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Basil Valentine

Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors. According to John Maxson Stillman, who wrote on the history of chemistry, there is no evidence of such a name on the rolls in Germany or Rome and no mention of this name before 1600, his putative history, like his imaginary portrait, appears to be of creation than the writings themselves. During the 18th century it was suggested that the author of the works attributed to Basil Valentine was Johann Thölde, a salt manufacturer in Germany who lived 1565–1624. Modern scholarship now suggests that others were involved. Thölde published the first five books under Valentine's name. Whoever he was, Basil Valentine had considerable chemical knowledge, he showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkali on sal-ammoniac, described the production of hydrochloric acid by acidifying brine of common salt, created oil of vitriol, among other achievements.

The Twelve Keys of Basil Valentine is a reproduced alchemical book attributed to Basil Valentine, first published in 1599. It contains two parts; these were accompanied by woodcut engravings from publications in the early seventeenth century. Numerous publications on alchemy in Latin and German were published under the name Basil Valentine, they have been translated into many European languages, including English, French and others. The following list is organized in order of translation or publication date. Ein kurtz summarischer von dem grossen Stein der Uralten... by Basilius Valentinus. Eisleben: 1599 Ein kurtz summarischer Tractat, von dem grossen Stein der Uralten... Leipzig: 1602 Triumph Wagen Antimonii, by Basil Valentine. Leipzig: In Verlegung Jacob Apels, 1604. De microcosmo deque medicina hominis, by Basilius Valentinus. Marpurgi: typis Guolgangi Kezelii, 1609. A Latin translation of the text of Ein kurtz summarischer Tractat as Tripus Aureus, hoc est, Tres Tractatus Chymici Selectissimi, nempe I.

Basilii Valentini... Practica una cum 12 clavibus & appendice, ex Germanico, Michael Maier, Frankfurt: Paul Jacob for Lucas Jennis, 1618. Azoth, ou le moyen de faire l'or caché des philosophes, de frère Basile Valentin by Basilius Valentinus. Paris: Chez Ieremie & Christofle Perier, au Palais, MDCXXIV 1624. Les dovze clefs de philosophie de Frere Basile Valentin... Traictant de la vraye medecine matalique. Plus l'Azoth, ou Le moyen de faire l'or chaché des philosophes. Tradvction francoise. By Basilius Valentinus. Paris, Chez Ieremie et Christophle Perier, 1624. Fratris Basilii Valentini... letztes Testament und Offenbahrung der himmlischen und virdischen Geheimnüss, so in einem Altar gefunden, in fünff Bücher abgetheilet... zuvor nie in Druck aussgangen, jetzt aber... publiciret durch Georgium Claromontanum... by Basile Valentin. Iena: H. Eyrings und J. Perferts Erben, 1626. Revelation des mysteres des teintures essentieles des sept metaux et de leurs vertus médicinales... by Basile Valentin. Paris: J. De Senlecque et J. Hénault, 1645.

Currus triumphalis antimonii: opus antiquioris medicinae et philosophiae hermeticae studiosis dicat, by Basilius Valentinus. Tolosae: Apud Petrum Bosc, 1646. Le char triomphal de l'antimoine, translation by Sauvin, François, 17th century, introduction by Sylvain Matton. Editions Retz, 1977, 254 p. Les livres secrets et le dernier testament de frere Basile Valentin Benedictin, de la grande pierre des anciens philosophes et autres mysteres cachés de la nature. Le tout tiré et transcrit de l'original trouvé dans le haut autel sous une petite table de marbre a Erfurt et mis en lumiere ou imprimé a línstante priere des enfans de la science... by Basilius Valentinus. Strasbourg: 1651. Les douze clefs de philosophie de frere Basile Valentin...: traictant de la vraye medecine metalique: plus l'Azoth, ou, Le moyen de faire l'or caché des philosophes: traduction francoise. Basilius Valentinus.. Paris: Chez Pierre Moët... 1660. Of natural and supernatural things: of the first tincture and spirit of metals and minerals by Basilius Valentinus.

London: Printed, are to be sold by Moses Pitt, 1670. The last vvill and testament of Basil Valentine, monke of the Order of St. Bennet, by Basilius Valentinus. London: Printed by S. G. and B. G. for Edward Brewster... 1671. Chymische Schrifften by Basilius Valentinus. Hamburg: 1677. Compendium veritatis philosophicum fratis Basilii Valentini Manuscript, 1780. Les douze clefs de la philosophie. Eugène Canseliet, translator. Paris, Éditions de Minuit, 1956, 264 p. Révélations des mystères des teintures des sept métaux, Pierre Savoret, editor. Omnium littéraire, 1976. Le dernier testament de Basile Valentin: livres I, II, III, IV et V, dans lequel sont montrées les mines, l'origine d'icelles, leurs natu

Open mapping theorem (functional analysis)

In functional analysis, the open mapping theorem known as the Banach–Schauder theorem, is a fundamental result which states that if a continuous linear operator between Banach spaces is surjective it is an open map. More precisely,: Open Mapping Theorem. If X and Y are Banach spaces and A: X → Y is a surjective continuous linear operator A is an open map. One proof uses Baire's category theorem, completeness of both X and Y is essential to the theorem; the statement of the theorem is no longer true if either space is just assumed to be a normed space, but is true if X and Y are taken to be Fréchet spaces. The open mapping theorem has several important consequences: If A: X → Y is a bijective continuous linear operator between the Banach spaces X and Y the inverse operator A−1: Y → X is continuous as well. If A: X → Y is a linear operator between the Banach spaces X and Y, if for every sequence in X with xn → 0 and Axn → y it follows that y = 0 A is continuous. Suppose A: X → Y is a surjective continuous linear operator.

In order to prove that A is an open map, it is sufficient to show that A maps the open unit ball in X to a neighborhood of the origin of Y. Let U = B 1 X, V = B 1 Y. X = ⋃ k ∈ N k U. Since A is surjective: Y = A = A = ⋃ k ∈ N A, but Y is Banach so by Baire's category theorem ∃ k ∈ N: ∘ ≠ ∅. That is, we have c in Y and r > 0 such that B r ⊆ ∘ ⊆ A ¯. Let v ∈ V c, c + r v ∈ B r ⊆ A ¯. By continuity of addition and linearity, the difference rv satisfies r v ∈ A ¯ + A ¯ ⊆ A + A ¯ ⊆ A ¯, by linearity again, V ⊆ A ¯. Where we have set L=2k/r, it follows that ∀ y ∈ Y, ∀ ε > 0, ∃ x ∈ X: ‖ x ‖ X ≤ L ‖ y ‖ Y and ‖ y − A x ‖ Y < ε. Our next goal is to show that V ⊆ A. Let y ∈ V. By, there is some x1 with ||x1|| < L and ||y − Ax1|| < 1/2. Define a sequence inductively as follows. Assume: ‖ x n ‖ < L 2 n − 1 and ‖ y − A ‖ < 1 2 n. {\displaystyle \|x_\|<\quad \quad \left\|y-A\right\|<{\frac

Allard Motor Company

Allard Motor Company Limited was a London-based low-volume car manufacturer founded in 1945 by Sydney Allard in small premises in Clapham, south-west London. Car manufacture ceased within a decade, it produced 1900 cars before it became insolvent and ceased trading in 1958. Before the war, Allard supplied some replicas of a Bugatti-tailed special of his own design from Adlards Motors in Putney. Allards featured large American V8 engines in a light British chassis and body, giving a high power-to-weight ratio and foreshadowing the Sunbeam Tiger and AC Cobra of the early 1960s. Cobra designer Carroll Shelby and Chevrolet Corvette chief engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov both drove Allards in the early 1950s; the first Allard cars were built to compete in "trials" events – timed rally-like events on terrain impassable by wheeled vehicles. Built in under three weeks, the first Allard was powered by a Ford flathead V8 in a body pirated from a Bugatti; the V8 was moved backward in the chassis to improve traction.

The car used the American engine's high torque to great effect in slow-speed competition. It debuted at the Gloucester Cup Trials, won the 100 miles event at Southport Sands. After a time the front beam axle was converted to independent front suspension. Leslie Ballamy's rather crude method was to cut the beam in half and mount the halves as swing axles and these swing axles were used on nearly all Allard specials. Further Allards were soon built to order. Allard's brother, was a customer, while racer Ken Hutchinson purchased a 4.4-litre Lincoln-Zephyr V12-powered version. It led to the pair forming a team, dubbed Tail Waggers, to race the car, which proved quite successful, including setting a new record at the Prescott hillclimb. In 1937, Allard began selling them for £ 450 each. By the outbreak of war in 1939, twelve Allard Specials had been built. Sydney Allard's planned volume production was pre-empted by work on Ford-based trucks during the conflict. By the war's end, Allard had built up a substantial inventory of Ford parts.

The Allard Motor Company was founded in 1945, setting up in London. Using its inventory of easy-to-service Ford mechanicals built up during World War II and bodywork of Allard's own design, three post-war models were introduced with a newly designed steel chassis and lightweight body shells: the J, a competition sports car. All three were based on the Ford Pilot chassis and powered by a stock 85 hp 3,622 cc sidevalve V8 with a single carburettor and 6:1 compression, driving a three-speed transmission and low-geared rearend, for superior acceleration. Front suspension was Ballamy swing rear Ford solid axle, they were bodied in aluminium by Allard's friend Godfrey Imhof. Sales were brisk for a low-volume car, demand was high for cars in general, which led to the introduction of several larger models, the drophead coupe M and P. Allard used "J" for the short-wheelbase two-seaters, "K" for two- or three-seat tourers or roadsters, "L" for four-seat tourers, "M" for drophead coupes, "P" for fixed-head cars.

As models were replaced, subsequent models were numbered sequentially. Built from 1946 to 1947, the J1 was released as a two-seater competition car together with the K1 touring two-seater and the L- Type touring 4-seater; the J1 was a starkly equipped 2-seater competition car on a 100 in wheelbase. Powered by a 140 hp 3,917 cc overhead valve Mercury V8, the J1 had a top speed of 85 mph, limited by the low rear axle gearing. Only 12 went only to buyers who would rally them, they had good ground clearance and the front wings were removable. Copies driven by Allard himself, Maurice Wick, others, was a successful racer. Imhof won the 1947 Lisbon Rally in a J1 powered by a Marshall-supercharged version, while Leonard Potter took the Coupe des Alpes that year. Sydney Allard soon saw the potential of the economically more vibrant – but sports car starved – U. S. market and developed a special competition model to tap it, the J2. The new roadster, weighing just 18.5 cwt, was a potent combination of a lightweight, hand-formed aluminium body fitted with new coil spring front suspension, fitted with inclined telescopic dampers, de Dion-type rear axle, inboard rear brakes, 110 hp, 267 cu in Mercury flathead V8, with the option of an Ardun hemi conversion.

The J2 had a disturbing tendency to catch fire. Importing American engines just to ship them back across the Atlantic proved problematic, so U. S.-bound Allards were soon shipped engineless and fitted out in the States variously with newer overhead valve engines by Cadillac, Chrysler and Oldsmobile. In that form, the J2 proved a competitive international race car for 1950, most powered by 331 cu in Cadillac engines. Domestic versions for England came equipped with Mercury flatheads. Zora Duntov worked for Allard from 1950 to 1952 and raced for the factory Allard team at Le Mans in 1952 and 1953. Available both in street trim and stripped down for racing, the J2 proved successful in competition on both sides of the Atlantic, including a third place overall at Le Mans in 1950 at an average 87.74 mph, powered by a Cadillac V8. J2s returned to Le Mans in 1951, one co-driven again by Cole and Allard, the other by Reece and Hitchings, they had cars failing to finish. Of 313 documented starts in majo

Young and Beautiful (Lana Del Rey song)

"Young and Beautiful" is a song by American singer and songwriter Lana Del Rey used for the soundtrack to the drama film The Great Gatsby. It was released on April 2013 through Interscope Records as the lead single from the soundtrack. "Young and Beautiful" was written by Del Rey and Rick Nowels, who produced the song. The music video features an orchestral version of the song, produced by Dan Heath, included on the deluxe edition of the soundtrack. Contemporary music critics lauded the single, calling it "haunting" and "somber". Lyrically, "Young and Beautiful" follows a young lover's apprehension about. A music video, directed by Chris Sweeney and filmed by Sophie Muller, was released on May 10, 2013; the song was used in commercials to promote the new season of the MTV reality show Catfish. "Young and Beautiful" reached the top ten in Australia where it was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. In May 2013, the song broke into the Billboard Hot 100. Shortly after, the song peaked at 3 on the Hot Rock Songs chart.

Del Rey and Nowels received accolades for their songwriting from various music and film awards, including nominations for Best Song Written for Visual Media at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards, Best Song at the 19th Critics' Choice Awards. They won the Best Original Song at the 18th Satellite Awards. On January 26, 2014, "Young and Beautiful" was announced as number 7 on the annual Triple J's Hottest 100 in Australia. Working with the film's director, co-writer, co-producer Baz Luhrmann, Del Rey penned the original song "Young and Beautiful" for the soundtrack of the 2013 film adaptation of the novel The Great Gatsby, written from the perspective of Daisy Buchanan. In an interview with Catalunya Ràdio. Del Rey sang the chorus of "Beautiful" during the Catalunya Ràdio broadcast. Baz Luhrmann gave an interview which contained a Skype chat with Del Rey, where Luhrmann said "we are lucky that the song found a film", implying the song had been penned prior to the film. Luhrmann changed some of the lyrics in the beginning of the second verse from the demo version of "Will You Still Love Me" to fit with the film.

It was always intended for Paradise, which did get picked up by various media. The song was released to contemporary hit radio as a single and was used as the film's kickoff single. A snippet of the track appeared in the official trailer for the film and played during the scene where the characters portrayed by Leonardo DiCaprio and Carey Mulligan express their romantic feelings for one another. With the lyrics "Will you still love me when I'm no longer young and beautiful?", Del Rey adds a hint of desperation which parallels the idiosyncrasies faced by the characters in F. Scott Fitzgerald's classic novel The Great Gatsby. Del Rey's dreamy vocals are draped over canned percussion; the soft and dreary vocals, falling in line with Del Rey's retro affectation, fits the atmosphere of the 1920s when the novel is set. The lyrics rotate around the themes of pleasing a lover and the gloom of aging; the Cedric Gervais remix of the song was released on October 11, 2013. The music video for "Young and Beautiful" was set to be released on April 22, 2013, but was released on 10 May 2013.

Directed by Chris Sweeney, the video's production was helmed by Adam Smith and Jacob Swan-Hyam, with Sophie Muller shooting the footage. Flanked by a full-string orchestra, Del Rey sings Dan Heath's Orchestral version of her song in 1920s art deco fashion, she is shown singing the song in a dark room with glittery diamond-tears on her cheek which look like tattoos. Jason Lipshutz of Billboard magazine described the video as "somber" and the singer's look as "especially demure". Lipshutz concluded that "the clip ends without reaching any kind of conclusion -- much like the rhetorical question'Will you still love me when I'm no longer young and beautiful?' at the heart of the song." Spin's Marc Hogan described it as "elegantly conceived, but succeed only as much as the music does". An edit of the video set to the Cedric Gervais remix was published on 27 September 2013; the song was met with universal acclaim from critics. Hip hop magazine Rap-Up called the single "haunting", while MTV called it "somber-sounding".

Jason Lipshutz of Billboard called the ballad, "typically lush", paralleling the single with Del Rey's previous hits, "Video Games" and "Born to Die". Canadian journal National Post said "Young and Beautiful" picks up where "Video Games" left off, stating the song was relevant to the book because of "...its obsession with decay and the fleeting nature of the good life resonate." The journal continued to call it an "artifact" of Del Rey's dark tone, adding that by the second play-through "its bald directness becomes its appeal." MTV commented that the track "falls much in-line with what Lana Del Rey's fans have come to expect" from Del Rey. Jeff Benjamin of Fuse said the track featured "a big, sweeping ballad with piano and Lana's warbly delivery." He added that "if the single takes off the songbird can scrub her image clean of that'Girl that f-cked up her Saturday Night Live debut' tag." Rolling Stone's Jody Rosen recognized "Young and Beautiful" as the album's centerpiece, calling it "inert" and "a drag" despite its symmetry with the album's entire theme.

Finding the track restrained in comparison to her earlier work, August B

Heaven Street Seven

Heaven Street Seven was a Hungarian alternative rock band founded in 1995 by Krisztián Szűcs, Róbert Németh and Gyula Orbán. That year Gábor Balczer joined the band. In 2006 Heaven Street Seven won an EBBA Award; every year the European Border Breakers Awards recognize the success of ten emerging artists or groups who reached audiences outside their own countries with their first internationally released album in the past year. AlbumsTick Tock No Fear Goal Budapest Dolls Cukor Kisfilmek a nagyvilágból Szállj ki és gyalogolj Tick Tock No Fear Tudom, hogy szeretsz titokban Sordid Little Symphonies Jazz Budapest indie music scene Zoltán Takács Heaven Street Seven Official Site

James Dime

James Dime, nicknamed Sheik of Spring Street, was a Yugoslavian-American professional boxer and actor known for The Last Hurrah, So Big, Steel Town, Anne of the Indies, The Seventh Cross, Crazy House and Deliver, The King of Kings as a Roman soldier and Keep'Em Sailing. He worked in anonymity, he was injured falling from a tower while shooting The Lives of a Bengal Lancer. He doubled Monte Blue on Hawk of the Wilderness. James Dime on IMDb