plant cell wall was first observed and named by Robert Hooke in 1665. However, "the dead excrusion product of the living protoplast" was forgotten, for three centuries, being the subject of scientific interest as a resource for industrial processing or in relation to animal or human health. In 1804, Karl Rudolphi and J. H. F. Link proved. Before, it had been thought that fluid passed between them this way; the mode of formation of the cell wall was controversial in the 19th century. Hugo von Mohl advocated the idea. Carl Nägeli believed that the growth of the wall in thickness and in area was due to a process termed intussusception; each theory was improved in the following decades: the apposition theory by Eduard Strasburger, the intussusception theory by Julius Wiesner. In 1930, Ernst Münch coined the term apoplast in order to separate the "living" symplast from the "dead" plant region, the latter of which included the cell wall.
By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall" as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms, they may give cells offering protection against mechanical stress. In multicellular organisms, they permit the organism to hold a definite shape. Cell walls limit the entry of large molecules that may be toxic to the cell, they further permit the creation of stable osmotic environments by preventing osmotic lysis and helping to retain water. Their composition and form may change during the cell cycle and depend on growth conditions. In most cells, the cell wall is flexible, meaning that it will bend rather than holding a fixed shape, but has considerable tensile strength; the apparent rigidity of primary plant tissues is enabled by cell walls, but is not due to the walls' stiffness. Hydraulic turgor pressure creates this rigidity, along with the wall structure.
The flexibility of the cell walls is seen when plants wilt, so that the stems and leaves begin to droop, or in seaweeds that bend in water currents. As John Howland explains Think of the cell wall as a wicker basket in which a balloon has been inflated so that it exerts pressure from the inside; such a basket is rigid and resistant to mechanical damage. Thus does the prokaryote cell gain strength from a flexible plasma membrane pressing against a rigid cell wall; the apparent rigidity of the cell wall thus results from inflation of the cell contained within. This inflation is a result of the passive uptake of water. In plants, a secondary cell wall is a thicker additional layer of cellulose which increases wall rigidity. Additional layers may be formed by suberin in cork cell walls; these compounds are rigid and waterproof. Both wood and bark cells of trees have secondary walls. Other parts of plants such as the leaf stalk may acquire similar reinforcement to resist the strain of physical forces.
The primary cell wall of most plant cells is permeable to small molecules including small proteins, with size exclusion estimated to be 30-60 kDa. The pH is an important factor governing the transport of molecules through cell walls. Cell walls evolved independently including within the photosynthetic eukaryotes. In these lineages, the cell wall is related to the evolution of multicellularity, terrestrialization and vascularization; the walls of plant cells must have sufficient tensile strength to withstand internal osmotic pressures of several times atmospheric pressure that result from the difference in solute concentration between the cell interior and external solutions. Plant cell walls vary from 0.1 to several µm in thickness. Up to three strata or layers may be found in plant cell walls: The primary cell wall a thin and extensible layer formed while the cell is growing; the secondary cell wall, a thick layer formed inside the primary cell wall after the cell is grown. It is not found in all cell types.
Some cells, such as the conducting cells in xylem, possess a secondary wall containing lignin, which strengthens and waterproofs the wall. The middle lamella, a layer rich in pectins; this outermost layer
A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems; these and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota, which share a common ancestor, an interpretation, strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. This fungal group oomycetes; the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more related to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and parasites, they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment, they have long been used in the form of mushrooms and truffles. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, more various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans; the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.
Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies; the fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species. Of these, only about 120,000 have been described, with over 8,000 species known to be detrimental to plants and at least 300 that can be pathogenic to humans. Since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace and Pliny; this in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos, which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds. The word mycology is derived from the Greek logos, it denotes the scientific study of fungi. The Latin adjectival form of "mycology" appeared as early as 1796 in a book on the subject by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon; the word appeared in English as early as 1824 in a book by Robert Kaye Greville. In 1836 the English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. Refers to mycology as the study of fungi. A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland". Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are immobile, have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.
Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies, which sometimes resemble plants such as mosses. The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago; some morphological and genetic features are shared with other organisms, while others are unique to the fungi separating them from the other kingdoms: Shared features: With other euka
A chlamydospore is the thick-walled large resting spore of several kinds of fungi, including Ascomycota such as Candida, Basidiomycota such as Panus, various Mortierellales species. It is the life-stage which survives in unfavourable conditions, such as hot seasons. Chlamydospores are dark-coloured and have a smooth surface, they are multicellular, with cells connected by pores in the septae between cells. Chlamydospores are a result of sexual reproduction. Teliospores are special kind of chlamydospores formed by smuts. Conidium Resting spore Zygospore The chlamydospores of Candida albicans, Chlamydospore development
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote; this cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spores of seed plants, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains.
The term spore derives from the ancient Greek word σπορά spora, meaning "seed, sowing", related to σπόρος sporos, "sowing," and σπείρειν speirein, "to sow." In common parlance, the difference between a "spore" and a "gamete" is that a spore will germinate and develop into a sporeling, while a gamete needs to combine with another gamete to form a zygote before developing further. The main difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores are unicellular, while seeds contain within them a multicellular gametophyte that produces a developing embryo, the multicellular sporophyte of the next generation. Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes. Vascular plant spores are always haploid. Vascular plants heterosporous. Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same type. Heterosporous plants, such as seed plants, spikemosses and ferns of the order Salviniales produce spores of two different sizes: the larger spore in effect functioning as a "female" spore and the smaller functioning as a "male".
Such plants give rise to the two kind of spores from within separate sporangia, either a megasporangium that produces megaspores or a microsporangium that produces microspores. In flowering plants, these sporangia occur within anthers, respectively. Fungi produce spores, as a result of sexual, or asexual, reproduction. Spores are haploid and grow into mature haploid individuals through mitotic division of cells. Dikaryotic cells result from the fusion of two haploid gamete cells. Among sporogenic dikaryotic cells, karyogamy occurs to produce a diploid cell. Diploid cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores. Spores can be classified in several ways: In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production occurs. Since fungi are classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi. Sporangiospores: spores produced by a sporangium in many fungi such as zygomycetes.
Zygospores: spores produced by a zygosporangium, characteristic of zygomycetes. Ascospores: spores produced by an ascus, characteristic of ascomycetes. Basidiospores: spores produced by a basidium, characteristic of basidiomycetes. Aeciospores: spores produced by an aecium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Urediniospores: spores produced by a uredinium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Teliospores: spores produced by a telium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Oospores: spores produced by an oogonium, characteristic of oomycetes. Carpospores: spores produced by a carposporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Tetraspores: spores produced by a tetrasporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Chlamydospores: thick-walled resting spores of fungi produced to survive unfavorable conditions. Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, external spores called environmental spores, released by the host to infest other hosts. Meiospores: spores produced by meiosis.
Examples are the precursor cells of gametophytes of seed plants found in flowers or cones, the zoospores produced from meiosis in the sporophytes of algae such as Ulva. Microspores: meiospores that give rise to a male gametophyte. Megaspores: meiospores that give rise to a female gametophyte. Mitospores: spores produced by mitosis. Fungi in which only mitospores are found are called "mitosporic fungi" or "anamorphic fungi", are classified under the taxon Deuteromycota. Spores can be differentiated by. Zoospores: mobile spores that move by means of one or more flagella, can be found in some algae and fungi. Aplanospores: immobile spores that may potentially grow flagella. Autospores: immobile spores that cannot develop flagella. Ballistospores: spores that are forcibly discharged or ejected from the fungal fruiting body as the result of an internal force, such as buildup of pressure. Most basidiospores are ballistospores, another notable e
Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales. An estimated 168 rust genera and 7,000 species, more than half of which belong to the genus Puccinia, are accepted. Rust fungi are specialized plant pathogens with several unique features. Taken as a group, rust fungi affect many kinds of plants. However, each species has a narrow range of hosts and cannot be transmitted to non-host plants. In addition, most rust fungi cannot be grown in pure culture. A single species of rust fungi may be able to infect two different plant hosts in different stages of its life cycle, may produce up to five morphologically and cytologically distinct spore-producing structures viz. spermogonia, uredinia and basidia in successive stages of reproduction. Each spore type is host specific, can infect only one kind of plant. Rust fungi are obligate plant pathogens. Infections begin when a spore lands on the plant surface and invades its host. Infection is limited to plant parts such as leaves, tender shoots, fruits, etc.
Plants with severe rust infection may appear stunted, chlorotic, or may display signs of infection such as rust fruiting bodies. Rust fungi grow intracellularly, make spore-producing fruiting bodies within or, more on the surfaces of affected plant parts; some rust species form perennial systemic infections that may cause plant deformities such as growth retardation, witch's broom, stem canker, galls, or hypertrophy of affected plant parts. Rusts get their name because they are most observed as deposits of powdery rust-coloured or brown spores on plant surfaces; the Roman agricultural festival Robigalia has ancient origins in combating wheat rust. Rusts are considered among the most harmful pathogens to agriculture and forestry. Rust fungi are major concerns and limiting factors for successful cultivation of agricultural and forestry crops. White pine blister rust, wheat stem rust and coffee rust are examples of notoriously damaging, economically important crops. All rusts are obligate parasites, meaning that they require a living host to complete their life cycle.
They do not kill the host plant but can reduce growth and yield. Cereal crops can be devastated in one season and trees that get infected in the main stem within their first five years by the rust Cronartium quercuum die. Rusts can produce up to five spore types from corresponding fruiting body types during their life cycle, depending on the species. Roman numerals have traditionally been used to refer to these morphological types. 0-Pycniospores from Pycnidia. These serve as haploid gametes in heterothallic rusts. I-Aeciospores from Aecia; these serve as non-repeating, asexual spores, go on to infect the primary host. II-Urediniospores from Uredia; these serve as repeating dikaryotic vegetative spores. These spores are referred to as the repeating stage because they can cause auto-infection on the primary host, re-infecting the same host from which the spores were produced, they are profuse, red/orange, a prominent sign of rust disease. III-Teliospores from Telia; these dikaryotic spores are the survival/overwintering stage of life cycle.
They germinate to produce basidia. IV-Basidiospores from Teliospores; these haploid spores infect the alternate host in Spring. Although these are observed outside of the laboratory. Rust fungi are categorized by their life cycle. Three basic types of life cycles are recognized based on the number of spore states as macrocyclic and microcyclic; the macrocyclic life cycle has all spore states, the demicyclic lacks the uredinial state, the microcyclic cycle lacks the basidial and the aecial states, thus possess only uredinia and telia. Spermagonia may be absent from each type but the microcyclic life cycle. In macrocyclic and demicyclic life cycles, the rust may be either host alternating, i.e. the aecial state is on one kind of plant but the telial state on a different and unrelated plant, or non-host alternating, i.e. the aecial and telial states on the same kind of plant. Heteroecious rust fungi require two unrelated hosts to complete their life cycle, with the primary host being infected by aeciospores and the alternate host being infected with basidiospores.
This can be contrasted with an autoecious fungus which can complete its life cycle on a single host species. Understanding the life cycles of rust fungi allows for proper disease management. There are definite patterns of relationship with host plant groups and the rust fungi that parasitize them; some genera of rust fungi Puccinia and Uromyces, comprise species that are capable of parasitizing plants of many families. Other rust genera appear to be restricted to certain plant groups. Host restriction may, in heteroecious species, apply to both phases of life cycle or to only one phase; the fungi produce asexual spores which disperse by wind, water or by insect vectors spreading the infection. Rust fungi are biotrophs; when airborne spores settle on a plant, weak hydrophobic interactions are formed with the cutin on the plant cell surface, securing it. By a process not understood, the production of mucous like substances called'adhesins' stick the spore to the plant surface. Once attached, the spore germinates by growing a germ tube and locates a stoma by a touch responsive process known as thigmotropism.
This involves growing towards a ridge between the epidermal cells, followed by a perpendi
Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology. Although in theory the term includes fungi used for such purposes as tinder and food, it is used in the context of the study of psychoactive mushrooms such as psilocybin mushrooms, the Amanita muscaria mushroom, the ergot fungus. American banker Robert Gordon Wasson pioneered interest in this field of study in the late 1950s, when he and his wife became the first Westerners on record allowed to participate in a mushroom velada, held by the Mazatec curandera María Sabina; the biologist Richard Evans Schultes is considered an ethnomycological pioneer. Researchers in the field include Terence McKenna, Albert Hofmann, Ralph Metzner, Carl Ruck, Blaise Daniel Staples, Giorgio Samorini, Keewaydinoquay Peschel, John Marco Allegro, Clark Heinrich, Jonathan Ott, Paul Stamets. Besides mycological determination in the field, ethnomycology depends to a large extent on anthropology and philology.
One of the major debates among ethnomycologists is Wasson's theory that the Soma mentioned in the Rigveda of the Indo-Aryans was the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Following his example similar attempts have been made to identify psychoactive mushroom usage in many other ancient cultures, with varying degrees of credibility. Another much written about topic is the content of the Kykeon, the sacrament used during the Eleusinian mysteries in ancient Greece between 1500 BCE and 396 CE. Although not an ethnomycologist as such, philologist John Allegro has made an important contribution suggesting, in a book controversial enough to have his academic career destroyed, that Amanita muscaria was not only consumed as a sacrament but was the main focus of worship in the more esoteric sects of Sumerian religion and early Christianity. Clark Heinrich claims that Amanita muscaria use in Europe was not wiped out by Orthodox Christianity but continued to be used by individuals and small groups such as medieval Holy Grail myth makers and Renaissance artists.
While Wasson views historical mushroom use as a facilitator for the shamanic or spiritual experiences core to these rites and traditions, McKenna takes this further, positing that the ingestion of psilocybin was primary in the formation of language and culture and identifying psychedelic mushrooms as the original "Tree of Knowledge". There is indeed some research supporting the theory that psilocybin ingestion temporarily increases neurochemical activity in the language centers of the brain, indicating a need for more research into the uses of psychoactive plants and fungi in human history; the 1990s saw a surge in the recreational use of psilocybin mushrooms due to a combination of a psychedelic revival in the rave culture and simplified cultivation techniques, the distribution of both the mushrooms themselves and information about them via the Internet. This "mushrooming of mushroom use" has caused an increased popularization of ethnomycology itself as there are many websites and Internet forums where mushroom references in Christmas and fairy tale symbolism are discussed.
It remains open to interpretation what effect this popularization has on ethnomycology in the academic world, where the lack of verifiable evidence has kept its theories with their far-reaching implications shrouded in controversy. Oswaldo Fidalgo, The ethnomycology of the Sanama Indians, Mycological Society of America, ASIN B00072T1TC E. Barrie Kavasch, Alberto C. Meloni, American Indian EarthSense: Herbaria of Ethnobotany and Ethnomycology, Birdstone Press, the Institute for American Indian Studies. ISBN 0-936322-05-5. Aaron Michael Lampman, Tzeltal ethnomycology: Naming and use of mushrooms in the highlands of Chiapas, Dissertation, ProQuest Information and Learning Jagjit Singh, From Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology: Exploiting Fungi from Natural Resources for Novel Products, Springer, ISBN 0-306-46059-9. Keewaydinoquay Peschel. Puhpohwee for the people: A narrative account of some use of fungi among the Ahnishinaubeg Botanical Museum of Harvard University,ASIN: B0006E6KTU "Aboriginal use of fungi", Australian National Botanic Gardens Fungi Web Site.
R. G. Wasson - Harvard University Herbaria Carl A. P. Ruck - Boston University Department of Classical Studies Albert Hofmann Foundation Terence McKenna - Official site John M. Allegro - Official site Jan Irvin and Andrew Rutajit - Official site Dan Merkur - Official site Michael Hoffman Visionary Mushrooms Studies in Ethnomycology with Contributions by Gaston Guzman and Albert Hofmann
Medicinal fungi are those fungi which produce medically significant metabolites or can be induced to produce such metabolites using biotechnology. The range of medically active compounds that have been identified include antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, cholesterol inhibitors, psychotropic drugs, immunosuppressants and fungicides. Although initial discoveries centred on simple moulds of the type that cause spoilage of food work identified useful compounds across a wide range of fungi. Although fungi products have been used in traditional and folk medicines since pre-history, the ability to identify beneficial properties and extract the active ingredient started with the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Since that time, many additional antibiotics have been discovered and the potential for fungi to synthesize biologically active molecules, useful in a wide range of clinical therapies, has been extensively exploited. Pharmacological research has now isolated antifungal and antiprotozoan, isolates from fungi.
The fungus with the longest record of medicinal use, Ganoderma lucidum, is known in Chinese as líng zhī, in Japanese as mannentake. In ancient Japan, Grifola frondosa was worth its weight in silver, although no significant therapeutic benefits have been demonstrated in humans. Studies have shown another species of genus Ganoderma, G. applanatum, contains compounds with anti-tumor and anti-fibrotic properties. Inonotus obliquus was used in Russia as early as the 16th century, it featured in Alexandr Solzhenitsyn's 1967 novel Cancer Ward. Paclitaxel is synthesised using Penicillium plant cell fermentation. Fungi can synthesize other mitotic inhibitors including vinblastine, podophyllotoxin, aurantiamine and neoxaline.11,11'-Dideoxyverticillin A, an isolate of marine Penicillium, was used to create dozens of semi-synthetic anticancer compounds. 11,11'-Dideoxyverticillin A, andrastin A, barceloneic acid A, barceloneic acid B, are farnesyl transferase inhibitors that can be made by Penicillium. 3-O-Methylfunicone, anicequol and rubratoxin B, are anticancer/cytotoxic metabolites of Penicillium.
Penicillium is a potential source of the leukemia medicine asparaginase. Some countries have approved Beta-glucan fungal extracts lentinan, polysaccharide-K, polysaccharide peptide as immunologic adjuvants. Evidence suggests this use as effective in prolonging and improving the quality of life for patients with certain cancers, although the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center observes that "well designed, large scale studies are needed to establish the role of lentinan as a useful adjunct to cancer treatment". According to Cancer Research UK, "there is no evidence that any type of mushroom or mushroom extract can prevent or cure cancer". Fungal metabolites such as ergosterol and triterpenoids are efficient Cdk inhibitors that lead to G1/S or G2/M arrest of cancer cells. Other metabolites, such as panepoxydone, are inhibitors of NF-κB. Fucose and mannose fragments of fungal cell wall are antagonists of VEGF-receptors Alexander Fleming led the way to the beta-lactam antibiotics with the Penicillium mold and penicillin.
Subsequent discoveries included alamethicin, brefeldin A, cerulenin, eupenifeldin, fusafungine, fusidic acid, itaconic acid, MT81, nigrosporin B, usnic acid, verrucarin A, vermiculine and many others. Antibiotics retapamulin and valnemulin are derivatives of the fungal metabolite pleuromutilin. Plectasin, austrocortilutein, coprinol, oudemansin A, illudin and sparassol are antibiotics isolated from basidiomycete species. Statins are an important class of cholesterol-lowering drugs. Lovastatin, the first commercial statin, was extracted from a fermentation broth of Aspergillus terreus. Industrial production is now capable of producing 70 mg lovastatin per kilogram of substrate; the red yeast rice fungus, Monascus purpureus, can synthesize lovastatin and the simvastatin precursor monacolin J. Nicotinamide riboside, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, is made by Saccharomyces cerevisiae; some antifungals are extracted from other fungal species. Griseofulvin is derived from a number of Penicillium species, caspofungin is derived from Glarea lozoyensis.
Strobilurin, azoxystrobin and echinocandins, are all extracted from fungi. Anidulafungin is a derivative of an Aspergillus metabolite. Ciclosporin, was discovered in Tolypocladium inflatum. Bredinin was discovered in Eupenicillium brefeldianum. Mycophenolic acid was discovered in Penicillium stoloniferum. Thermophilic fungi were the source of the fingolimod precursor myriocin. Aspergillus synthesizes immunosuppressants endocrocin. Subglutinols are immunosuppressants isolated from Fusarium subglutinans. Other compounds include mizoribine. Codinaeopsin, efrapeptins and antiamoebin, are made by fungi. Many fungal isolates act as DPP-4 inhibitors, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, alpha amylase inhibitors in vitro. Ternatin is a fungal isolate. Aspergillusol A is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor made by Aspergillus. Sclerotiorin is an aldose reductase inhibitor made by Penicillium. A number of fungi have well documented psychotropic effects, some of them severe and associated with sometimes acute and life-threatening side-effects.
Well known amongst these is Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. More used informally are a range of fungi collectively known as "magic mushrooms", which contain psilocybin and psilocin; the history of bread-making is peppered with references